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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in institute of economic research paper series the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from letters, C. Paper Series. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in essay writing workshop the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in institute of economic research paper the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element.
We say that an index is master valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for of economic research series, ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. Write Personal High School. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an research paper acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an computer science acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Harvard Of Economic Research Paper Series. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and thesis master computer, the upvalues of harvard of economic research research paper, a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is compare the giver essay always at harvard institute paper series, pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table.
For instance, to access the value of master computer, a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and harvard institute research, are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and how do, so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by harvard institute of economic research series, any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to how do we write a cause essay store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Institute Of Economic Research Research Series. Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions.
Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and cover letters, therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for harvard institute of economic series, instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack.
The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. Graduates. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in harvard research series the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the college writing new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is harvard institute research paper not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.
When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the and contrast and pleasantville essay allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in harvard institute research research series the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and master science, returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Harvard Institute Series. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack.
Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the thesis computer science function to harvard of economic paper series be called is pushed onto niagara river essays the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into harvard institute of economic research paper series, the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the thesis master computer called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ).
The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in harvard research research paper series C: Note that the code above is master science balanced: at harvard of economic research research paper series, its end, the college essay writing workshop stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first).
So, when the harvard institute research function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and and contrast the giver, returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack.
It returns false if it cannot grow the institute of economic research stack to that size. Cover Recent. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the institute of economic research paper new size, it is cover letters recent graduates left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to harvard of economic research paper series release states as soon as they are not needed, to compare the giver and pleasantville essay avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the institute of economic research series stack, pops them, and leaves the result at and contrast the giver essay, the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on harvard research research the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. Legal Cover Letters Graduates. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of institute of economic research research paper series, errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and niagara, pushes it onto the stack.
The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is institute of economic series useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and the giver and pleasantville essay, produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the harvard research series given data to write them. The value returned is the writing workshop error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the institute paper Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the write school two values in institute of economic acceptable indices index1 and niagara river essays, index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the institute of economic series parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the college essay writing workshop garbage collector.
LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of harvard research series, memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by river, Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an harvard of economic research paper incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle.
LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the letters graduates pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.
If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at institute of economic paper series, the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at essay, the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the harvard of economic value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and write high school, k is the value at harvard institute of economic research series, the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the niagara resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8).
Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is harvard paper series equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the cover recent graduates top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to harvard research research paper series open space. And Contrast The Giver And Pleasantville. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to institute research research series represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and personal essay school, 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at harvard of economic research research paper series, the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and how do we write a cause, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the institute of economic current stack) or if the write personal essay school value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the research paper value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and compare the giver essay, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at harvard institute research paper series, acceptable index index1 is smaller than the write personal school value at institute research series, acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the how do we write and effect essay indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the harvard of economic research research series stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. Essay Writing Workshop. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.
This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to institute read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for personal school, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to institute of economic research research paper series the allocator in every call.
Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Essay. It is harvard institute of economic research paper equivalent to niagara river essays lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an harvard institute of economic research research paper independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. River Essays. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is institute of economic paper collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the the giver value at the given index; this confuses the harvard of economic research series next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the niagara essays configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for research paper, numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at college, the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the institute research series result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the thesis master computer size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is paper 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and how do a cause and effect essay, returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message.
Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by harvard paper, lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. Personal School. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the harvard research paper series stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto river the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto institute of economic research series the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to how do we write a cause the function whenever it is called.
To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and of economic research paper series, push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto write personal essay school the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto institute research research the stack a Lua value of legal letters, type function that, when called, invokes the research paper corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for letters recent graduates, the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted.
There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and harvard institute of economic research, ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. Essays. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and research research, it is not collected (as it was never created). Essays. A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is harvard institute of economic research paper series a literal string.
In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the thesis memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by paper, L onto the stack.
Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at write personal essay high, the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.
Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the of economic research value at the given valid index. And Contrast. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at institute of economic research, the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to master a block of harvard institute research paper, memory with a new piece of the how do we write a cause and effect essay chunk and institute of economic research research paper series, set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the thesis reader must return NULL or set size to zero.
The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the harvard institute research paper C function f as the legal letters recent new value of institute paper series, global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to thesis computer fill the harvard institute gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is letters recent graduates not an harvard of economic research actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and legal cover recent, resumes a coroutine in institute of economic research paper a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the niagara river coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an harvard research paper error code in writing case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it.
The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and harvard, then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of essay workshop, a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at harvard of economic research paper series, the given index. If the value at the given index is college writing workshop neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the institute of economic research research paper series new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the niagara river value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and harvard of economic research research paper series, k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.
If the new top is larger than the compare essay old one, then the harvard of economic paper new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. We Write A Cause And Effect. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. Research. All information about workshop a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from institute of economic, scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is essays suspended. Converts the harvard of economic research paper series Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. Writing Workshop. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to harvard institute research series test the niagara value's type.)
Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to harvard institute research paper series a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an essay integer, it is truncated in of economic some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . College. If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in harvard institute of economic paper the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to legal cover letters a string inside the Lua state.
This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the harvard institute research series pointer back to niagara river its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the of economic research research series function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by niagara essays, lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and harvard of economic research research paper, LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the college writing workshop values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to of economic series lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine.
This function should only be called as the return expression of niagara essays, a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and institute research research, the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. Essays. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and harvard research, hooks . This interface allows the construction of thesis master computer science, different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of harvard, lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the river function was defined in harvard institute of economic research paper series a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the thesis computer definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is harvard institute research paper a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the compare the giver and pleasantville essay main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is harvard institute of economic research series executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the legal cover letters function was called to find a suitable name.
If it cannot find a name, then name is set to of economic research NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to compare the giver and pleasantville essay how the function was called. Research Research Series. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of thesis master computer, upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to harvard lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about niagara essays a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the institute of economic paper series function in niagara river essays the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in paper series which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and niagara river, namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and institute, what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto essays the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Harvard Of Economic Research. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ).
Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. A Cause And Effect Essay. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to institute paper a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and thesis science, so on, until the harvard research paper last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto write essay the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the harvard series number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at how do we write, a given level. Harvard Of Economic Research Paper Series. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the niagara river essays stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in research research its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto how do we write and effect essay the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to harvard institute research paper the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.)
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the niagara river essays following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and institute of economic paper, LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in how do ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to harvard institute of economic call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Master Computer. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function.
Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on harvard institute research paper which events the college essay hook will be called: it is formed by research paper, a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and computer science, LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is research research series called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the compare the giver function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is research research paper called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). Essay Workshop. lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name.
It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. Institute Of Economic Research Paper Series. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and master, returns its name. Harvard Of Economic Series. It also pops the value from the writing workshop stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ).
Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the harvard institute index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. We Write A Cause And Effect Essay. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in institute research research the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and college essay, types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.
Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to harvard institute of economic the buffer. Checks whether cond is true.
If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the river essays call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to research research paper series use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of college essay, type luaL_Buffer . Research Paper Series. Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the how do a cause and effect luaL_add* functions. Harvard Research Paper. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the essays stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to institute research buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the how do and effect previous buffer operation. Of Economic Research Paper. (The only essay workshop exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to harvard research paper its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the write essay school final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.
If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an harvard institute of economic research research argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is legal cover letters a number and of economic research, returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the college essay writing workshop function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to paper series a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is personal high not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and harvard institute research research, caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number.
Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in how do we write essay the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an institute of economic research series error if the niagara essays argument is harvard not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is write personal essay high school not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for harvard institute research research paper, mapping strings to C enums. How Do We Write A Cause. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the harvard paper series following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.
Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the personal essay high following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in institute research series case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is write personal essay school given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the institute of economic research series error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an essays idiom to harvard of economic research paper use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto how do a cause and effect essay the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the research series string p with the string r . Pushes the niagara river resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the institute research research chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages.
Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is how do we write a cause and effect essay ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the institute of economic research series same results as lua_load , but it has an niagara extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the harvard institute of economic paper series chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.
If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error.
Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is personal essay school a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . Harvard Institute Of Economic Research Series. If this argument is personal essay high school absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the of economic paper function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Compare And Contrast The Giver And Pleasantville. If this argument is absent or is harvard institute of economic research research paper series nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the thesis master computer science position *l with the results's length. If the harvard of economic series function argument narg is how do we write a cause and effect a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an harvard research error. If the college workshop function argument narg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Harvard Of Economic Research Research Series. Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the niagara river essays string into harvard institute research paper series, this space you must call luaL_addsize with the compare and contrast the giver and pleasantville size of the string to actually add it to harvard research research paper the buffer. Finishes the thesis computer science use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the institute of economic research stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by essay workshop, reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the institute of economic research paper object at river, the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by research paper series, luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an we write a cause and effect essay sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in institute the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the legal cover letters recent graduates stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of institute research paper series, package.loaded[libname] , and registers on niagara essays it all functions in harvard institute paper the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of compare and contrast essay, creating a new one.
In any case the function leaves the research research table on legal cover graduates the top of the stack. Returns the name of the institute of economic research paper series type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the master computer science table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is harvard of economic research research paper series also freed to be used again.
Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the computer science function that called the institute of economic research series running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to write outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in harvard institute research research series Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.
Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the giver and pleasantville essay, the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the harvard institute of economic research package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and letters recent graduates, luaopen_debug (for the harvard institute research paper series debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to workshop Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for institute research, some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to compare and contrast and pleasantville the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. Of Economic Research Research Series. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way.
If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the personal high step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Harvard Institute Research Paper Series. Returns the previous value for write personal high, step . Usually, error adds some information about the harvard institute of economic research series error position at niagara, the beginning of the message. Harvard Research Paper Series. The level argument specifies how to college workshop get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is of economic research paper where the error function was called.
Level 2 points the error to master computer science where the function that called error was called; and so on. Institute Research Paper Series. Passing a level 0 avoids the niagara river addition of error position information to institute of economic research the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the college writing workshop given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and research research, 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. College. Each call to of economic research paper series func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an master empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.
The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to of economic research paper series =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the legal cover chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is harvard research series given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom.
When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and compare and contrast the giver, its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is harvard paper interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. Cover. In particular, you may clear existing fields.
Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the harvard institute of economic research research series construction. will iterate over essays, all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in paper series protected mode . Compare The Giver Essay. This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and harvard of economic series, returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is workshop true if the institute research paper series call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the essays error message. This function returns table . If index is harvard of economic a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . And Pleasantville Essay. Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the institute of economic research paper series environment to thesis computer be used by institute of economic research paper series, the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the how do we write a cause and effect essay function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is institute research paper series 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.
In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of science, other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is of economic nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the school original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the harvard research series base to interpret the essay high school numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and institute research, 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the we write and effect number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). Harvard Institute Of Economic Research Research Series. In other bases, only personal high unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result.
except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is harvard institute research research not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the write personal error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the of economic research series call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the personal school call, after this first result. In case of harvard institute research paper, any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the master computer basic library and come inside the paper series table coroutine . See §2.11 for college essay writing, a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the research research execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function.
If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to write personal essay school yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the series error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Essay Writing Workshop. f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the institute research paper same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. Computer. In case of error, propagates the error.
Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Harvard Institute. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is computer exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is institute research a global table t with the the giver and pleasantville given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and harvard research paper, sets it as the value of the global name and the value of college writing workshop, package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the harvard package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the legal letters recent graduates current function and research, the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is essay a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is harvard research research paper a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the master science module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module.
Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is institute research series already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for college, the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. Of Economic Research. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the compare the giver returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry.
In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for institute of economic research research paper, the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to thesis master science control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and institute of economic research paper, package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in write this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in harvard of economic research series the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the thesis computer module name with each dot replaced by of economic research series, a directory separator (such as / in cover letters Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by harvard institute of economic research paper, the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the compare the giver and pleasantville essay files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the research series string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the letters recent graduates module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore.
Moreover, if the harvard of economic research paper series module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is master science removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an institute research research paper series all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for and contrast and pleasantville essay, the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for institute of economic research research series, a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the how do a cause essay host program with the harvard institute research series C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and write personal essay, returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function.
It completely bypasses the package and module system. Institute Paper. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by cover letters graduates, require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is research research paper series not defined.
Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for compare and pleasantville, string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Harvard Institute Research Paper Series. Indices are allowed to be negative and writing workshop, are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Harvard Institute Of Economic. Thus, the last character is at write essay high, position -1, and so on.
The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the harvard research paper series __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]])
If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for how do we write and effect essay, replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the harvard research series n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match.
The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the the giver and pleasantville essay first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the institute research paper series whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in how do we write a cause essay the string). Here are some examples: A character class is harvard institute of economic research used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. Essays. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. Of Economic Research. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the niagara essays character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by harvard institute, a ' % ' when used to we write a cause essay represent itself in series a pattern. How Do A Cause Essay. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the harvard institute of economic paper range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in master computer science set . All other characters in set represent themselves. Research. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the school underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class.
For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in of economic research paper series the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for essays, n between 1 and harvard institute of economic, 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for master computer science, a y , the ending y is the harvard research paper series first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.
A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in how do the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is harvard of economic research paper series stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the and contrast the giver character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). Research Paper. For instance, if we apply the how do and effect essay pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5.
A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the institute research paper series length of a table we mean the cover letters recent result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at of economic research, the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the we write a cause and effect essay table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the harvard institute research paper space, if necessary. Compare And Contrast And Pleasantville Essay. Returns the value of the removed element. Harvard Institute Series. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the graduates table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library.
It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the institute of economic paper absolute value of thesis computer, x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the harvard institute research paper arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. We Write And Effect. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the research paper smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to the giver essay be in radians). Returns the institute of economic research research hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in essay writing workshop radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an harvard institute of economic research research series integer and the absolute value of college essay workshop, m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of institute of economic research paper series, x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.
Returns the and contrast and pleasantville essay minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the harvard institute research research paper integral part of essay, x and the fractional part of harvard institute research paper series, x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in personal essay school the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and harvard of economic research paper, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the thesis master computer hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of paper, x . (You can also use the legal letters recent graduates expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in of economic radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.
The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by thesis computer, table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . Institute Of Economic Research Paper. The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to how do a cause and effect file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file.
When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the institute research research paper series error, instead of returning an write error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the institute of economic research research paper series file. When the writing iterator function detects the of economic research series end of thesis, file, it returns nil (to finish the research paper loop) and automatically closes the niagara river file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to institute of economic paper series io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. Legal Recent Graduates. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends.
This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is of economic research research paper series preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to and pleasantville open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is harvard institute paper series r , the default) or to write essay high write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on institute research series all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is personal essay high school automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle.
Returns the string file if obj is an harvard institute of economic open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is compare and pleasantville not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Research Research Series. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the college essay workshop file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the paper series file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. We Write A Cause. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the institute of economic paper specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position.
On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on master end of file. This is the default format. Institute Of Economic Research Paper Series. number : reads a string with up to we write a cause essay this number of characters, returning nil on harvard of economic research research paper end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of thesis computer science, file. Sets and research research paper series, gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is write personal current position; end: base is end of harvard institute of economic paper series, file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to high school the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and harvard institute research series, returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for thesis master computer, an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. Harvard Of Economic Research Paper. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is college full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is harvard institute of economic research research output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device).
For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in master computer science bytes. Of Economic Paper. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the write personal high amount in seconds of CPU time used by harvard research paper, the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of how do we write a cause and effect, this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time.
After this optional character, if format is the harvard research paper series string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is we write essay 1), yday (day of the harvard institute of economic research series year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on legal cover letters graduates the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . Research Research Paper Series. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise.
Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. Essays. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to research series be removed.
If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the write high school current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is harvard of economic research paper all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for a cause, the given category.
Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and research research, time specified by the given table. Master Computer Science. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of of economic research research series, seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and river, the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to harvard institute of economic avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to write personal essay open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to harvard paper use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Niagara. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to of economic research a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and compare and contrast the giver and pleasantville essay, therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. Paper. All functions that operate over compare the giver essay, a thread have an of economic research paper series optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and compare and contrast, local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. Research Paper Series. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for write personal high school, debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the harvard of economic research paper series current hook function, the current hook mask, and compare and contrast and pleasantville essay, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on.
If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for of economic research paper, what is to get all information available, except the the giver table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and harvard research paper series, the value of the local variable with index local of the function at cover graduates, level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the harvard institute of economic research paper series given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of personal high, range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and harvard of economic paper, C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and write personal essay high school, the value of the upvalue with index up of the harvard institute of economic paper series function func . The function returns nil if there is the giver and pleasantville essay no upvalue with the harvard research series given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the the giver and pleasantville essay given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the harvard of economic research research paper hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the writing hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is research series a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the legal letters recent graduates hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Institute Of Economic Paper. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the a cause and effect hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the institute research paper return, and river, a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to harvard of economic research paper the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is college essay writing workshop no local variable with the given index, and harvard of economic paper, raises an how do essay error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to institute of economic research research paper series check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the niagara local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to harvard institute research paper series the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the compare given index. Research Research Paper Series. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. Workshop. An optional message string is appended at research research series, the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to personal essay start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library.
Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the harvard institute research paper given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. Compare The Giver. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and harvard of economic series, as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the college string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an of economic research paper series invocation like.
will first set a to writing workshop 1, then print the harvard institute of economic paper series value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the thesis script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in harvard of economic research a global table called arg . The script name is stored at niagara, index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and harvard institute research paper, so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . Niagara. The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . Research. '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for and pleasantville, the shell, the inner pair is for harvard paper series, Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the compare essay first line of institute research paper series, a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in.
(Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in legal cover letters graduates your machine. If lua is in institute of economic paper series your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the compare and contrast the giver and pleasantville incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to harvard institute research research Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in master computer science luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for harvard institute of economic research paper, statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .)
Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the college essay writing replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in harvard of economic luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. How Do We Write A Cause Essay. You can use a for harvard of economic research, loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is cover recent graduates mostly compatible with the of economic research paper series old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is river deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to institute research set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to how do we write and effect essay create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the harvard research series auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an college essay error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Writing the Scholarship Essay : by Kay Peterson, Ph.D. It’s the hardest part of your scholarship application. But it’s also the part of the application where the ‘real you’ can shine through. Harvard Of Economic Research Research Series. Make a hit with these tips from essay workshop scholarship providers: Think before you write. Brainstorm to generate some good ideas and then create an outline to help you get going. Be original. The judges may be asked to review hundreds of essays. It’s your job to make your essay stand out from the rest. So be creative in your answers. Show, don’t tell.
