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Ap european essay

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AP European History Student Sample Question 2 - Long Essay Question

Ap european essay

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Gibson, Mrs / AP European History - East Aurora School District

Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. The history of ap european essay America is an amazing one, filled with action, energy, and texas tech university theses growth. Essay! In the very short history of America, it has progressed from an undeveloped, isolated land to the economically dominant nation that it is today. All the economic growth and progress of singing passion this nation is mainly due to the ideal of the “real” American Dream that promotes and rewards hard work. But over a long period of time, the American Dream has become very distorted, and ap european it is the driving force that gives some people unrealistic goals they are not capable of. Stony Nursing Essay Questions! The American Dream has changed into an ideal of one’s fantasy of an ap european, utopian life.

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After five years, Gatsby is stony essay questions finally in the position to achieve his final American Dream. He has the money, the house, the social connections and everything was in place for him to finally realize his aspiration: Daisy. Ap European! And yet, when he finally gets the chance to reunite with Daisy, he did not find any great happiness, only disappointment. Gatsby was not satisfied yet. Gatsby tries to recreate the tech and dissertations, past and wants Daisy to divorce Tom. But Gatsby’s discontent only lasts for a short while.

He is ap european essay murdered in revenge for an accident he never committed. It is my American Dream to become a doctor and live a comfortable life. I don’t want to strive to essay like white, become a millionaire or live in a mansion of any sort but, I would like to live in an nice home. I also would like an expensive, beautiful car. But the most important thing is that these materialistic goals are not the basis of what I want to do or achieve.

I think my American Dream is a “real” American Dream because it is not a fantasy. I can accomplish it if I work hard and try my best. It is also realistic since I think I am capable of essay doing it through hard work. Becoming a doctor requires a lot of time, hard work and patience, not to mention, the brook nursing essay, financial burden involved. But it is still what I want to do in essay, life. Furthermore, I will be content once I accomplish my goal. I won’t be greedy or discontent and strive for research something in dishonest or unrealistic ways like Gatsby.

One’s desire to live the fantasy created by his/her dreams is the essay, very force that makes the achievement of his/her fantasy impossible. Gatsby based his entire existence on a dream and became obsessed with what he did not have instead of enjoying his accomplishments. The American Dream is not a means to an end, rather, it is a way of American life ,and it will always be one step out of reach. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on brook nursing questions Fantasy topics are traced by plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Essay! Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for school, college or university. Why not to get a 100% original custom essay at critical essay hills like elephant PapersMart.net? Would you like to get a free quote?

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Frequently Asked Questions for Cisco IP Communicator. View with Adobe Reader on essay a variety of devices. Frequently Asked Questions. What is Cisco IP Communicator? Cisco IP Communicator is research on brand trust a desktop application that turns your computer into a full-featured Cisco Unified IP Phone, allowing you to ap european place, receive, and otherwise handle calls from any location where you can connect to the corporate network. For example, if you are on a business trip, you can use your IP Communicator to receive calls and check voice messages while you are online. Or, if you are working from home, coworkers can reach you by singing is my passion, dialing your work number.

Cisco IP Communicator works like a traditional telephone, allowing you to place and receive phone calls, put calls on hold, speed-dial numbers, transfer calls, and so on. IP Communicator also supports special telephony features (such as Call Park and Meet-Me conferencing) that can extend and essay customize your call-handling capabilities. IP Communicator also works with Cisco Unified Video Advantage to enhance your communications with video. The operation of your IP Communicator and brook nursing essay questions the features available to you may vary, depending on the call processing agent used by your company and essay the configuration of your phone system. Contact your support desk or system administrator for more information. What are the features of Cisco IP Communicator? In addition to trust call-handling features, Cisco IP Communicator includes: Audio Tuning wizard Quick Search directory dialing Easy access to your Cisco Unified CM User Options web pages and phone services Comprehensive online help system Changing the essay, appearance of IP Communicator Drag-and-drop dialing Cut-and-paste dialing Pop-up incoming call notification Alphanumeric dialing Keyboard shortcuts Video support with Cisco Unified Video Advantage Release 2.1.1. How can I change the settings on my IP Communicator? You can change your IP Communicator settings in the following places.

Most settings are accessible by choosing Preferences from the menu. Homework Tvo? You access the menu from the menu icon in the window control button bar, by right-clicking anywhere on the interface, or by pressing Shift + F10 . Ring sounds and background image settings are available from the Settings button User Preferences. Some settings are accessed online from your User Options web pages. Phone lines and intercom lines (line buttons) Speed-dial numbers (speed-dial buttons, including the Busy Line Field (BLF) speed-dial feature) Web-based services (for example, a Personal Address Book button) Call features (for example, a Privacy, Hold, or Transfer button)

Buttons light up to indicate status: Green, steady-Active call or two-way intercom call. Green, flashing-Held call. Amber, steady-Privacy in use, one-way intercom call, or Do Not Disturb (DND) active. Amber, flashing-Incoming call or reverting call. Red, steady-Remote line in use (shared line or BLF status) You can convert extra line buttons into ap european, speed-dial buttons. How do I answer a call? You can answer a call by using the following methods if they are available at your workstation:

Answer with a USB handset Answer with a headset Answer with the speakerphone Press a hotkey Switch from a connected call to homework help tvo answer a new call Send a call to a voice message system Use AutoAnswer Answer a priority call (Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) phones only) Answer a call on your mobile phone or other remote destination. How do I answer calls automatically? When AutoAnswer is enabled, your phone answers incoming calls automatically after a few rings. Your system administrator configures AutoAnswer to use either the speakerphone or a headset. You might use AutoAnswer if you receive a high volume of incoming calls. AutoAnswer is disabled when the Do Not Disturb feature is active. How do I answer calls using a hotkey? You can enable this optional feature by clicking the ap european, Enable answer hotkey checkbox in the User Preferences screen. Your system administrator will determine which hotkey to use.

How do I answer a call that is waiting? How do I use my phone to homework tvo answer a call that is ringing elsewhere? Click an available line button and PickUp . The call now rings on your line. How do I put calls on ap european hold? Press Hold to place a call on hold. Texas University Theses? To resume the call, highlight it and press Resume. When you put a call on hold, the essay, Hold icon appears on the right in the call information area and the corresponding line button flashes green.

When you place a call on papers hold with a shared line, the line button flashes green and ap european the phone displays the Local Hold icon. When another phone places a call on and dissertations hold, the line button flashes red and the phone displays the Remote Hold icon . How do I park a call? During a call, click Park (you might need to click the more softkey first). This prompts IP Communicator to ap european essay store the singing is my, call. Note the call park number displayed on essay the phone screen and hang up. How do I retrieve a parked call? Enter the call park number from any Cisco IP Communicator or IP Phone in your network to singing essay connect to the call. How do I mute a call?

How do I switch calls? To switch between connected calls on one line, highlight the ap european, call that you want to switch to and press Resume . The active call is placed on hold and the selected call resumes. To switch between connected calls on different lines, press the green blinking line button for the line that you are switching to. Is My Passion Essay? If a single call is holding on the line, the call automatically resumes. If multiple calls are holding, highlight the appropriate call and press Resume.

Press Answer to switch from a connected call to answer a ringing call. Any active call is placed on hold and essay the selected call resumes. How do I transfer a call to another number? From an is my passion essay, active call, press Transfer. Enter the target number. If your phone has on-hook transfer enabled, complete the transfer by ap european, hanging up. How do I transfer a call to papers on brand a voice messaging system? How do I transfer two calls to connect with each other, without staying on ap european essay the line? Scroll to highlight any call on the line. Scroll to papers on brand highlight the second call and press Select . With one of the selected calls highlighted, press DirTrfr (Direct Transfer).

The two calls connect to each other and essay drop you from the call. If you want to stay on critical essay like white the line with the callers, use Join instead. How do I forward a call? You can use call forwarding features to redirect incoming calls from your phone to another number. Your system administrator determines which call forwarding features are available to ap european essay you: Unconditional call forwarding (Call Forward All); applies to character analysis all calls that you receive.

Conditional call forwarding (Call Forward No Answer, Call Forward Busy, Call Forward No Coverage). How do I turn off call notifications? You can use the Do Not Disturb (DND) feature to turn off only the ringer on ap european your phone or to turn off all audible and stony essay questions visual notifications of ap european essay, incoming calls. Your system administrator enables DND for your phone. Press DND to toggle DND on help tvo and off. When DND is active, Do Not Disturb is active is displayed on ap european essay the phone, the DND icon lights, and the ring tone is turned off. How do I end a call? Hang up or press EndCall.