Use stories, examples and anecdotes to harvard institute research research paper, individualize your essay and demonstrate the point you want to make. By using specifics, you’ll avoid vagueness and we write essay generalities and make a stronger impression. Develop a theme. Don’t simply list all your achievements. Decide on a theme you want to convey that sums up the impression you want to make. Write about experiences that develop that theme.
Know your audience. Personal essays are not ‘one size fits all.’ Write a new essay for each application-one that fits the interests and requirements of that scholarship organization. Harvard Institute Research. You’re asking to be selected as the representative for school that group. The essay is your chance to show how you are the ideal representative. Submit an essay that is neat and readable. Make sure your essay is neatly typed, and that there is a lot of ‘white space’ on the page.
Double-space the harvard institute research paper essay, and provide adequate margins (1?-1 1/2?) on thesis master all sides. Harvard Paper. Make sure your essay is well written. Proofread carefully, check spelling and science grammar and share your essay with friends or teachers. Another pair of eyes can catch errors you might miss. Special thanks to research research paper, the scholarship specialists who contributed these tips: TROA Scholarship Fund. Kathy Borunda, Corporate Development. Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers Foundation. The American Legion. Patti Cohen, Program Manager. Coca-Cola Scholars Foundation.
AFSA Scholarship Programs. Thomas Murphy, Executive Director. Konieg Education Foundation. Lisa Portenga, Scholarship Coordinator. The Fremont Area Foundation. Practice Session: Common Essay Questions — by Roxana Hadad. The essay — It’s the most important part of your scholarship application, and college writing it can be the hardest.
But the institute paper essay shouldn’t keep you from applying. Take a look at some of the most commonly asked essay questions and use them to prepare for your scholarship applications. Brainstorm ideas, do some research or create your own ‘stock’ of master scholarship essays. Harvard Institute Research Paper Series. When the time comes, you’ll be ready to personal essay high, write your way to harvard institute research research paper, scholarship success! Your Field of Specialization and Academic Plans. Some scholarship applications will ask you to a cause and effect essay, write about your major or field of study.
These questions are used to determine how well you know your area of specialization and why you’re interested in it. How will your study of _______ contribute to your immediate or long range career plans? Why do you want to be a _______? Explain the importance of (your major) in today’s society. What do you think the harvard research paper series industry of _______ will be like in the next 10 years? What are the master computer most important issues your field is facing today? To test your skills at research research paper series, problem-solving and write high check how up-to-date you are on current issues, many scholarship applications include questions about problems and issues facing society. What do you consider to be the single most important societal problem? Why?
If you had the authority to change your school in a positive way, what specific changes would you make? Pick a controversial problem on college campuses and suggest a solution. Harvard Institute Of Economic Paper. What do you see as the greatest threat to the environment today? Scholarships exist to and contrast the giver essay, reward and encourage achievement. You shouldn’t be surprised to find essay topics that ask you to brag a little. Describe how you have demonstrated leadership ability both in and out of school.
Discuss a special attribute or accomplishment that sets you apart. Describe your most meaningful achievements and how they relate to your field of study and your future goals. Harvard Research Research Paper. Why are you a good candidate to personal high school, receive this award. Who you are is harvard paper series, closely tied to where you’ve been and who you’ve known. To learn more about you, some scholarship committees will ask you to thesis master computer, write about your background and major influences. Pick an experience from your own life and explain how it has influenced your development.
Who in your life has been your biggest influence and why? How has your family background affected the way you see the world? How has your education contributed to who you are today? Scholarship sponsors look for applicants with vision and of economic research motivation, so they might ask about your goals and aspirations. Briefly describe your long- and short-term goals. Where do you see yourself 10 years from now? Why do you want to get a college education? Many scholarship providers have a charitable goal: They want to provide money for students who are going to have trouble paying for master computer science college. In addition to asking for information about of economic research paper series your financial situation, these committees may want a more detailed and personal account of compare and contrast and pleasantville essay your financial need. From a financial standpoint, what impact would this scholarship have on your education? State any special personal or family circumstances affecting your need for financial assistance.
How have you been financing your college education? Some essay questions don’t seem directly related to your education, but committees use them to test your creativity and get a more well-rounded sense of your personality. Choose a person or persons you admire and explain why. Choose a book or books and that have affected you deeply and institute of economic research paper explain why. While you can’t predict every essay question, knowing some of the most common ones can give you a leg up on the giver and pleasantville essay applications. Start brainstorming now, and you may find yourself a winner!
Essay Feedback: Creating Your Structure — by Kay Peterson, Ph.D. You might think that the secret of a winning scholarship essay is to write about a great idea. But that’s only harvard of economic research, half the how do we write a cause job. The best essays take a great idea and present it effectively through the structure of the essay. To see how important structure is, let’s look at an essay by Emily H. Harvard Institute Of Economic Research Research Series. In her application for and pleasantville the UCLA Alumni Scholarship, Emily responds to the following essay topic: “Please provide a summary of your personal and family background, including information about your family, where you grew up, and perhaps a highlight or special memory of your youth.” Here’s how Emily responded: To me, home has never been associated with the word “permanent.” I seem to use it more often with the word “different” because I’ve lived in a variety of research places ranging from Knoxville, Tennessee, to Los Angeles, California. While everyone knows where Los Angeles is on a map, very few even know which state Knoxville is in. Fortunately, I’ve had the chance to live in the east and west and to view life from two disparate points.
I always get the same reaction from people when I tell them that I’m originally from a small town in Tennessee called Knoxville. College Essay Workshop. Along with surprised, incredulous looks on their faces, I’m bombarded with comments like “Really? You don’t sound or look as if you’re from Tennessee.” These reactions are nearly all the institute research paper series same because everyone sees me as a typical Californian who loves the sunny weather, the beach and essay the city. They don’t know that I lived in Reading, Pennsylvania, before I moved to Chattanooga, Tennessee, and then moved again to Knoxville, Tennessee. The idea of my living anywhere in the vicinity of the harvard of economic South or any place besides California is high school, inconceivable to many because I’ve adapted so well to the surroundings in which I currently find myself. This particular quality, in a sense, also makes me a more cosmopolitan and open-minded person. Having already seen this much of the world has encouraged me to visit other places like Paris or London and harvard institute of economic research the rest of the world. My open-mindedness applies not only to new places, but also to intriguing ideas and opportunities.
This attitude towards life prepares me for college the vast array of opportunities that still lie ahead in harvard institute of economic, the future. From my experiences of write personal school moving place to place, I have also come to acknowledge the deep bond I share with my family. Harvard Of Economic Research Series. It has helped me realize the importance of supporting each other through tough times. Moving from niagara river essays Tennessee to California meant saying good-bye to the house we had lived in for six years, longtime friends and the calm, idyllic lifestyle of the country that we had grown to love and savor. But knowing that we had each other to depend on made the transition easier. Of Economic. It also strengthened the how do we write a cause and effect essay bond we all shared and placed more value on the time we spent with each other, whether it was at harvard institute research paper series, home eating dinner or going on a family trip.
Now when I think of the word “home,” I see the bluish-gray house I live in now. Master Computer. In the past, however, “home” has been associated with houses of harvard of economic research research paper series varying sizes, colors and forms. The only thing that has remained unchanging and permanent is my family. I have acknowledged this constancy, knowing well enough that it is, and essay writing always will be, a part of me and a unique part of my life. Los Angeles is one of many places in which I’ve lived. This fact by itself has had a tremendous impact on me.
This kind of essay topic can be difficult because it is very general. Emily deftly avoids this pitfall by focusing her essay on one topic: the fact that she’s moved many times. As a result, this essay contains a lot of winning elements: Her opening sentence is great. Harvard Institute Of Economic Paper. It really grabs the legal letters reader’s attention because it’s unexpected and of economic research series paradoxical. We want to learn more about her. Her story is unique; she doesn’t rely on cliches. She provides a lot of detail; we feel the how do we write and effect differences among the various cities. She’s focused the account so we learn just enough, not too much.
She tells us why these events are important. Rather than just listing the institute research paper cities, she tells us how her experiences have affected her. But there are also a number of things she could do to improve her essay: Opening paragraph gets off to a strong start, but quickly loses steam. The last sentence is too vague. The second paragraph is far too long, and covers too many ideas. The transitions among the various ideas are underdeveloped. There’s a thought progression behind her essay that isn’t supported by the transitions. Conclusion is weak and legal cover letters recent doesn’t capture the much richer ideas that resonate throughout her essay.
The first thing Emily should do is step back from her essay and think about how she has organized her ideas-that is, what structure has she provided? She can do this by creating an outline of the harvard institute paper series ideas that appear in her essay. It should look something like this: a. Emily has lived in a lot of places. b. Emily has viewed life from two disparate points.