How do I dial a call with IP Communicator? To place a call using a USB handset, pick up the handset and enter a number. To place a call using the speakerphone, press Speaker and enter a number. To place a call using a headset, press Headset and enter a number. Or, if Headset is lit, press New Call and enter a number. You can dial on-hook, without a dial tone (pre-dial). To pre-dial, enter a number, and then go off-hook by lifting the USB handset, tapping the number on the touchscreen, or pressing Dial , Speaker , or Headset. When you predial, your phone tries to anticipate the number you are dialing by displaying matching numbers (if available) from your Placed Calls log. This is called Auto Dial. To call a number that is displayed with Auto Dial, press the number, or scroll to it and tech university and dissertations go off-hook.

How do I redial a number? Press Redial to dial the ap european essay, last number that you dialed, or press the Navigation button (with the phone idle) to see your Placed Calls. How do I use my computer as a speakerphone? Make sure that the Speaker button is lit so that Cisco IP Communicator operates in speakerphone mode. Unlike other modes, speakerphone mode provides echo suppression. You can toggle speakerphone mode on stony nursing essay and off by clicking the Speaker button or by entering the ap european essay, keyboard shortcut Ctrl + P. By default, speakerphone mode is active. This means that many of the actions you take to place or answer a call (such as using a speed-dial button or a softkey) automatically trigger speakerphone mode. If you have an analog headset plugged in to analysis essay on atticus the computer, you cannot hear audio through the computer speakers in speakerphone mode. How do I switch to the speakerphone during a call? Click the Speaker button or the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + P. If you were using a USB handset before switching, hang it up.

How do I use my computer speakers as a ringer for calls? Make sure that your sound card is ap european essay assigned to the ringer mode and that you have not muted the computer speaker. If you plug an analog headset into your computer, the ringer is audible only from the brook questions, headset speakers. How can I use AutoAnswer in speakerphone mode? Click the Speaker button to place, answer, and end calls, to open and close lines, and to ap european essay switch from other audio devices to texas tech university speakerphone mode. Because speakerphone mode is ap european active by default, you do not need to keep the corresponding button lit as you do for university theses, headset mode.

How do I place another call on essay the same line while a call is university and dissertations active? How do I place another call on another line while a call is active? Press a line button for ap european, a new line. The first call is help automatically placed on hold. Ap European? Enter a number.

How do I speed dial a number? Click a speed-dial button before or after going off-hook. Enter a speed dial index number (1-99 on the keypad) while on-hook, and click AbbrDial if you have Abbreviated Dialing set up in critical essay white your User Options. Highlight an entry in your Personal Address Book (PAB), press Select and then press Fast Dial . You must have Fast Dial configured for your PAB. How do I dial from essay, a call log? Choose Missed Calls , Received Calls ,or Placed Calls and tap the listing on the touchscreen. How do I dial from white elephant, a corporate directory? Choose Corporate Directory (its name may vary).

Enter a name and press Search . Highlight a listing and ap european essay go off-hook. To dial from a corporate directory on tvo your personal computer using Cisco WebDialer: Open a web browser and go to a WebDialer-enabled corporate directory. Click the ap european, number that you want to dial. How do I dial from a Personal Address Book (PAB)? Choose Personal Directory to homework help sign in. Essay? Choose Personal Address Book and search for a listing. Can I use IP Communicator with my mobile phone?

Perform the homework, following steps to ap european make a call from a mobile phone using Mobile Voice Access: Obtain your Mobile Voice Access number and PIN from your system administrator. Dial your assigned Mobile Voice Access number. Enter your mobile phone number (if requested) and PIN. Press 1 to make a call to an enterprise IP phone. Dial a desktop phone number other than your desktop phone number.

How do I place an intercom call? If the intercom target is preconfigured, press an on atticus finch, intercom target line and ap european begin speaking after you hear the intercom-alert tone. For other targets, press an intercom line. Enter the intercom target number or press a speed-dial number for your target. After you hear the intercom-alert tone, begin speaking. How do I receive an intercom call?

When you hear the intercom-alert tone, handle the homework tvo, call in essay one of these ways: Listen to the message in essay hills white elephant one-way audio. Ap European? Talk to the caller by pressing the active intercom line. Highlight the intercom call and brook questions press End Call . How do I place a video call? To make a video call, you must meet these criteria: You must have Cisco Unified Video Advantage installed on your system. Your system must support Skinny Call Control Protocol (SCCP). Cisco IP Communicator must be enabled for video calls on the call-processing server. After video calls are enabled, your Cisco IP Communicator displays the video camera icon in ap european essay the lower right corner of the of the phone screen.

You must launch Cisco Unified Video Advantage before you initiate the video call. The person you call must also meet these same criteria and use a device that is a video endpoint. To enable your phone for papers on brand, video calls, contact your system administrator for assistance and see the Cisco Unified Video Advantage User Guide: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/voicesw/ps5662/products_user_guide _list.html. How do I create a conference call? From a connected call, press Confrn (Conference). (You may need to press the more softkey.) Enter the participant's phone number. Wait for essay, the call to connect. Press Confrn again to add the participant to your call. Repeat these steps to add additional participants. Your system administrator determines whether anyone other than the conference initiator can add or remove participants. How can I see a list of conference participants?

Press ConfList (Conference List). Participants are listed in stony the order in which they join the conference with the most recent additions at the top.The initiator of the conference is always listed at the bottom, with an ap european essay, asterisk(*) next to his or her name. Press Update to stony brook essay questions refresh the ap european essay, list of conference participants. How do I remove a participant from a conference? While you are viewing the conference list, highlight the on brand, participant's name and press Remove. To drop the last participant that you added to the conference, press RMLstC (Remove Last Participant) while viewing the conference list. How do I verify that a conference call is essay secure? Look for homework tvo, the Authenticated Call or Encrypted Call icon after Conference on the phone screen. To verify that a participant is calling from a secure phone, look for the Authenticated Call or Encrypted Call icon beside the participant's name on the phone screen.

How do I join calls to create a conference? If the ap european essay, calls are on a single phone line: From an active call, highlight another call that you want to texas tech and dissertations include in the conference and press Select . Ap European Essay? Repeat Step 1 for each call that you want to add. Press Join . (You may need to singing is my passion essay press the more softkey to see Join .) If the calls are on multiple phone lines:

From an essay, active call, press Join . (You may need to press the essay, more softkey to see Join .) Press the green flashing line button for the call(s) that you want to include in the conference. One of the following occurs: The calls are joined. A window opens on your phone screen prompting you to select the call(s) that you want to ap european essay join. Highlight the call(s) and press Select , and then press Join to complete the action.

If your phone does not support Join for singing passion, calls on multiple lines, transfer the calls to a single line before using Join. How do I use Barge to create a conference? Press the ap european, line button for tvo, the shared line. Ap European? In some cases, you must highlight the call and press cBarge to complete the action. How do I start a Meet-Me conference? Obtain a Meet-Me phone number from your system administrator. Distribute the number to participants.

When you are ready to start the meeting, go off-hook to get a dial tone, and then press MeetMe . Dial the university theses, Meet-Me conference number. Participants can now join the conference by essay, dialing in. Participants hear a busy tone if they call the character analysis on atticus, conference before the initiator has joined. In this case, participants must call back. How do I join a Meet-Me conference? Dial the Meet-Me conference number (provided by ap european, the conference initiator). You will hear a busy tone if you call the conference before the essay, initiator has joined. In this case, try your call again. How do I end a Meet-Me conference? All participants must hang up. Ap European Essay? The conference does not automatically end when the conference initiator disconnects.

How do I set up my voice messaging service? Click the Messages button and follow the voice instructions. If a menu appears on your phone screen, choose an appropriate menu item. How do I check for new voice messages? There are audible and hills white elephant visible indicators for new voice messages: An indicator light on your handset. (This indicator can vary.) A flashing envelope icon and text message on ap european essay your phone screen.

The indicator light and Message Waiting icon are displayed only passion, when you have a message on ap european essay your primary line, even if you receive voice messages on other lines. A stutter tone from your headset or speaker when you place a call. Research Trust? The stutter tone is line-specific. You hear it only when using the ap european essay, line with the waiting message. How do I listen to texas university theses and dissertations my voice messages or access the voice messages menu? Click the Messages button. Depending on ap european your voice message service, doing so either autodials the message service or provides a menu on critical essay like white your phone screen. How do I send a call to my voice messaging system?

Click iDivert . The iDivert feature automatically transfers a call (including a ringing or held call) to your voice message system. Callers hear your voice message greeting and ap european essay can leave you a message. How do I change the voice message indicator settings? Right-click and select Cisco Unified CM User Options from the menu. Character On Atticus Finch? Sign in to your Cisco Unified CM User Options web pages. Select your device. Click Line Settings , and then make changes to the Message Waiting Lamp section. Typically, the default policy is to light the indicator when you receive a new voice message. What is the Audio Tuning wizard?

The Audio Tuning wizard guides you through the process of essay, selecting and like elephant tuning installed audio devices. The Audio Tuning wizard automatically appears the first time that you launch Cisco IP Communicator after installation. Before you use the Audio Tuning wizard to tune an audio device that has its own volume adjuster, such as a headset with inline volume controls, increase the device volume level to the highest setting. The Audio Tuning wizard gives you the opportunity to select audio devices for audio modes or to use the default Windows audio device. Tuning a device is a different task from changing the volume setting for a call. Ideally, you tune each device only once and retune only if you encounter voice quality issues. The Check Audio Settings window has appeared. What do I do? Choose one of these buttons: Revert - to essay re-instate previous settings for help tvo, this audio device. Tune - to retune this device.

Skip - to maintain modified settings (for example, to keep the sound card muted) The Check Audio Settings window appears on subsequent launches if you modified (or muted) the volume for a device since you last tuned it. Essay? For example, if you muted your computer sound card or changed the volume controls on a USB headset or USB handset. What are audio modes? You must assign one of the tvo, following audio mode s to each audio device that you plan to ap european essay use with Cisco IP Communicator:

Audio mode selection tells Cisco IP Communicator which audio devices you want to use for audio input and output. By default, Cisco IP Communicator selects one audio device for all of your audio modes and for the ringer. This device could be a sound card, for homework tvo, example. If you have multiple audio devices available, you have additional configuration options. For example, if you have a USB headset, you can select it for ap european, headset mode and activate it by clicking the Headset button.

You can maintain the default configuration or customize it. If you choose to homework help customize the configuration, follow these recommendations: If you use a USB headset, assign it to headset mode. If you use an external USB speakerphone, assign it to speakerphone mode. If you use a USB handset, assign it to handset mode. If you use an analog headset, assign the computer sound card to headset mode. If you do not have an external speakerphone device, select the computer sound card for ap european essay, speakerphone mode. Assign the ringer to the device that you want to alert you when you receive a call. Be aware, however, that if you assign the ringer to texas tech university theses a sound card and essay plug an analog headset into your computer, you cannot hear the is my passion essay, ringer unless you are wearing the headset. How do I use a headset with IP Communicator?

Click the ap european, unlit Headset button. Doing this activates the device you selected for critical essay white, this mode. If you want headset mode to be the ap european essay, default mode instead, click the unlit Headset button and click EndCall . Headset mode acts as the default audio mode as long as the stony brook nursing, Headset button remains lit (unless you have a USB handset enabled). How do I use a handset with IP Communicator? Go off-hook with your USB handset (assuming this device is available and is assigned to handset mode). Ap European? The method you use to take a USB handset off-hook depends on how the handset is designed.

You might need to press a hook-switch or an on button. How do I use my IP Communicator as a speakerphone? Click the texas tech and dissertations, Speaker button. Doing this activates the ap european essay, device you selected for this mode. By default, speakerphone mode is activated when you click softkeys, line buttons, and speed-dial buttons (unless you have a USB handset enabled). How do I activate the ringer? The ringer becomes active when you receive an incoming call. How do I adjust the volume on my IP Communicator?

To adjust the volume level during a call , click the Volume button, or click the Page Up/Page Down keys on research papers trust your keyboard during a call or after you hear a dial tone. Click Save to preserve the new volume as the ap european, default level for on atticus, the currently active audio mode. To adjust the volume level for ap european, the ringer, click the Volume button while Cisco IP Communicator is analysis essay on atticus on-hook (no calls or dial tone are active). The new ringer volume is automatically saved. How do I change the ringtone for ap european, a line? Click the Settings button and essay like white select User Preferences Rings . Choose a phone line or the default ring setting. Essay? Choose a ring tone to questions play a sample of it. Press Select and then press Save to set the essay, ring tone, or press Cancel . How do I change the ring pattern? Right-click and select Cisco Unified CM User Options from the menu. Finch? Sign in to your Cisco Unified CM User Options web pages.

Select your device. Click Line Settings , and then make selections from the Ring Settings section. If the problem is related to volume, first try to ap european adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button on Cisco IP Communicator. Try to determine if the research trust, source of the problem lies with your IP Communicator or with the remote phone by calling additional parties. Ap European? If you suspect that the problem lies wit h the other phone, adjust the volume on IP Communicator, but avoid modifying settings through the essay, Audio Tuning wizard because these modifications might not be broadly applicable. Your system administrator might ask you to enable logging to capt ure detailed information for troubleshooting purposes. If you are having trouble with volume levels, follow these guidelines: In the Audio Tuning wizard, adjust the master volume slider first. Because this setting affects all applications that play sound, test the setting against other applications (such as Microsoft Windows Media Player and RealPlayer) to ap european ensure that volume levels are appropriate.

In the Audio Tuning wizard, adjust the research on brand trust, wave volume slider to a comfortable level for phone calls after adjusting the ap european essay, master volume. If you changed the volume settings from Microsoft Windows, run the Audio Tuning wizard again (according to these guidelines) to retune the master and wave volume settings. The other party sounds too loud. Try to adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. Launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and adjust the speaker volume for the current audio device. The other party reports that you sound too loud. If you are using a headset, move the microphone boom slightly away from your mouth and toward your chin. If the problem persists, launch the Audio Tuning wizard and decrease the questions, microphone volume for ap european, the current audio device. If you still sound too loud to the other party, from the Audio Tuning wizard, disable the Microphone Boost feature, if it is enabled for that device. The other party sounds too quiet.

Try to adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. Launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and adjust the speaker volume for the current audio device. The other party reports that you sound too quiet. If you are using a headset, make sure that IP Communicator is operating in on brand headset mode and ap european not in singing passion essay speakerphone mode. Ap European Essay? Headset mode is papers on brand trust operating if the Headset button is lit. If it is unlit, click it. Make sure that the microphone boom is positioned correctly if you are using a headset. If the problem persists, launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and increase the ap european essay, microphone volume for the current audio device. Before you tune an audio device that has its own volume adjustor, such as a USB headset with volume controls on the wire, increase the device volume level to the highest setting. If you still sound too quiet, enable the Microphone Boost feature for the audio device from the is my, Audio Tuning wizard. The other party sounds muffled.

If you are using IP Communicator remotely, enable Optimize for Low Bandwidth (right-click and select Preferences , then click the Audio tab). If you are not using IP Communicator over a remote connection, disable the low-bandwidth option. Ask the essay, other party to research papers trust decrease the ap european, microphone volume, if possible. The other party reports that you sound muffled. Launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and adjust the microphone volume for the current audio device. If you are not using IP Communicator over a remote connection, disable the essay elephant, low-bandwidth option. The other party sounds distant or unnatural. If you are using a headset, make sure that IP Communicator is operating in ap european headset mode and not in speakerphone mode. (The Headset button should be lit.) The other party reports that you sound distant or unnatural. Enable Optimize for stony essay, Low Bandwidth (right-click and select Preferences , then click the ap european essay, Audio tab). The voice of the other party is disrupted by unintended silences or sounds jittery.

Try the critical essay hills like white, following measures: Close any unnecessary applications. Be aware that launching applications and performing network-intensive tasks such as sending email messages can affect audio quality. Verify that you are not on ap european speakerphone. Try choosing a different audio setting; right-click and character essay finch select Preferences , click the Audio tab, and click the ap european essay, Advanced button. If you are using IP Communicator over a remote connection (for example, on a VPN connection from and dissertations, home or a hotel), voice quality is probably suffering from insufficient bandwidth. Enable the essay, Optimize for critical essay hills like, Low Bandwidth feature (right-click and select Preferences , then click the Audio tab). Verify that your sound cards and audio drivers are correctly installed. You might hear occasional pops, clicks, or broken audio when the network experiences congestion or data traffic problems.

Background noise is essay making it difficult to homework hear the voice of the speaker. Try the ap european, following measures: Ask the speaker to move to is my passion essay a quieter location. Enable noise suppression or increase the noise suppression aggressiveness level (right-click and essay select Preferences , click the Audio tab, and click the Advanced button). Noise suppression is applied to homework help the microphone (input device) to prevent the transmission of noise to essay the remote end. If you are in a conference call, ask other participants to mute their phones if they are not speaking. Try the following measures: Ask the other party to decrease the microphone or speaker volume, if possible. If the other party is using Cisco IP Communicator as a speakerphone, ask him or her to make sure that the Speaker button is lit. Make sure that your sound card is not feeding back audio from the speaker to the microphone.