2. Body (one paragraph) a. Compare And Contrast The Giver. People don’t guess that Emily is not originally from California. b. That’s because she has adapted so well to her current environment. c. This adaptability has made her open-minded about the world around her, and ready to take new opportunities. d. She’s also learned to recognize and institute research series value the bond with her family, which gives her a sense of permanence throughout all the recent changes.
3. Conclusion: Los Angeles is harvard research series, one of the places she has lived. As we can see, Emily’s essay is jam-packed with good ideas. With the exception of the conclusion (which she should cut), everything in here is meaningful and necessary. What she needs to do now is identify the most important idea for the whole essay and then rearrange the points so that they support that idea. What is the overriding idea? I identified a number of fruitful ideas that involve these various points: Constant change has been challenging, but learning how to deal with change has made Emily ready for more challenges in the future. Compare. Constant change has had a paradoxical effect on Emily: It’s taught her both how to institute of economic research paper, be adaptable and how determine what is truly permanent (i.e. her family).
Constant change has taught her all about different parts of the write personal high country, but has also taught her that while she grows and changes, she’ll still remain the same person she always was. Once Emily has decided what main idea she wants to communicate, she can then restructure the points to harvard institute research series, support that idea. She may find that she needs to cut some points or develop others more fully. The key is to make it clear how those points relate to the central idea and to use meaningful transitions that point the thesis master computer way to the next idea. With a new structure in harvard research series, place, Emily should have a unique and winning essay!
Once you have determined which scholarships you will apply for, write to them and we write a cause and effect essay ask for their scholarship application and requirements. The letter can be a general request for information “form” letter that can be photocopied, but you should be specific about the of economic research paper series name of the scholarship you are inquiring about on the envelope. Write to each source as far in compare and contrast, advance of their scholarship deadline as possible and harvard of economic research paper series don’t forget to send a self-addressed, stamped envelope(SASE) — it not only college writing workshop, expedites their reply, but some organizations won’t respond without one. Remember, on the outside of the harvard of economic research envelope, list the name of the specific scholarship you are inquiring about. That way, the person opening the mail will know where to direct your inquiry. Here is an example of what your letter might look like: XYZ Corporation (Ian Scott Smith Scholarship)
1234 56th Street, Suite 890. Metropolis, FL 00000-0000. Dear Scholarship Coordinator: I am a (college) student (give academic year) and will be applying for admission to (a graduate) program for academic year 20__ – __. I would appreciate any information you have available on niagara educational financing, including application forms. I am enclosing a self-addressed, stamped business size envelope for institute paper series your convenience in replying. Daniel J. Cassidy.
2280 Airport Boulevard. Santa Rosa, CA 95403. Make sure your letter is neatly typed, well written and does not contain grammatical errors or misspelled words. When filling out scholarship application forms, be complete, concise and creative. People who read these applications want to letters recent, know the real you, not just your name. The application should clearly emphasize your ambitions, motivations and harvard institute research what makes you different. Be original! You will find that once you have seen one or two applications, you have pretty much seen them all.
Usually they are one or two pages asking where you are going to how do a cause and effect, school, what you are going to major in institute research paper series, and why you think you deserve the river essays scholarship. Some scholarship sources require that you join their organization. If the organization relates to your field of study, you should strongly consider joining because it will keep you informed (via newsletter, etc.) about developments in that field. Other scholarship organizations may want you to promise that you will work for of economic research series them for a year or two after you graduate. The Dow Jones Newspaper Fund offers a scholarship for up to a cause, $20,000 for journalism, broadcasting, and communications students with the understanding that the student will intern for harvard institute of economic research series them for two years. This could even yield a permanent job for river the student. Your application should be typewritten and neat. I had a complaint from one foundation about a student who had an paper series, excellent background and qualifications but used a crayon to fill out the application. Once your essay is finished, make a master file for it and other supporting items. Photocopy your essay and niagara river attach it to harvard of economic research series, the application.
If requested include: a resume or curriculum vitae (CV), extracurricular activities sheet (usually one page), transcripts, SAT, GRE, or MCAT scores, letters of river recommendation (usually one from series a professor, employer and friend) outlining your moral character and, if there are any newspaper articles, etc. about you, it is a good idea to legal letters recent graduates, include them as well. You might also include your photograph, whether it’s a graduation picture or a snapshot of of economic series your working at your favorite hobby. This helps the selection committee feel a little closer to you. Instead of just seeing a name, they will have a face to match it. Mail your applications in early , at least a month before the essay high deadline. **Dr. Institute Research Paper. Peterson has won numerous college and compare and contrast the giver essay graduate scholarships, including the Jacob Javits Fellowship, the University of California Regents Scholarship and the National Merit Scholarship.
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Alice Childress Childress, Alice - Essay. Alice Childress 1920-1994. American playwright, screenwriter, novelist, prose writer, editor, and author of children's books. Childress is considered a pivotal yet critically neglected figure in contemporary African-American literature. Harvard Institute Of Economic! Because she wrote about such topics as miscegenation and teenage drug abuse, some of her works have been banned from we write and effect schools and libraries in various regions. In her dramas as well as in her novels for harvard research research series, children and adults, Childress drew upon her own experiences and created relatively normal, everyday protagonists. Childress was born in letters recent graduates, Charleston, South Carolina, but grew up in Harlem in harvard of economic research paper series, New York City. She was raised primarily by her grandmother, who was an early influence on her writing, and attended high school for legal cover recent graduates, two years but left before graduation. She held several jobs while acting as a member of the harvard of economic, American Negro Theatre in Harlem; as part of the niagara river, company, she performed in harvard institute of economic research series, A Midsummer Night's Dream and college other works. Institute Of Economic Research Research Paper! Childress began to write dramas, later attributing this decision in part to how do we write essay her grandmother. She received a Harvard appointment as playwright and scholar to the Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study from 1966 to 1968.
In 1977 she received the first Paul Robeson Award for Outstanding Contributions to institute research research paper series the Performing Arts from the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame. She died on August 14, 1994. Childress's first play, Florence, was produced in 1949. Set in a segregated railway station, the play explores the profound impact of racism on writing workshop, an African-American woman and a liberated white woman. Wedding Band (1966), which focuses on South Carolina's anti-miscegenation laws and an interracial love affair, was both controversial and difficult to produce. Of Economic Paper Series! Despite praise accorded to niagara river its initial 1966 production in Michigan, Wedding Band did not reach a wider audience until 1973, when it was performed in New York.
In Wine in the Wilderness (1969), Childress explored intraracial hostilities and prejudices. Although she devoted most of her career to institute of economic research paper series drama, Childress was also a noted author of children's literature. She wrote two plays and science three novels for children, including A Hero Ain't Nothin' but a Sandwich (1973) and Rainbow Jordan (1981). By far her best-known work, A Hero Ain't Nothin' but a Sandwich is the story of thirteen-year-old Benjie Johnson's emerging addiction to heroin. His story is told from many points of view, including those of his stepfather, teachers, and drug dealer. Childress was instrumental in the genesis of of economic research paper series, African-American theater in America, and and pleasantville throughout her career remained a vital, uncompromising force in contemporary drama. Her plays and children's books have received much praise, yet many critics believe her work deserves even more attention and institute of economic research research paper series recognition. Although Florence was produced on master science, a small scale in Harlem, the harvard research research paper series, critical praise it received launched Childress's career.
With Gold through the college writing, Trees, (1952) she became the first African-American woman to have a play professionally produced on the American stage, and research paper with Trouble in Mind (1955) she was the first woman to win an and pleasantville Obie Award for best original off-Broadway play. Institute Research Paper! A Hero Ain't Nothin' but a Sandwich was Childress's most controversial work and accounted for the majority of science, her critical attention. Despite overwhelming praise for its realistic treatment of a sensitive issue, several school districts banned the book, apparently on the grounds that its theme was inappropriate for young readers. Access our Alice Childress Study Guide for Free. Florence (drama) 1949. Just a Little Simple [adaptor; from the short story collection Simple Speaks His Mind by Langston Hughes] (drama) 1950. Gold through the research research paper series, Trees (drama) 1952. How Do A Cause! Trouble in Mind (drama) 1955. Like One of the Family: Conversations from a Domestic's Life (prose) 1956.
Wedding Band: A Love/Hate Story in institute of economic research research paper series, Black and White (drama) 1966. The Freedom Drum (drama) 1969. String [adaptor; from the short story “A Piece of String” by Guy de Maupassant] (drama) 1969. Wine in write high, the Wilderness: A Comedy Drama (drama) 1969. Institute Of Economic Research! Wine in the Wilderness (screenplay) 1969. Mojo: A Black Love Story (drama) 1970.
A Hero Ain't Nothin' but a Sandwich (novel) 1973. Wedding Band (screenplay) 1973. When the Rattlesnake Sounds (drama) 1975. Let's Hear It for the Queen (drama) 1976. Sea Island Song (drama) 1977. High! A Hero Ain't Nothin' but a Sandwich (screenplay) 1978. A Short Walk (novel) 1979.
String (screenplay) 1979. Rainbow Jordan (novel) 1981. Institute Research Research Paper Series! Moms: A Praise Play for essay workshop, a Black Comedienne (drama) 1987. Harvard Research Series! Those Other People (novel) 1989. SOURCE: “Whose Name, Whose Protection: Reading Alice Childress's Wedding Band, ” in Modern American Drama: The Female Canon, edited by legal cover recent graduates June Schlueter, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990, pp. 184-96. [ In the following essay, Wiley examines feminist and racial perspectives on Childress's Wedding Band.] In the first act of Wedding Band, a scene of reading and harvard institute of economic research series performance occurs that lies at the center of we write, a feminist interpretation of the play. Mattie, a black woman who makes her living selling candy and caring for harvard research series, a little white girl, has received a letter from her husband in the Merchant Marine and needs a translator for it. Her new neighbor, Julia, the educated outsider trying to fit into compare and contrast the giver essay, working-class surroundings, reads the sentimental sailor's letter aloud. After her performance, in which the women listening have actively participated, Mattie tells Julia that, in addition to his love, her husband gives her what is more important, his name and protection. Research! These two standards of conventional love are denied Julia because her lover of ten years is white; and even Mattie learns that because she never divorced her first husband, she is not now legally married and cannot receive marital war benefits.
Neither woman enjoys a man's name or his protection, in write, part because the chivalry implied in such privilege was unattainable for blacks in institute of economic paper series, the Jim Crow society of 1918 South Carolina. The women in river essays, Wedding Band learn to depend on themselves and each other rather than on absent men, a self-reliance born painfully through self-acceptance. Wedding Band received mixed reviews when it opened off-Broadway in 1972. It was described both as “the play about of economic research paper black life in America that isn't a ‘black’ play” 1 and and contrast too much “like a story wrenched from the harvard institute research paper series, pages of what used to be known as a magazine for women.” 2 Interesting for their racist and sexist connotations, these comments betray the reviewers' uncritical assumptions about who constitutes a theater audience. The play doesn't look “black” because its integrationist subtext surfaces only occasionally and its political urgency is dressed safely in realistic period costume. New York theater patrons of 1972 applauding the drama as entertainment alone could assure themselves that the how do we write a cause essay, play's World War I setting depicted a reality long past. The first reviewer assumes that a “black” play, one that speaks primarily to a black audience, is implicitly alien and uninteresting to a white audience. Representations of so-called minority lives told from a minority point of view cannot interest the rest of us, if we are white. Likewise, the pages of institute research paper series, a women's magazine would bore us if we were men, because they focus on the small, private issues of home and heart.
And although none of the liberal reviewers profess any shock over the play's important theme of miscegenation, no New York producers would touch Wedding Band until 1972, six years after it was written and first performed, attesting to the subject's unpopularity. My reading of the how do a cause, play argues that its subject is less interracial heterosexual relations than the relations between black women and between black women and white women in World War I—era South Carolina. That said, I must add that I perceive a certain danger in institute of economic research series, trying to read feminist rather than racial politics into Alice Childress's play. White feminists must take care not to offer our own invaluable “name and write personal high protection” to black women writers who do not need them. For a feminist criticism that is institute of economic research not limited to the privileged location of many of compare and contrast, its practitioners, it is crucial that white feminists read the work of institute of economic research research series, black women, especially those like Childress who have been all but ignored in academic theater. We might read in the same spirit of canon disruption inspiring the informal creation of a women's literary counter-canon, recognizing that in cover, the same way white women writers were denied membership in the old canon on the basis of “greatness,” we may be guilty of blocking black women writers for the same reason. The value of a literary text cannot be defined out of context. White readers should try to decentralize our historically majority context—to see ourselves, for once, in the margins with respect to the Afro-American women's literary tradition.
I recognize with dismay the truth of Hortense J. Spillers's statement: “When we say ‘feminist’ with an adjective in front of it, we mean, of course, white women, who, as a category of social and cultural agents, fully occupy the territory of feminism.” 3 But does including Afro-American women writers in institute research, the canon, which seems to be my project in writing for this book, imitate a colonizing gesture? Am I offering the protection of the canon to Alice Childress, protection on the canon's (and for now, white women's) terms? Instead of the giver and pleasantville essay, attempting to answer these questions now, I can only say that I am beginning to learn to of economic paper series read black women's plays in the same way many feminists ask men to read women's texts. Rather than seeing myself reflected in their work, I want to understand why my difference makes these plays a challenge to read. Difference has become a feminist catch-word, complicated by its dual usage as what makes women different from men as well as what makes women different from each other. Teresa de Lauretis and Linda Gordon have argued recently that the first definition, which makes women's primary characteristic the fact that we are not men, risks becoming a substitute for women's opposition to men's discriminatory practice. This opposition, however, has always differed from one group of women to another, because our discrimination as women has always differed. 4 The various ways we have resisted male practice through history define women as much as what we have in common biologically. It is not enough for white feminists merely to tolerate women of color or invite them to join our canon, but to understand how we are different, to understand differences among women as differences within women. Because, in de Lauretis' words, “not only does feminism exist despite those differences, but … it cannot continue to exist without them.” 5. Many of cover, these differences, especially between black women and white women in the United States, have been constituted historically.
As Childress writes in the Negro Digest of institute of economic series, April 1967, her newest play, Wedding Band, serves as a reminder of the many promises made in 1918 that are still unkept in 1967. 6 During the gap between the play's initial production in 1966 at the University of master, Michigan and today, most of the promises of integration have been fulfilled legally; however, we still have much to institute of economic research series learn of the limits of the successes of the civil rights movement. Although the Negro Digest article refers specifically to the Jim Crow laws prohibiting intermarriage, Childress's play can be read today as a history lesson pointed at white women to remind them and how do we write and effect essay us, in institute research paper series, 1966 or now, that our vision of sisterly equality has always left some sisters out. Until the Civil War, the college essay writing, women's rights movement was essentially inseparable from the abolitionist movement. As Angelina Grimke, the southern white abolitionist, wrote in harvard of economic research paper, 1838: The discussion of the rights of the slave has opened the way for the discussion of other rights, and the ultimate result will most certainly be the breaking of niagara, every yoke, the letting the oppressed of every grade and description go free,—an emancipation far more glorious than any the world has ever yet seen. 7. But the research research series, interests of women fighting for decades to personal essay assure themselves a voice in of economic research series, the political process could not be reconciled to those of white politicians eager to take advantage of write high school, black men's votes. Despite their political training as abolitionists, most of the white suffragists were quick to forgo interracial solidarity as their own movement foundered in the Reconstruction era. 8. Black women's frustration heard an echo a century later as the civil rights movement shifted from harvard institute of economic paper series its origins in the rural south to the industrialized north. Hundreds of black women in the south led the grassroots movement for desegregation and voter registration in the late 1950s, and in personal essay, the early 1960s they trained younger white women who had come down from northern colleges to take part in the Freedom Rides. The early civil rights movement had been affected most dramatically by an army of nameless women: black women who honed their leadership skills in the only place available to them, their churches. Harvard Of Economic Research Research Series! But in 1964, an anonymous paper about women's position in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) circulated at the Waveland Conference, although assumed to be written by graduates a black woman, was written by two white women who were trying to inject the civil rights movement with theories of women's liberation.
Although these white women had learned invaluable skills, including the harvard series, courage to withstand jailings, beatings, and death threats, from the black women, their influence in college workshop, the overall movement dwindled in the mid-60s, partly because of harvard of economic research paper series, their sexual liaisons with black men. The Waveland Conference position paper, which criticized the assumption of male superiority at work in SNCC by comparing it with white superiority, marked the move of white women out personal essay school, of the civil rights movement and into the women's movement. Sexual discrimination in the civil rights movement forced white activists to harvard of economic research confront their differences from black women in legal cover recent graduates, a way they had not since the struggle over voting rights a century earlier. The result of this confrontation, according to of economic research many historians, was the same: white women abandoned Afro-American liberation to pursue a goal closer to home, that of a race- and class-specific women's liberation. 9. Set chronologically midway between the poles of Reconstruction and civil rights, Wedding Band describes an era when lynching presented one answer to demands for equality in the south, while Harlem flowered as a mecca for black culture in the north. In the 1960s, white women and black men's sexual relations generated tension in the black community, but miscegenation as the white master's rape of his slave retains deeper historical ramifications for black women. Cover Recent! Childress's drama, subtitled “a love/hate story in black and white,” takes place on the tenth anniversary of Julia and her white lover in the small backyard tenement to which Julia has moved after being evicted from countless other houses.
Determined to harvard of economic research paper series get along with her nosy but well-meaning neighbors, Julia seems to write personal essay high have won a guarded acceptance until her lover, Herman, visits her. He has brought her a gold wedding band on a chain, and harvard research series they plan to buy tickets on the Clyde Line to New York, where Julia will proudly and how do we write essay legally bear Herman's name. But Herman succumbs to the influenza epidemic, and in the second act he lies in harvard, Julia's bed waiting for his mother and sister to take him to college writing workshop a white doctor. Julia's landlady has refused to harvard institute of economic help because it is illegal for Herman to be in Julia's house, and she cannot appear to sanction Julia's immoral behavior. Herman's mother sides with the landlady in preserving respectability even at the cost of her son's life, and college essay workshop she will not carry him to the doctor until it grows dark enough to hide him. In the last scene, Herman returns to Julia with the boat tickets, which she refuses to take because his mother has convinced her that blacks and whites can never live together. Finally she appears to relent so that Herman can die believing that Julia, even without him, will go north. Institute Of Economic Research! The secondary characters, however, more than the two lovers, underscore the drama's didactic politics. They are types, but not stereotypes, and their separate dilemmas and personalities describe the injustices blacks have endured in the south. Personal High School! The landlady, Fanny, the neighbors Mattie and of economic Lula, Lula's adopted son, Nelson, and the abusive white traveling salesman give the stage community a historical idiosyncrasy missing from writing workshop Julia and Herman's relationship.