Follow these steps: Adjust the volume ( Control Panel Sounds and Multimedia Audio tab). Click the Sound Playback Volume button. Choose Options Properties Playback , and essay make sure that all the check boxes in the lower part of the ap european, window are selected, and then click OK. In the homework, Volume Control window, make sure that Mute is selected for the Microphone column. Some sound devices have multiple microphone inputs (for example, internal and external) that can pick up sound from the speaker device and introduce feedback.

The other party hears echo. Try the following measures: Launch the Audio Tuning wizard, and reduce the microphone volume for the current audio device. Make sure that Microphone Boost is disabled. Then, confirm the new volume setting by calling another party. If you are using your computer as a speakerphone, keep the Speaker button lit. As a last resort, change your audio device.

If you are using a laptop with no headset or USB handset, all three modes are mapped to essay the sound card, which causes all three modes to nursing questions act like speakerphones. Put the essay, device in papers trust speakerphone mode. The other party cannot hear you at essay, all (but you can hear the other party). Ensure that the stony brook essay, following conditions have been met: You have not enabled Mute from controls on the headset wire or on essay the USB handset. Your speaker and microphone plugs are inserted into the correct audio jacks on your computer. No other application (such as a sound recorder or another software-based phone) is using your microphone. The other party can hear you, but you cannot hear any audio. Try the following measures:

Make sure that your speaker and microphone plugs are inserted into papers trust, the correct audio jacks on your computer. Check the ap european essay, volume and homework help tvo mute settings of the system sound devices through the Control Panel. Check the volume setting of IP Communicator (both the Volume button and ap european essay the Audio Tuning wizard). Simultaneous speaking fails. Make sure that you are using a full-duplex sound card. You cannot hear any audio, not even a dial tone. If you are using a docking station and hills your audio device is ap european plugged into it, make sure that your computer is on atticus connected to the docking station.

If you still cannot hear anything, restart IP Communicator. Voice quality is ap european degraded when you use IP Communicator while Windows is starting up. Verify that Windows has completed its startup process and that no other applications are still loading before you use IP Communicator. Voice quality is degraded when your workstation's memory is low. We recommend that IP Communicator operate with approximately 60MB of available physical memory. Singing Is My Passion Essay? This amount is different from ap european, minimum required workstation memory as other applications will be consuming workstation memory. To reduce sound distortions based on brook nursing questions low available RAM conditions, make sure that other applications- including the operating system-leave enough available memory for IP Communicator. If you are experiencing sound distortion, close some applications when you run IP Communicator or increase the RAM in your PC. Voice quality is degraded when using IP Communicator with other applications that consume available bandwidth. Minimize the use of ap european, applications that consume large amounts of bandwidth (for examples, applications that transfer large files, send or receive video, or perform screen-sharingoperations) while on an active call.

Voice quality is homework help tvo degraded when you move your laptop. Some computer manufacturers have introduced a feature called HDD Protection, which prevents damage to essay the computer hard drive when the laptop is moved. This feature may also temporarily affect applications that are currently running on the workstation. We recommend that you do not physically move a computer that is enabled with this feature while you are on an active call. CCDE, CCENT, CCSI, Cisco Eos, Cisco Explorer, Cisco HealthPresence, Cisco IronPort, the Cisco logo, Cisco Nurse Connect, Cisco Pulse, Cisco SensorBase, Cisco StackPower, Cisco StadiumVision, Cisco TelePresence, Cisco TrustSec, Cisco Unified Computing System, Cisco WebEx, DCE, Flip Channels, Flip for Good, Flip Mino, Flipshare (Design), Flip Ultra, Flip Video, Flip Video (Design), Instant Broadband, and Welcome to the Human Network are trademarks; Changing the brook essay, Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn, Cisco Capital, Cisco Capital (Design), Cisco:Financed (Stylized), Cisco Store, Flip Gift Card, and One Million Acts of Green are service marks; and Access Registrar, Aironet, AllTouch, AsyncOS, Bringing the ap european essay, Meeting To You, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, Cisco Lumin, Cisco Nexus, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the on brand trust, Cisco Systems logo, Cisco Unity, Collaboration Without Limitation, Continuum, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Event Center, Explorer, Follow Me Browsing, GainMaker, iLYNX, IOS, iPhone, IronPort, the IronPort logo, Laser Link, LightStream, Linksys, MeetingPlace, MeetingPlace Chime Sound, MGX, Networkers, Networking Academy, PCNow, PIX, PowerKEY, PowerPanels, PowerTV, PowerTV (Design), PowerVu, Prisma, ProConnect, ROSA, SenderBase, SMARTnet, Spectrum Expert, StackWise, WebEx, and the WebEx logo are registered trademarks of Cisco and/or its affiliates in the United States and ap european essay certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document or website are the property of nursing essay questions, their respective owners. Ap European? The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (1002R)

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a103 essay Digital Outback Photo - Photography using Digital SLRs. Reader's Workflow Session: Editing with LightZone. essay by Ed Wolpov (notes and editing by Uwe Steinmueller) image Bettina + Uwe Steinmueller. Manage the ap european essay, Digital Workflow. Note by questions Uwe Steinmueller (Editor): Ed Wolpov sent in an entry for essay, our RAW contest #21 LightZone contest #1 . Even if all our readers can see all editing steps that were performed by Ed it seemed to be nice to also understand the motivation for all editing operations. We thank Ed Wolpov a lot that he wrote down his personal ideas while editing this picture (the picture is Bettina + Uwe Steinmueller). The rest of the text is by Ed Wolpov. I'm always amazed at texas theses and dissertations the ease and ap european infinite variety of intuitive options I have at my disposal when I modify photos in LightZone.

Instead of trying to on brand trust, decipher numbers, curves, levels, and histograms as I would in Photoshop, LightZone allows me to work in a more visual, natural-feeling environment much like I did in the darkroom. Essay! Before beginning a project, I take a few moments to look over the original image and plan out a course of action. In the original photo I see a number of things that appeal to my aesthetic senses. There's the foreground foliage, the texas theses, two large buildings, the near mountain range, the receding mountains, and essay the clouds/haze. All of these areas can easily be worked on independently if I wish, but what I actually do is the result of an iterative process#8230; things will develop as the hills white elephant, image takes shape. I often start by applying a mid-tone contrast enhancement layer. Ap European! I do this by essay questions adding a Sharpness layer across the entire image (re-labeled as Midtone Contrast). By setting the ap european, Amount to a value of 20 and the Radius to 50, the depth of the lower mid-tones is homework help, increased without actually affecting the sharpness.

This technique works equally as well in Photoshop through the use of the ap european essay, Unsharp Mask filter. The values given above are just a starting point, so feel free to experiment#8230; just remember that the relatively large Radius amount is what makes this technique work. You'll note that this technique has no effect on the upper mid-tones or highlights. My second layer is almost always an adjustment to help tvo, the shadows. By adding a ZoneMapper layer (I call it, Shadow Adjustment) and running the cursor through the lower zones of the step-wedge, the ZoneFinder's yellow highlight shows the first area representing the lowest (darkest) zone. I then move to the next lower zone in the ZoneMapper and essay pull it down to the bottom. This brings the lowest zone to the bottom of the scale and spreads out the remaining tones above it. Looking at the results in the image window, I see an increase in depth to critical essay hills like white, the entire photo. Region used for ZoneMapper. Ap European Essay! I've pretty much got my foundation looking the is my passion, way I envisioned; now I can concentrate on the mid-tones and highlights.

In this case I'll add another ZoneMapper (Mid-Highlight Balance) and adjust the mid-tones and highlights by pulling down various zones to help balance the essay, near mountain range, the receding mountains, and the clouds/haze. Analysis On Atticus! In order to affect only the upper portion of the photo to confine my adjustments, I first set a Region with a moderately wide feather around the area of interest. Ap European Essay! Satisfied with the essay on atticus, way things are progressing, it looks like I can finish up by adding a Sharpen layer across the entire photo. My settings are an Amount of 121 with a Radius of 1.8. This gives me a modest amount of sharpening without going overboard. Done. Ap European! Well, not quite. Spending a little time looking at the final image, I ask myself if there's anything I can do to tech university, improve the feel or mood of the shot. Maybe a little more saturation and a bit more luminosity would do it some justice, so I add a Hue/Saturation layer and pump things up until it looks right. Okay, just one more tweak, the color is just a little too warm for me. The whites are not cool enough, and the distant mountains could be bluer.

I add a White Balance layer and adjust the temperature until I feel comfortable with the overall color. That's it, much better! Back in the days of yore, when I spent my weekends in ap european the darkroom (remember the darkroom?), I would often do a little edge burning or corner burning to a print in order to surreptitiously bring the viewer's attention to research on brand trust, the main theme of the photograph. To do this in LightZone, I first add another ZoneMapper (and call it Darken Corners). Then all I have to do is select an oval-shaped region over the entire image with the ap european, Region tool, invert my selection, and drag out the feather to smoothly blend the effect. By selecting the highest (lightest) zone and dragging it down slightly, I'm able to darken the corners. A little goes a long way; so I darken until it's just barely noticeable, then back off a bit.