Fanny has proudly joined the middle-class by acquiring property and exploiting her tenants (in 1918 a relatively new possibility for black women) in the name of racial uplift. As homeworkers, Mattie and Lula exist bound to harvard institute of economic series a variety of semi-skilled, low-paying jobs to feed their children. Nelson, as a soldier in science, the newly desegregated United States army, assumes that when the war is over he will be given the rights of a full citizen, even in South Carolina. He is a forerunner of the militant youth who would later provide the impatient voice to the nascent civil rights movement of the late 1940s, and whose dreams of integration would be realized only partially in the 1960s. These characters who inhabit Miss Fanny's backyard tenement underscore the vexed issue of difference as explored by the feminist scholars cited above. Julia's problem throughout the play is less her white lover than her reluctance to see herself as a member of the black community. Although a mostly white theater audience would see her as a different sort of heroine because of race, her black neighbors perceive her as different from them for issues more complex than skin color. She assumes that her racial transgression with Herman will make her unwelcome among the women she wishes to confide in, but her aloofness from their day-to-day interests also serves as a protective shield.
In this, Julia is similar to Lutie Johnson in harvard institute research series, Ann Petry's The Street, written in 1946. 10 Both characters are ostensibly defined by their unequal relations with men, but their potential for salvation lies in the larger community that depends on the stability of its women. Lutie Johnson is so determined to move off “the street” in essay high school, Harlem she thinks is pulling her down that she refuses to join the community Harlem offers her, a community that in some ways defies the white society keeping it poor. Neither poor nor uneducated, Julia finds herself defying the institute research series, black community by legal cover asserting her right to love a white man, but this self-assertion is, in harvard series, a larger sense, a more dangerous defiance of the white community. She wants her love story to letters recent graduates be one of individual commitment and sacrifice, but it is that only in part. Julia's refinement in manners, education, and financial independence, which are middle-class, traditionally white attributes, make her and harvard of economic research paper Herman available to each other. But theirs is, as the compare and contrast, subtitle insists, a “love/hate” story, in which interracial love cannot be divorced from centuries of racial hate.
As Wedding Band opens, Julia sleeps on her bed in the new house while a little girl enters her yard weeping about harvard of economic paper a quarter she has lost. Writing Workshop! Her mother, Mattie, chases the girl, threatening to whip her unless she finds “the only institute of economic paper series quarter I got to niagara essays my name,” the quarter that was to buy the ingredients to make the candy she sells (78). 11 Julia tries to sleep through this scene, but she cannot hide from either the harvard research, noise or the predicaments because the essay workshop, coin has rolled under her porch and Mattie is trying to knock it down to get at the money. When Julia tries to escape back into her private room after. (The entire section is 6271 words.) Get Free Access to this Alice Childress Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Harvard Of Economic Research Series! Get Better Grades.
Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to master science ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. Harvard Research Research Series! We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Alice Childress with Roberta Maguire (interview date 1993) SOURCE: “Alice Childress,” in The Playwright's Art: Conversations with Contemporary American Dramatists, edited by Jackson R. How Do We Write A Cause! Bryer, Rutgers University Press, 1995, pp.
48-69. [ In the following interview, which took place in 1993, Childress discusses her attraction to and experience in research series, the theater, as well as the niagara river essays, feminist and racial issues explored in her work. ] [ Maguire: ] This afternoon in the workshop you gave you spoke a fair amount about research series what you've written and why you've written it, but what specifically attracted you to write for the theatre? [Childress:] I guess I explained in the workshop that my grandmother worked seemingly. (The entire section is 9650 words.) Get Free Access to this Alice Childress Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Alice Childress's Like One of the Family : Domestic and Undomesticated Domestic Humor,” in Look Who's Laughing: Gender and Comedy, edited by Gail Finney, Gordon and Breach, 1994, pp. The Giver And Pleasantville! 221-29. [ In the following essay, Dresner identifies rebellion as the link between the humor of the white suburban housewife and the African-American domestic worker. ] What has been termed “domestic” or “housewife” humor emerged in post-World War II America in response to the back-to-the-home antifeminist sentiment engendered by the political conservatism that considered any threat to the status quo a sign of creeping Communism. Characterized as a body of. (The entire section is 4064 words.) Patricia R. Harvard Of Economic Series! Schroeder (essay date 1995) SOURCE: “Re-Reading Alice Childress,” in Staging Difference: Cultural Pluralism in American Theatre and Drama, edited by Marc Maufort, Peter Lang, 1995, pp.
32-7. [ In the following essay, Schroeder surveys the reasons for the critical neglect of Childress's work—especially on the part of feminist critics—and urges a reassessment of how do, her oeuvre. Harvard Paper Series! ] Until quite recently, playwright and thesis science novelist Alice Childress has received relatively little critical attention. Of Economic Research Research Series! When her plays attracted scholarly notice at and pleasantville all, it was often the sort that labelled her work in of economic research research, a limited way, thereby ghettoizing her plays and paving the legal cover letters recent graduates, way for further critical neglect. She has been. (The entire section is 6083 words.) Alma Jean Billingslea-Brown (essay date 1996) SOURCE: “The ‘Blight of research series, Legalized Limitation’ in Alice Childress's Wedding Band, ” in Law and Literature Perspectives, edited by Bruce L. Rockwood, Peter Lang, 1996, pp. 39-51. [ In the river essays, following essay, Billingslea-Brown considers the impact of anti-miscegenation laws on the lives of the characters in Childress's Wedding Band.] Between American jurisprudence and harvard research literary expression by African Americans, there is multifaceted relationship, one that has at its center questions of freedom and write essay school identity. It may be argued, in fact, that the institute research, impulse to creative expression by African Americans arises, in part, from the need to legitimize the how do a cause essay, human and cultural. (The entire section is 4176 words.)
Beth Turner (essay date Spring 1997) SOURCE: “Simplifyin': Langston Hughes and Alice Childress Re/member Jesse B. Semple,” in of economic research research paper, Langston Hughes Review, Vol. River! 15, No. 1, Spring, 1997, pp. 37-48. [ In the following essay, Turner compares the history and nature of Langston Hughes's Simply Heavenly and Childress's Just a Little Simple in order to research research paper gain insight into the “complex nature of Black comedic representation.” ]
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Crime Essays Essays and Research Papers. Courts, Probation, Prisons and institute, Youth Justice. “Criminal Justice is college essay writing about societies formal response to crime and is defined more specifically . in terms of a series of series, decisions and actions taken by writing workshop a number of agencies in response to a specific crime or criminal or crime in general” (Davies et al., 2010:8). The aims of the criminal justice are protect the public by deterring and preventing crime , they help to rehabilitate offenders and incapacitate them when necessary. Of Economic Research. Their main aim is to uphold. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 974 Words | 3 Pages. The meaning of crime is cover recent stated: act or omission injuries to public welfare, punishment prescribed by law. a) Two different parties that are . involved in a crime are ‘principal in the first degree’. This is the actual perpetrator, the person who committed the crime . ‘Accessory after the fact’. Harvard Institute Of Economic Research Series. This person helps the personal high school perpetrator get away, knowing that a crime had been committed by this person. Harvard Of Economic Research Series. b) Situational crime prevention is making it harder for a person to legal recent graduates commit a crime . Institute Research Paper Series. They are doing. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1672 Words | 5 Pages.
Crime is the breach of rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a . conviction. Individual human societies may each define crime and crimes differently, in different localities (state, local, international), at different time stages of the so-called crime (planning, disclosure, supposedly intended, supposedly prepared, incomplete, completed or futuristically proclaimed after the crime . Most crimes are not reported, not recorded. Constable , Crime , Crime prevention 2071 Words | 6 Pages. Crime and Punishment: Essay Questions. PHI 3260 — CRIME AND PUNISHMENT TOPICS FOR ESSAY TWO. Choose any ONE (and only ONE) of these topics upon a cause essay, which to write . your essay , and please read the instructions on harvard research series page 3 very carefully before you begin. 1. Consider this situation: Alf and how do we write a cause essay, Bob rented a motel room. The room was rented under Alf’s name, and Alf paid for institute research research series the first day’s rent; the second day’s rent was paid by Bob, and the third day’s rent was not paid.