Just when I thought this version would be my entry into Outback Photo's Contest #021, I realized that I'd probably have a better chance of being unique if the image was in black white. Singing Is My Passion Essay! Back to ap european essay, the drawing board! In order to accomplish my black white conversion, I use a technique of applying two layers; one Channel Mixer layer (I call it Black White Filter) and one Hue/Saturation layer (called Color of Filter/+ Grain). To use this technique, in the Channel Mixer, I set the red channel to singing is my essay, a value of 1.0 and the green and blue channels to ap european essay, 0.0. Now, in combination with the texas tech university, Hue/Saturation layer, as I change the Hue, it acts like a colored filter that allows me to swing through the entire spectrum of colors. By looking at essay the image and adjusting the hue, I was able to achieve the effect I wanted. Pumping up the saturation increased the intensity of the filter effect and added a grainy look to the image.

This rendition of the photo was the one I used to brook questions, enter into the contest. It was pointed out to me that there were a few areas of pure white in my final image, so it's important to at least do a cursory check of the ap european, highlight values. In LightZone, I was able to look at the numeric values in the highlights by entering the singing is my, Sampler (Command 2 on a Mac) and ap european placing the cursor over the suspected areas. Because the highlights were at a value of 255, they would have printed as pure paper white. By adding a new ZoneMapper (Highlight Touch up) I was able to globally bring down this value to a more respectable 243. I did this by anchoring the second highlight from the top of the step-wedge and slightly dragging down the very top zone until my measured value was 243. Although the steps necessary to accomplish the on brand trust, final photo seem complex, in actual practice it only took me about an hour to ap european essay, complete.

The beauty of using LightZone is the critical white elephant, ease at essay which I can quickly make aesthetic judgments on the fly and see the results; much in the same way I would if I had been working on a print in the darkroom. It's a visual, almost tactile way of working!

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Results of President Obama’s Race to the Top. FALL 2015 / VOL. 15, NO. 4. William Howell of the University of ap european Chicago talks with Marty West about the Every Student Succeeds Act and research papers trust federal education policy in the Obama administration on the EdNext podcast. Caught between extraordinary public expectations and relatively modest constitutional authority, U.S. presidents historically have fashioned all sorts of mechanisms—executive orders, proclamations, memoranda—by which to move their objectives forward. Ap European Essay. Under President Barack Obama’s administration, presidential entrepreneurialism has continued unabated. Like his predecessors, Obama has sought to harness and consolidate his influence outside of Congress.

He also has made contributions of his own to the arsenal of administrative policy devices. Is My Passion. The most creative, perhaps, is ap european his Race to the Top initiative, which attempted to spur wide-ranging reforms in education, a policy domain in which past presidents exercised very little independent authority. This study examines the essay on atticus finch, effects of Obama’s Race to the Top on education policymaking around the country. In doing so, it does not assess the efficacy of the ap european, particular policies promoted by finch, the initiative, nor does it investigate how Race to the Top altered practices within schools or districts. Rather, the focus is the education policymaking process itself; the adoption of essay education policies is the outcome of interest.

No single test provides incontrovertible evidence about its causal effects. The overall findings, however, indicate that Race to the Top had a meaningful impact on the production of education policy across the United States. In its aftermath, all states experienced a marked surge in the adoption of education policies. This surge does not appear to critical essay like white, be a statistical aberration or an extension of past policy trends. Legislators from all states reported that Race to the Top affected policy deliberations within their states. The patterns of essay policy adoptions and legislator responses, moreover, correspond with states’ experiences in the Race to the Top competitions. In the main, the evidence suggests that by critical essay hills like white, strategically deploying funds to cash-strapped states and massively increasing the public profile of a controversial set of education policies, the president managed to stimulate reforms that had stalled in state legislatures, stood no chance of enactment in Congress, and ap european essay could not be accomplished via unilateral action. Asking States to homework, Compete. On February 17, 2009, President Obama signed into law the essay, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), legislation that was designed to stimulate the economy; support job creation; and invest in critical sectors, including education, in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Roughly $100 billion of the ARRA was allocated for education, with $4.35 billion set aside for the establishment of Race to the Top, a competitive grant program designed to encourage states to support education innovation.

From the outset, the president saw Race to is my, the Top as a way to induce state-level policymaking that aligned with his education objectives on college readiness, the ap european, creation of new data systems, teacher effectiveness, and persistently low-performing schools. As he noted in his July 2009 speech announcing the initiative, Obama intended to “incentivize excellence and spur reform and singing passion essay launch a race to the top in ap european essay America’s public schools.” The U.S. Department of Education (ED) exercised considerable discretion over the design and operation of the Race to the Top competition. Within a handful of broad priorities identified by Congress in ARRA, the Obama administration chose which specific policies would be rewarded, and by how much; how many states would receive financial rewards, and in what amount; and what kinds of oversight mechanisms would be used to ensure compliance. Subsequent to the ARRA’s enactment, Congress did not issue any binding requirements for the design or administration of the program. From an operational standpoint, Race to the Top was nearly entirely the handiwork of tech university theses and dissertations ED. Race to the Top comprised three distinct phases of competition.

Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 included specific education-policy priorities on which each applicant would be evaluated. States were asked to describe their current status and outline their future goals in meeting the criteria in each of these categories. The education policy priorities spanned six major scoring categories and one competitive preference category (see Table 1). To assist states in writing their applications, ED offered technical assistance workshops, webinars, and training materials. Additionally, nonprofit organizations such as the National Council on ap european essay, Teacher Quality published reports intended to university and dissertations, help states maximize their likelihood of winning an award. Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty shrouded some components of the competition, including the exact grading procedures, number of possible winners, total allocated prize amount per winning state, and ap european essay prize allocation mechanism and timeline. When all was said and done, 40 states and the District of Columbia submitted applications to Phase 1 of the singing is my passion essay, competition. Finalists and winners were announced in ap european March 2010. Stony Brook Nursing Questions. Phase 1 winners Tennessee and ap european essay Delaware were awarded roughly $500 million and $120 million, respectively, which amounted to homework help tvo, 10 percent and 5.7 percent of the two respective states’ budgets for ap european essay, K?12 education for on atticus, a single year. Figure 1 identifies all winners and award amounts.

Thirty-five states and the District of Columbia submitted applications to Phase 2 of the competition in ap european June 2010. Ten winners were each awarded prizes between $75 million and research papers on brand trust $700 million in Phase 2. Having exhausted the ARRA funds, the president in 2011 sought additional support for the competition. Ap European. That spring, Congress allotted funds to support a third phase, in which only character essay on atticus finch losing finalists from Phase 2 could participate. A significantly higher percentage of participating states won in Phase 3, although the amounts of these grants were considerably smaller than those from Phases 1 and 2. On December 23, 2011, ED announced Phase 3 winners, which received prizes ranging from $17 million to $43 million.

States that won Race to the Top grants were subject to a nontrivial monitoring process, complete with annual performance reports, accountability protocols, and site visits. After receiving an award letter, a state could immediately withdraw up to 12.5 percent of its overall award. The remaining balance of funds, however, was available to winning states only after ED received and approved a final scope of work from the state’s participating local education agencies. Each winning state’s drawdown of funds, then, depended upon its ability to ap european, meet the specific goals and timelines outlined in its scope of work. In its public rhetoric, the Obama administration emphasized its intention to use Race to the Top to stimulate new education-policy activity. How would we know if it succeeded? To identify the effects of Race to the Top on state-level policymaking, ideally one would take advantage of plausibly random variation in either eligibility or participation. Unfortunately, neither of these strategies is possible, as all states were allowed to enter the competition and texas tech university and dissertations participation was entirely voluntary. To discern Race to the Top’s policy consequences, therefore, I exploit other kinds of comparisons between policy changes in the 19 winning states and the District of ap european essay Columbia, the 28 losers, and the 4 that did not participate; commitments that different states made in their applications and subsequent policymaking activities; and changes in policymaking at different intervals of the competitions. Policy Adoptions. Critical Hills Like White. Perhaps the most telling piece of evidence related to essay, the effect of Race to hills like, the Top is the number of essay relevant education reforms adopted as state policy in texas tech and dissertations the aftermath of the competition’s announcement.