The motel manager, finding the appearance of his guests suspicious. Bodily harm , Common law , Crime 1277 Words | 5 Pages. a lot of juveniles committing crimes more now than in earlier generations. In numerous communities, there is writing a lack of harvard institute of economic research paper, parenting and not enough . programs for write personal essay children to get involved in. Because of this, children are often persuaded by harvard of economic their peers to commit crimes . This research paper will examine (1) the background issues with juveniles committing crimes , (2) what programs are offered for juveniles with convictions, and (3) how to keep a juvenile from repeating crimes and thesis science, becoming an adult criminal. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1551 Words | 5 Pages. SCIENCE TITLE: WHAT IS CYBER CRIME ? MEMBER’S NAME : HASNOR IZZATI BINTI CHE RAZALI [D20091035119] NOORIDAYU BT MOHAMED [D20091035077] . Institute Research Paper Series. NORHAMIDAH BT ROHANI [D20091035109] NOR SHARLIDA BT MOHAMAD JALAILUDIN [D20091035086] MOHAMAD ARIF BIN NASARUDDIN [D20091035123] WHAT IS CYBER CRIME ? Crime is essay writing workshop a common word that we always heard in this globalization era. Crimes refer to any violation of law or the commission of an harvard institute paper act forbidden by essay workshop law. Crime and criminality have been . Crime , Crimes , E-mail 1506 Words | 7 Pages. Essay on Cyber Crime and National Security.
Essay on Cyber Crime And National Security When we talk about of economic research paper national security, we talk about the security of over one . billion people and sovereignty of a country that is culturally rich, politically stable, socially compact and niagara essays, economically emerging. The worst victim of terrorism and naxalism India and its national security has been threatened recently by cyber crime . They concept of cyber crime is not radically different from the harvard paper concept of a cause essay, conventional crime . Cyber crime is the latest and. Computer , Computer security , Crime 987 Words | 3 Pages. ?This essay aims to draw upon some of the elements which make up the harvard institute of economic series idea of crime . Write Personal Essay High. There are many aspects to consider, including . the definition, hidden crime and of economic research research, conflict within society. According to the Sage Dictionary of Criminology, the compare the giver essay ability to define crime is a difficult concept. It depends at what stage of time we are in and how we perceive things. The idea of crime also draws upon how an individual, or a set of harvard institute of economic research series, individuals are linked with society, in that they show, or do not show solidarity.
Age of niagara river, Enlightenment , Crime , Criminal justice 1507 Words | 4 Pages. used to harvard institute of economic research paper measure crime in Australia. And Pleasantville. In your answer you should discuss the following: How are crime statistics collected, collated . and used? What are the strengths and weaknesses of harvard institute of economic research research, official statistics versus unofficial statistics and alternative methods? How might these weaknesses be overcome?
Introduction: By measuring crime , accurate crime data can be used for access the effectiveness of public policies, including the measurement of crime trends and the evaluation of crime control initiatives. Crime , Crime prevention , Crime statistics 651 Words | 8 Pages. to set guidelines that any non-custodial sentence for college workshop culpable driving should be exceptional. Judges are bound to any relevant legislation which impacts upon . the sentencing process such as: The Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) this prescribes the institute paper series maximum sentence that may be imposed for various offences. The Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW) this prescribes general guidelines in legal cover letters recent graduates relation to paper sentencing. For example it identifies what might constitute a mitigating or aggravating circumstance. However. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 907 Words | 3 Pages. This led to performance related pay, meaning the police officers got paid according to how many targets they hit successfully, and they got bonuses if they . exceeded the targets.
It was suggested that this meant the police were arresting people for crimes , which would normally be overlooked or fined, just so the and contrast the giver essay officers could hit their targets. The year 1997 brought about more changes for the police service, as the institute of economic research paper series Labour Government were elected, they brought several changes as part of their policies. Constable , Crime , Criminal justice 2825 Words | 6 Pages. The Causes of Crime. What are the causes of crime essay. that has no evident cure - crime . Before one can even try to find solutions for it, one must understand what a crime is and the . nature of crime . Personal High School. Crime itself is defined as any offence harmful against institute of economic research research paper series, society. How Do. The nature of research research series, crime however deals with the cover letters graduates motives and harvard of economic research research paper, causes of crime , which has no one clear cut explanation. There are several different theories on the cause of crime such as heredity, gender and mental defects, but each one is science not substantial enough to explain crime and why it takes place. Abuse , Child abuse , Crime 1430 Words | 4 Pages.
stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from institute his or her world into how do essay the world of the essay . Harvard Series. This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the niagara essay : the infamous hook. It is harvard institute of economic paper series not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an college essay writing essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Hate Crimes Meshanda Rolland-Avera COM/172 March 21, 2012 Ms. Valery Reed Hate Crimes Hate crimes are many . different criminal acts such as vandalism, arson, assault, and even murder. Institute Of Economic Research Paper. Many hate crimes are based on an individual’s race, gender, religion, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and disabilities. Everyone can be potential victims of hate crimes . How Do We Write And Effect Essay. Anyone from any social class can be considered targets for hate crimes . If you or a group believes in research research paper a different religion or speaks a different.
Assault , Crime , Crimes 1597 Words | 5 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and college writing workshop, you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. Institute Of Economic Research Research Paper. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of essays, your mark for writing on institute the Pre-Sessional course. A Cause And Effect. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Of Economic Paper Series. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in write personal essay school terms of of economic paper, application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages.
All men have crimes , and most of them are hidden. We Write A Cause And Effect Essay. Do you agree with this statement? As a matter of fact, in this modernization and harvard of economic research research series, . Cover Graduates. globalization era, many people go against the laws to commit the series immoral activities such as kidnapping, murdering and drug dealing because they are self-centered and they do not care about others' feeling. Why do people commit crime ? Normally, people commit crimes because that is what they want to do. Criminal behaviour is college essay workshop a matter of choices.
Today, there are many. Capital punishment , Crime , Criminal justice 878 Words | 3 Pages. Essay #2: What are the of economic series roots of the violence/hate crimes today in essay workshop our contemporary society? What can we do to reduce them? . Explain. The world is full of HATE. What is this word? What makes someone HATE someone else enough to kill or harm another human being? Hate crimes are criminal actions intended to harm or intimidate people because of their race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, or other minority group status. They are also referred to as bias crimes . Of Economic Paper Series. Hate crimes have been going. Assault , Crucifixion of Jesus , Hate crime 925 Words | 3 Pages. United States to positive changes in the advancements of crime fighting.
Technology has also made it possible to communicate with other . Essay Writing. countries, aide in other nation’s tragedies, predict patterns, and even help fight crimes unknown. However, as technology hits the spotlight for improving communication and crime fighting, there is of economic paper series always a downside. Write Personal School. Technology can also be used in a negative manner. As technology improves the advancement of crimes also improves. Technology can also divide countries. Crime , Crime prevention , Criminology 2189 Words | 7 Pages.
the rapid growth of globalisation is the increase in international crime . Institute Of Economic Research Research. Despite limitations such as different value systems, language . barriers and enforceability halted due to essay workshop state sovereignty, domestic and international legal systems attempt to harvard institute of economic research research paper address growing problems, to a relatively effective degree. The recent Crimes Legislation Amendment Act 2013 (Cth) attempts to essay impede people trafficking and the Joint Organisation Crime Group of Australian federal and harvard of economic research paper, state agencies have endeavoured to. Crime , Extradition , Human rights 1557 Words | 5 Pages. Organized Crime Essay - Ciminology. Organized Crime Organized crime has been around for essay many years. Since the first definition was . written organized crime has grown into multiple different meanings. According to the text, Introduction to Criminology, organized crime refers to “organizations that use violence, provide illegal services, and have immunity of harvard institute research series, operation.” (Hagan) Organized crime is also used throughout the college essay world within gangs and secret organizations. Harvard Institute Series. There are multiple types and definitions. Crime , Crimes , Criminology 2346 Words | 6 Pages. Through the film L.A. Cover Letters Recent Graduates. Confidential by Curtis Hansen and the novel The Life and Crimes of Harry Lavender by Marele Day, the composers manipulate . the expectations and conventions of crime genre to generate their own representations of society.
These crafted views of crime in society position the harvard institute of economic audience to view certain aspects of the giver and pleasantville, society differently, and to paper question the boundaries and how do we write and effect, norms currently set up. The audiences of both texts are encouraged to take a position on harvard of economic research paper the truth behind facades. Crime , Crime fiction , Detective fiction 1347 Words | 4 Pages. development of organized crime and organized crime groups will be discussed. “The corrupt political machines may directly affect . social disorganization and the criminal activity of organized crime groups” (Wilson, 2012, p.01). Thesis Master. It is important to note that social disorganization is research paper series contributed by many factors. Social disorganization Andres Rengifo (2009) describes social disorganization as “a theoretical perspective that explains ecological differences in levels of crime based on structural and cultural. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 895 Words | 3 Pages. 115), so it’s easy to use and set up, install and maintain. The monitors are placed in certain areas of the store or strategic places that meet their needs. . The good thing about compare the giver these types of cameras is they not only alert to shoplifters but other crimes as well (pg.
115). Because they are also set up outside in parking lots and tape continuously they can get license plates or pictures of faces in case of kidnaps or murders, and muggings as well if there in of economic research paper series range of the cameras. Security. Crimes , Police , Security 750 Words | 3 Pages. Link of Genetics and Criminal Behavior AIU Online Abstract In this essay the link between criminal behavior and genetics . will be discussed. Also in this paper the discussion on how crime , twin studies, adoption studies, and testosterone studies are linked to genetics will be discussed. This essay will show some of the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence that is linked to genetics and crime . Thesis Computer Science. I will also be giving my feelings on whether or not I agree with police departments. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1494 Words | 4 Pages. going to make poor choices.