To determine that number, my research team and I documented trends in ap european actual policy enactments across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Character Analysis On Atticus Finch. We tracked numerous policies that clearly fit the various criteria laid out under Race to the Top, and covered such topics as charter schools, data management, intervention into low-performing schools, and the use of test scores for school personnel policy, as well as three additional control policies—increased high-school graduation requirements, the establishment of 3rd-grade test-based promotion policies, and tax credits to support private-school scholarships—that were similar to Race to the Top policies but were neither mentioned nor rewarded under the program (see sidebar, opposite page, for specific policies tracked for Race to the Top applications and state adoptions). Across all 50 states and the District of Columbia, we examined whether a state legislature, governor, school board, professional standards board, or any other governing body with statewide authority had enacted a qualifying policy each year between 2001 and 2014. Policies that were merely proposed or out for comment did not qualify. We also examined whether each state in ap european essay its written application claimed to have already enacted each policy or expressed its clear intention to do so, as well as the number of points the singing is my essay, application received in the scoring process. Illinois state senator Kimberly Lightford noted, “I think Race to the Top was our driving force to get us all honest and fair, and ap european willing to university, negotiate.” These data reveal that the Race to the Top competitions did not reward states exclusively on the basis of what they had already done. Race to ap european, the Top, in this sense, did not function as an award ceremony for states’ past accomplishments. Rather, both states’ past accomplishments and their stated commitments to adopt new policies informed the scores they received—and hence their chances of winning federal funding.

We also found that states around the country enacted a subset of these reform policies at passion a much higher rate in ap european essay the aftermath of Race to the Top than previously. Between 2001 and stony brook essay questions 2008, states on essay, average enacted about 10 percent of reform policies. Between 2009 and 2014, however, they had enacted 68 percent. And during this later period, adoption rates increased every single year. At the rate established by preexisting trends, it would have taken states multiple decades to accomplish what, in the aftermath of the competitions, was accomplished in less than five years. Policy Adoptions in Winning, Losing, and Nonapplying States.

The surge of analysis essay finch legislative activity was not limited to states that were awarded Race to ap european essay, the Top funding. Help Tvo. Figure 2 illustrates the policy adoption activity of three groups of essay states: those that won in one of the tech theses and dissertations, three phases of competition; those that applied in at least one phase but never won; and those that never applied. In nearly every year between 2001 and essay 2008, policy adoption rates in these groups were both low and essentially indistinguishable from stony nursing essay questions, one another. In the aftermath of Race to the Top’s announcement, however, adoption rates for all three groups increased dramatically. By 2014, winning states had adopted, on average, 88 percent of the essay, policies, compared to 68 percent among losing states, and 56 percent among states that never applied. Regression analyses that account for previous policy adoptions and other state characteristics show that winning states were 37 percentage points more likely to have enacted a Race to homework, the Top policy after the competitions than nonapplicant states. While losing states were also more likely than nonapplicants to have adopted such policies, the estimated effects for ap european, winning states are roughly twice as large. Anecdotal media reports, as well as interviews conducted by my research team, suggest that the process of applying to the competitions by itself generated some momentum behind policy reform. Such momentum, along with the stony brook nursing essay, increased attention given to Race to the Top policies, may explain why those states that did not even apply to the competition nonetheless began to enact these policies at higher rates. Winning states were also more likely to essay, have adopted one of the control policies, which is not altogether surprising, given the complementarities between Race to the Top policies and the chosen control policies. Still, the estimated relationship between winning and the adoption of Race to the Top policies is more than twice as large as that between winning and the adoption of control policies.

My results also suggest that both winning and losing states were especially likely to adopt policies about which they made clear commitments in research on brand trust their Race to essay, the Top applications. Though the essay questions, effects are not always statistically significant, winning states appear 21 percentage points more likely to adopt a policy about which they made a promise than one about which they did not; put differently, they were 36 percentage points more likely to adopt a policy about which they made an explicit commitment than were nonapplying states, which, for obvious reasons, made no promises at all. Losing states, meanwhile, were 31 percentage points more likely to essay, adopt a policy on which they had made a promise than on a policy on which they had not. Closer examination of winning, losing, and nonapplying states illuminates how Race to the Top influenced policymaking in all states, regardless of their status. One winning state, Illinois, submitted applications in all three phases before finally winning. Its biggest policy accomplishments, however, happened well before it received any funds from ED. The rapid enactment of texas tech university theses and dissertations Race to the Top policies in Illinois reflected a concerted effort by the state government to strengthen its application in each competition. Before the state even submitted its Phase 1 application, Illinois enacted the Performance Evaluation Reform Act (PERA), a law that significantly changed teacher and principal evaluation practices. After losing in Phase 1, Illinois went on to adopt several other Race to essay, the Top policies prior to submitting Phase 2 and Phase 3 applications.

The competition served as a clear catalyst for education reform in the state. As Illinois state senator Kimberly Lightford noted, “It’s not that we’ve never wanted to do it before. I think Race to the Top was our driving force to analysis on atticus, get us all honest and fair, and ap european willing to tech university, negotiate at the table.” Whereas persistence eventually paid off for Illinois, California’s applications never resulted in Race to the Top funding. Essay. As in Illinois, lawmakers in California adopted several significant education reforms in an effort to solidify their chances of winning an papers on brand trust, award. Prior to the first-round deadline, the director of federal policy for essay, Democrats for Education Reform noted that in California, “there’s been more state legislation [around education reform] in the last eight months than there was in the entire seven or eight years of tech and dissertations No Child Left Behind, in terms of laws passed.” California was not selected as a Phase 1 or Phase 2 winner, and a change in essay the governor’s mansion prior to Phase 3 meant the finch, state would not compete in the last competition. While the state never did receive any funding, California did not revoke any of the ap european, policies it had enacted during its failed bids. Although Alaska did not participate in Race to the Top, the state adopted policies that either perfectly or nearly perfectly aligned with Race to the Top priorities. Help Tvo. Governor Sean Parnell acknowledged the importance of ap european essay keeping pace with other states.

What about the four states that never applied for Race to the Top funding? By jump-starting education policy reform in some states, the competition may have influenced policy deliberations in others. Research On Brand Trust. Alaska provides a case in point. When Race to essay, the Top was first announced, Alaska’s education commissioner, Larry LeDoux, cited concerns about federal government power and the program’s urban focus as reasons not to apply. Still, in the years that followed, Alaska adopted a batch of policies that either perfectly or nearly perfectly aligned with Race to the Top priorities. One of the most consequential concerned the state’s teacher-evaluation system.

In 2012, the is my, Alaska Department of Education approved changes that required that 20 percent of a teacher’s assessment be based on essay, data from at least one standardized test, a percentage that would increase to 50 by essay, the 2018?19 school year. In defending the ap european, rule, Governor Sean Parnell recognized the help, importance of keeping pace with other states’ policy achievements: “Nearly 20 states in ap european essay the nation now weight at brook nursing essay least 33 percent, and many 50 percent, of the performance evaluation based on student academic progress. I would like Alaska to lead in this, not bring up the rear with 20 percent of an evaluation focused on student improvement.” Those 20 states that had made the changes, it bears emphasizing, had participated in Race to ap european essay, the Top. Policymaker Perspectives. To further assess the influence of Race to the Top on state policymaking, I consulted state legislators. Embedded in a nationally representative survey of state legislators conducted in the spring of 2014 was a question about the importance of critical essay hills like white elephant Race to the Top for the education policy deliberations within their states. Essay. Roughly one-third of legislators reported that Race to the Top had either a “massive” or “big” impact on education policymaking in their state.

Another 49 percent reported that it had a “minor” impact, whereas just 19 percent claimed that it had no impact at all. Lawmakers’ responses mirror my finding that Race to the Top influenced policymaking in all states, with the greatest impact on on brand trust, winning states. Winners were fully 36 percentage points more likely to ap european, say that Race to the Top had a massive or big impact than losers, who, in turn, were 12 percentage points more likely than legislators in states that never applied to say as much. If these reports are to hills like white, be believed, Race to the Top did not merely reward winning states for their independent policy achievements. Rather, the competitions meaningfully influenced education policymaking within their states. Even legislators from nonapplying states recognized the relevance of Race to ap european essay, the Top for their education policymaking deliberations. On Atticus. Indeed, a majority of legislators from states that never applied nonetheless reported that the competitions had some influence over policymaking within their states. Although dosages vary, all states appear to have been “treated” by the Race to the Top policy intervention. From Policy to Practice.

None of the preceding analyses speak to the translation of policy enactments into real-world outcomes. Ap European. For all sorts of reasons, the possibility that Race to homework help tvo, the Top influenced the essay, production of education policy around the country does not mean that it changed goings-on within schools and districts. Still, preliminary evidence suggests that Race to the Top can count more than just policy enactments on its list of accomplishments. As Education Next has reported elsewhere (see “States Raise Proficiency Standards in Math and homework Reading,” features, Summer 2015), states introduced more rigorous standards for student academic proficiency in the aftermath of Race to the Top. Moreover, they did so in ways that reflected their experiences in the competition itself.

Figure 3a tracks over a 10-year period the ap european essay, average rigor of standards in states that eventually won Race to the Top, states that applied but never won, and states that never applied. Throughout this period, eventual winners and losers looked better than nonapplicants. Before the character analysis on atticus, competition, though, winners and ap european loser looked indistinguishable from one another. Between 2003 and 2009, the critical essay elephant, rigor of their state standards declined at nearly identical rates and to identical levels. In the aftermath of Race to the Top, however, winning states rebounded dramatically, reaching unprecedented heights within just two years. While losing states showed some improvement, the reversal was not nearly as dramatic.

Nonapplying states, meanwhile, maintained their relatively low standards. The impact of Race to the Top on charter schools, which constituted a less significant portion of the competition, is essay not nearly so apparent. In winning states, higher percentages of public school students attend charter schools than in either losing or non-applying states. But as Figure 3b shows, post-Race to the Top gains appear indistinguishable from the on atticus finch, projections of previous trends. While Race to the Top may have helped sustain previous gains, it seems unlikely. Between 2003 and ap european essay 2013, the three groups of states showed nearly constant gains in charter school enrollments. Conclusions and Implications. With Race to the Top, the Obama administration sought to texas tech university theses and dissertations, remake education policy around the essay, nation. The evidence presented in stony essay this paper suggests that it met with a fair bit of success.

In the aftermath, states adopted at unprecedented rates policies that were explicitly rewarded under the ap european essay, competitions. States that participated in the competitions were especially likely to adopt Race to the Top policies, particularly those on which they made explicit policy commitments in their applications. These patterns of texas tech and dissertations policy adoptions and endorsements, moreover, were confirmed by a nationally representative sample of state legislators who were asked to assess the impact of Race to the Top on ap european, education policymaking in their respective states. Differences in the policy actions of winning, losing, and nonapplying states, however, do not adequately characterize the brook nursing questions, depth or breadth of the president’s influence. In the aftermath of Race to the Top, all states experienced a marked surge in the adoption of essay education policies.

And legislators from all states reported that Race to stony essay questions, the Top affected policy deliberations within their states. While it is ap european possible that Race to the Top appeared on the scene at is my passion a time when states were already poised to essay, enact widespread policy reforms, several facts suggest that the texas tech, initiative is at least partially responsible for the rising rate of policy adoption from essay, 2009 onward. Papers On Brand. First, winning states distinguished themselves from losing and nonapplying states more by the enactment of Race to the Top policies than by other related education reforms. Second, at ap european essay least in essay like white 2009 and 2010, Race to the Top did not coincide with any other major policy initiative that could plausibly explain the patterns of policy activities documented in this paper. (Obama’s selective provision of waivers to No Child Left Behind, a possible confounder, did not begin until later.) Finally, state legislators’ own testimony confirms the central role that the competitions played in the adoption of state policies between 2009 and 2014, either by directly changing the incentives of policymakers within applying states or by generating cross-state pressures in nonapplying states. The surge of post-2009 policy activity constitutes a major accomplishment for the Obama administration.

With a relatively small amount of money, little formal constitutional authority in education, and without the power to ap european essay, unilaterally impose his will upon state governments, President Obama managed to jump-start policy processes that had languished for years in texas university state governments around the country. When it comes to domestic policymaking, past presidents often accomplished a lot less with a lot more. William G. Howell is professor of American politics at the University of ap european Chicago. The Hoover Institution at Stanford University - Ideas Defining a Free Society. Harvard Kennedy School Program on Educational Policy and Governance. Thomas Fordham Institute - Advancing Educational Excellence and Education Reform. education next daily email alert. education next posts a big story.

Web-only content Copyright © 2017 President Fellows of Harvard College. Journal content Copyright © 2017 by critical essay hills elephant, the Board of ap european essay Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University.

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Laura Kipnis’s Endless Trial by essay Title IX. September 20, 2017. Students and educators now live in a world where expressing an opinion about sexual harassment can be sincerely perceived as sexual harassment. In 2015, Laura Kipnis, a film-studies professor at Northwestern University, published a polemic in The Chronicle of tvo Higher Education titled “ Sexual Paranoia Strikes Academe .” Kipnis argued that students’ sense of vulnerability on campus was expanding to an unwarranted degree, partly owing to new enforcement policies around Title IX, which prohibits sex discrimination at educational institutions that receive federal funds. Ap European! The new Title IX policies on sexual misconduct which were then sweeping campuses perpetuated “myths and fantasies about power,” Kipnis wrote, which enlarged the invasive power of institutions while undermining the homework help goal of educating students in critical thinking and resilience. “If you wanted to ap european produce a pacified, cowering citizenry, this would be the method,” she concluded. Kipnis wrote of a philosophy professor, Peter Ludlow, whom Northwestern disciplined for character analysis finch, sexual harassment; Kipnis questioned the ap european essay logic of the texas and dissertations accusations against him. One of Ludlow’s accusers, a graduate student (unnamed in Kipnis’s essay), then joined a fellow graduate student in the philosophy department in filing Title IX complaints against ap european Kipnis, under Northwestern’s sexual-misconduct policy. Through her essay and a subsequent tweet about the essay, Kipnis was alleged to have violated the part of the sexual-misconduct policy prohibiting “retaliation”; additionally, she was alleged to have created a “hostile environment” and a “chilling effect” on complaints. Research! Northwestern launched a formal Title IX investigation of Kipnis. Most people under Title IX investigation don’t speak publicly about it, even to defend themselves.

But Kipnis responded by publishing a follow-up essay in the Chronicle , called “ My Title IX Inquisition ,” decrying the investigation as a misuse of Title IX that allowed “intellectual disagreement to ap european essay be redefined as retaliation.” On the same day, Northwestern cleared Kipnis of wrongdoing, finding that “viewpoint expression” is not retaliation, and that a “reasonable person” in the complainant’s position “would not suffer a hostile environment on essay white, account of” the essay and the tweet. Earlier this month, Betsy DeVos, the ap european Secretary of Education, delivered a policy speech on Title IX that focussed on essay hills, the need for fair process for essay, both accusers and the accused. Character Analysis Essay On Atticus! She also stated that “schools have been compelled by essay Washington to enforce ambiguous and incredibly broad definitions of singing passion essay assault and harassment,” stemming from over-compliance with the Department’s 2011 “Dear Colleague” letter, which DeVos has made clear will be replaced by new regulations after a formal rulemaking process. Individuals “have faced investigation and punishment simply for speaking their minds or teaching their classes,” she said. The investigation of Kipnis helped to fuel the debate on Title IX and academic freedom. In the meantime, Kipnis told me something that had only just been made public in a court filing. Her 2015 Title IX investigation, she said, was not her last; she was investigated again, just this past summer. Back in 2015, the first investigation of Kipnis immediately triggered several other complaints.

A professor whom Kipnis brought to her interview as her “support person” also had a Title IX retaliation complaint filed against him, after he spoke to essay the faculty senate about his concerns that the Kipnis investigation threatened academic freedom. An additional Title IX complaint at the same time also accused Kipnis of brook nursing essay questions “involvement in and/or approval of” the faculty support person’s statement to the faculty senate. (Both of those complaints were eventually dropped.) Drawing on her experience, Kipnis wrote the book “Unwanted Advances,” which was published in April. After Northwestern terminated Ludlow’s employment, he gave Kipnis access to confidential records in the graduate student’s successful Title IX complaint against him, along with thousands of texts and e-mails between them. Kipnis writes that “the more I learned about his situation, the ap european more I saw his case as a lens through which the critical hills like excesses and ap european essay hypocrisies of the nursing essay current campus hysteria came into focus.” Kipnis devotes a chapter of “Unwanted Advances” to her theory that Ludlow was falsely accused. Essay! In a letter to the editor in the Daily Northwestern , the Northwestern Philosophy Graduate Student Association objected that Kipnis “unfairly portrayed our colleague,” the graduate student. In May, the graduate student sued Kipnis and her publisher, HarperCollins, for defamation. (A HarperCollins representative told me that the company does not comment on pending litigation.) The suit alleges that the book falsely suggests that the graduate student and texas tech university theses and dissertations Ludlow had a consensual dating relationship, falsely insinuates that her allegation of rape was untrue, and falsely claims that she is a “serial Title IX filer.” It also makes an invasion-of-privacy claim, alleging that Kipnis’s book publicly disclosed private facts, including the plaintiff’s prior relationship with a married professor at another school, and ap european details intimate conversations from her relationship with Ludlow.

It’s puzzling that the plaintiff is staking part of her lawsuit on the alleged falsehood of the statement that she is a “serial Title IX filer.” Kipnis mentions in the book that the graduate student was a complainant in stony brook nursing questions, six Title IX complaints; in ap european essay, the suit, the essay plaintiff acknowledges two, one against Ludlow and one against Kipnis. But days before filing the ap european defamation suit, in May, the singing passion graduate student joined four Northwestern faculty members and ap european five other graduate students as a complainant in analysis, yet another Title IX complaint against ap european essay Kipnis, this time based on nursing, the publication of “Unwanted Advances.” Kipnis told me that she was surprised when Northwestern once again launched a formal Title IX investigation of her writing. (A spokesperson from Northwestern did not respond to a request for comment by press time.) Kipnis said that investigators presented her with a spreadsheet laying out dozens of quotations from her book, along with at least eighty written questions, such as “What do you mean by this statement?,” “What is the source/are the sources for this information?,” and “How do you respond to the allegation that this detail is not necessary to your argument and that its inclusion is essay evidence of retaliatory intent on your part?” Kipnis chose not to answer any questions, following the standard advice of counsel defending the court case. She did submit a statement saying that “these complaints seem like an attempt to bend the campus judicial system to punish someone whose work involves questioning the campus judicial system, just as bringing Title IX complaints over my first Chronicle essay attempted to singing is my essay do two years ago.” In other words, the process was the essay punishment. Possible evidence of retaliatory purpose, she learned, included statements in texas tech university and dissertations, the book that aggressively staked out her refusal to keep quiet, expressed in her trademark hyperbole. Her prior Title IX investigation, she writes, “has made me a little mad and possibly a little dangerous. . . . Ap European! I mean, having been hauled up on homework, complaints once, what do I have to lose? ‘Confidentiality’? ‘Conduct befitting a professor’? Kiss my ass. Ap European! In other words, thank you to my accusers: unwitting collaborators, accidental muses.” Also presented as possible evidence was her Facebook post quoting a book review—“Kipnis doesn’t seem like the sort of enemy you’d want to attract, let alone help create”—on which Kipnis had commented, “I love that.” If Kipnis did engage in retaliation or violate confidentiality, those infractions would be impossible to stony brook essay questions untangle from her book’s performance of her protest. “Unwanted Advances” sharply criticizes both the use of ap european essay Title IX to silence political opponents and stony brook questions the secrecy that can enable abuse and overreach in campus Title IX processes. The latest iteration of Northwestern’s investigation of Kipnis took a month to complete, and again ruled in her favor.

The university concluded that she did not retaliate or engage in sexual harassment by discussing mostly public information about ap european, pseudonymous students in a book meant to critique the Title IX landscape, including false accusations and brook essay questions the use of Title IX to punish those critical of Title IX. Though she didn’t honor the confidentiality of university investigations, Northwestern recognized that confidentiality is a request rather than a requirement in its sexual-misconduct policy. Northwestern’s decision letter did suggest, however, that the dean of ap european essay Kipnis’s school might still choose to sanction her for possible violations of the university’s policy on “civility and mutual respect.” The evidence: her statements after the book’s publication, in e-mails, on social media, and in talks, in which she questioned the veracity and texas tech theses reliability of the graduate student’s account and hoped that “the book will cause a bit of a shit storm.” The university said that these “behaviors could be interpreted as demeaning and/or intimidating.” Kipnis objected that her statements rebutting charges of inaccuracy in her book could not legitimately be construed as “incivility.” The dean ultimately found that Kipnis did not violate the ap european essay civility policy, and that was the end of the research papers matter. The U.S. Supreme Court has remarked, in Oncale v. Ap European Essay! Sundowner Offshores Services, in homework help tvo, 1998, that sexual-harassment law is not intended to ap european become a “general civility code.” But lack of “civility” can easily serve as a fallback accusation when a Title IX complaint doesn’t pan out. And Title IX can be deployed to make life difficult for papers, a person one despises, for whatever reasons—good or bad. Two professors I spoke to said that they have experienced this phenomenon firsthand. Nicholas Wolfinger, a professor of family and consumer studies, said that he was on the receiving end of this dynamic at the University of Utah, where he has been at odds with his colleagues for ap european, years. He told me it is essay hills like white elephant because he has been openly contemptuous of colleagues who are “dead wood” and do not produce scholarship. Essay! Wolfinger was accused last year, under the stony questions school’s Title IX policy, of “being aggressive, rude, or dismissive of female faculty members” and “making unwelcome/unwanted sexual jokes or comments to other faculty members in the department” over the previous twelve-year period.

Examples included his reference to menstruation as “riding the cotton pony,” exclaiming “Fuck!” at a faculty meeting, and recounting stories of proposing to his wife at a strip club. The university’s investigation found him not responsible for Title IX sexual harassment and gender discrimination, but his dean still decided to impose an administrative reprimand and suspension for “unprofessional behavior,” specifically with reference to his use of profanity and ap european the “constant stream of insults that you direct at others, particularly those berating and belittling your colleagues.” (Wolfinger has written about his Title IX process, but his piece did not mention the reprimand and suspension for unprofessional behavior.) It seems that the wish to knock off unlikable and ill-behaving colleagues can lead to trust illegitimate use of the ap european Title IX process to punish them, even if there is no finding of responsibility. Ultimately, Wolfinger made a deal to work part-time without giving up tenure, a result that he says both he and his colleagues were happy with. A professor who previously taught at a small college in texas tech university theses, California told me a related story. He was an outspoken critic of the school’s president, administration, and board, asking “too many questions” and calling for transparency regarding the school’s management, curricular, and ap european essay financial problems. The administration demanded that he resign or face termination for violation of Title IX. When he didn’t resign, the school launched a Title IX investigation, with no complainant, that accused him of hills white sexually harassing a former student five years earlier—but the former student sent the school a signed affidavit saying that the charges were baseless. The college decided to drop the Title IX charges, but it terminated the professor anyway for not living up to ap european essay its standard of singing essay conduct, citing an alleged instance of public drunkenness (which he denies), his use of profanity (an e-mail in which he used the term “bullshit”), and what the college deemed to be immoral correspondence with a woman who had no connection to the school. (The professor has managed to ap european find a new position at a foreign university.) For many, Title IX has become synonymous with the imperative to address sexual assault among students.

But Title IX can also be used to brook nursing essay questions discourage disagreement, deter dissent, deflect scrutiny, or register disapproval of people whom colleagues find loathsome. The problem is not with Title IX itself, much less the generic capacity of any rule to be used as a pretext for ap european essay, unrelated ends. Rather, it is the growing tendency to try, in the words of Kipnis’s book, “to bend Title IX into an all-purpose bludgeon.” This warping is research on brand made possible by ap european ambiguous and undisciplined understandings—misunderstandings—of sexual harassment and its harms. Kipnis’s rebuke of common slippages and conflations, whereby “gropers become rapists and university theses and dissertations accusers become Survivors,” anticipated a situation in essay, which expression of her opinions about a sexual-harassment allegation could be sincerely perceived as an act of singing is my essay sexual harassment. Perhaps, in this environment, the ap european complaint that followed the publication of “Unwanted Advances” was inevitable. Kipnis implied as much in “My Title IX Inquisition”: “by writing these sentences,” she was “risking more” complaints. That risk is now built into papers on brand the professional life of ap european those of us in universities who engage on subjects related to essay gender and sexuality.

Like Kipnis, I routinely hear from teachers who say they are refraining from teaching and writing on ap european essay, such topics for fear of attracting Title IX complaints, which bring possibilities of essay hills white elephant termination, demotion, pay cuts, and tens of thousands of dollars in ap european, legal fees, especially for the swelling ranks of teachers who, unlike Kipnis and me, do not have tenure. Yet debate on these topics is character analysis finch crucial to the pursuit of sex equality, as much as participants may disagree on what that means. As the Education Department under Secretary DeVos undertakes new rulemaking under Title IX, it will be important to be more explicit about how it may better protect the core educational activity of a campus: the essay production of knowledge and the expression of ideas. At this moment, Title IX is too often conscripted to serve purposes antithetical to the education of help tvo citizens in a democracy, in which disagreement, dissent, or disapproval should lead to argument, not to an infinite loop of institutional investigation. Jeannie Suk Gersen is a contributing writer for ap european, newyorker.com, and a professor at Harvard Law School. In the Wake of the Las Vegas Shooting, There Can Be No Truce with the Second Amendment. The Simple Truth About Gun Control. Let’s Stand Together with Jason Aldean Fans After the singing Las Vegas Shooting. How Badly Is Neil Gorsuch Annoying the Other Supreme Court Justices?

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