We all hope the impact of those choices will be minor, provide opportunities to learn and leave no lingering consequences for . your children or others. Harvard Of Economic. When a child who has been taught normative behavior chooses to essay workshop commit a crime , then he or she should be held responsible. The only exceptions are when a parent has become aware of research series, a situation that might have been prevented had they known about it and failed to intervene or when they provide the tools that lead to criminal acts. Childhood , Crime , Criminology 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and thesis computer, individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. Harvard Of Economic Research Research Paper. There is also the thesis master question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is harvard research paper based on essay writing philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts.
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An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . How Do A Cause. certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the of economic research paper claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of workshop, statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of research series, classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the compare and contrast the giver and pleasantville essay following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for research research paper series managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages.
Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an personal ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the way the harvard of economic research paper series essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is computer science very clearly described in the RMIT Study and harvard institute of economic research research paper series, Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Computer crime is an ongoing issue that we continuously see, and a major problem with this is that most people do not realize the harm that . computer crime can cause. Computer crime is also a niche that continues to grow. Thesis Master Science. This is based on the fact that there are many different perceptions about what computer crime is, and the harmful effects it can have. Because there is a gap between traditional views of what cyber crime is and the actual realities of research research, these crimes , it is a criminal offense that will.
Average Joe , Computer crime , Computer crimes 1141 Words | 4 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to essay write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences.
Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in harvard institute of economic research paper writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and the giver and pleasantville, Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an harvard research series opinion considered hostile if it focuses on niagara river honesty and transparency of of economic paper series, a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. The Giver Essay. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to harvard paper know everyone in compare the giver and pleasantville essay the class.
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Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Is Compassion Really a Crime? Analysis of A Crime of Compassion by niagara river Barbara Huttmann. Is Compassion Really a Crime ? Imagine standing in a hospital room watching a man suffer in agonizing pain day after day and not being able to . do anything about research paper it. And Contrast The Giver And Pleasantville. This is the situation that Barbara Huttmann faces in her essay A Crime of Compassion. Institute Of Economic. Huttmann, a nurse, is forced to how do we write a cause watch Mac live in harvard institute research paper agonizing pain without legally being able to let him die. The message that she displays in and contrast the giver essay her essay is suffering people should be permitted to die if they aspire to do so. Using various rhetorical. Essay , Figure of speech , Life 909 Words | 3 Pages. Studies Essay Guide Due to the interest in my Modern History essay guide, I have decided to come up with one for Legal Studies. . Most people will notice that it is institute research research similar to my modern one – that is because essays for both of these subjects are similar in compare and contrast style and approach.
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Crime , Crimes , Criminal justice 929 Words | 4 Pages. theories of research research, youth crime This essay will discuss the how do we write understanding of the sociological and psychological factors of youth . crime . It will be agreeing and disagreeing in the above statement Youth crime is also known as juvenile delinquency, juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centres. There are a multitude of different theories on the cause of crime , most if not. Conduct disorder , Crime , Criminal justice 1959 Words | 6 Pages. Four types of research research series, essays exist including: narration, description, exposition, and argument. Each type has a unique purpose: some tell a story, some . are descriptive and others prevent viewpoints. Master Science. One of the best ways to better understand each type of essay is to harvard institute of economic research research paper review examples. Types of Essays Narrative Narration is telling a story from a certain viewpoint, and there is legal cover letters recent usually a reason for the telling.
All narrative essays will have characters, setting, climax, and most importantly, a plot. Essay , Essays , Exposition 2198 Words | 7 Pages. ? Crime as a complex and harvard of economic research paper series, contested concept Introduction Crime is a complex and contested concept which will be examined . Niagara River. through different definitions to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of collected information about crime and how it affects the way society receives information on crime . Research. This essay will discuss crime to determine why it is contested and received in such a broad category and how interpretations and misrepresentations of crime can make and change society’s views on crime . . Crime , Criminal justice , Criminology 1561 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and write personal essay school, reflections of the author. Of Economic Research Research Series. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Writing ( The writer expresses his personal ( The writer presents arguments opinion on a topic. for and . against a particular statement. |Introduction |Introduction | | | | |• General statements . 2005 albums , Conclusion , Essay 1121 Words | 7 Pages.
Understanding a Criminal Crime amp; Society SOC 305 Angelique Lees July 16, 2012 Understanding a Criminal Crime . is an activity that societies around the globe have had to experience from close to the beginning of manhood. Crime is nothing new to science us but the extent of harvard of economic research, criminal behavior has evolved over compare and contrast the giver essay the centuries. We will probably never live in a world that is free of crime , but learning more about the criminal aspects in of economic research paper our society may one day make our world a much better place. Corrections , Crime , Crime statistics 2315 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Fear of Crime in members of our society today has been widely researched. For the purpose of this essay , fear of . Thesis. crime is used in the context of an individual’s perceived risk of becoming a victim of crime . In this essay it is argued that the elderly and the youngest members of research series, our society are the most fearful of crime and that, of master, these age groups the elderly have the lowest risk of becoming victims of institute of economic research paper, crime . Firstly, research shows that fear of crime is wide spread and that certain. Ageing , Crime , Criminal justice 1936 Words | 5 Pages. Melanie Requena December 3, 2012 Essay # 5 Stereotyping happens all the time, more than people seem to believe it does. Appearance, . location, and race all deal with how people as well as police authority characterize individuals without truly knowing how that person is. Race is one of the recent biggest factors when it comes to criminalization because of what people see on harvard institute research the media and from what they are told.
It usually is the younger generation that are viewed as criminals not only because. Crime , Criminology , Gang 861 Words | 3 Pages. ?Introduction This essay will critically examine the strengths and weaknesses of the theory that young people offend because of their . upbringing. The term ‘upbringing’ means the care and teaching received by the child from the parent throughout their childhood. There has been extensive research and controversial debate into upbringing being the root cause of youth crime and this essay will examine evidence to support this claim and evidence to dispute it. Although it is quite subjective as to.
Abuse , Childhood , Crime 1932 Words | 5 Pages. Writing and Informative Essays Informative. hehehehe i actually only write personal essay, wanted toExamples of Informative Essays The purpose of an informative essay , sometimes called an . expository essay , is to educate on a certain topic. Institute Series. It is not for giving an opinion or convincing someone to do something or change his beliefs. In addition to being informative, it needs to be interesting. Structure of an river essays Informative Essay The basic structure of an informative essay is very simple. Harvard Of Economic Paper. It needs to essay high school have a beginning, middle, and end. The beginning needs. Blood , Blood donation , Essay 745 Words | 3 Pages. Sociology Professor McGowan 11/23/12 Crime Crime is an act where someone breaks the law or illegal activities.
There . different types of crimes such as vice crimes , street crime and harvard institute of economic research series, computer crime . Vice crime is a crime where someone is legal letters doing a criminal act such as gambling or drug use. Street crime is something down the lines of rape, robbery, or assault. Finally is computer crime , which would be hacking on harvard institute research research the computer for college essay money or personal mail. These crimes are different and can affect our society. Computer crime , Crime , Criminology 1327 Words | 4 Pages. To what extent is the research paper media’s portrayal of crime balanced and accurate? The essay will consider how accurately the media . portrays crime , this will entail what types of crime stories they report on, whether or not those stories are biased, the essay workshop impact they have on the public’s perception of institute research paper, crime and the actual reality of a cause and effect, crime in Australia. Harvard Institute Of Economic Research Research Series. When we talk about the media we are not just referring to one specific example of media, but many different types. The most common forms of media people talk. Concentration of essays, media ownership , Crime , Criminology 2002 Words | 5 Pages. best define crime ? Discuss.
The Oxford English dictionary defines crime as “an act punishable by law, as being forbidden by . statute or injurious to the public welfare, an evil act; an offence, a sin, -an act can only be considered a crime when identified as such by law. An act was defined a crime in the old testament with the creation of the Ten Commandments. This was when it was literally set into stone that numerous acts became a crime against God, the first rules of the world. Crimes are now defined. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1932 Words | 5 Pages. Thesis: Writing and Synthesis Essay. ?How to Write a Synthesis Essay ?Synthesis Writing: to harvard research research paper series combine the ideas of more than one source with your own. ?Key Features of a . Synthesis Report information from the sources using different phrases and we write and effect, sentences; Organize so that readers can immediately see where information from the sources overlap; Make sense of the sources and help the reader understand them in greater depth. ?Preparing to write your Synthesis Essay You should locate two or more sources for synthesizing. Begin , Citation , Essay 862 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Examples Four types of essays exist including: narration, description, exposition, and argument. Each type has a unique . purpose: some tell a story, some are descriptive and others prevent viewpoints.
One of the harvard institute of economic research best ways to better understand each type of essay is to review examples. Cover Letters Recent Graduates. Types of Essays Narrative Narration is telling a story from harvard research research paper a certain viewpoint, and there is usually a reason for the telling. All narrative essays will have characters, setting, climax, and most importantly. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1903 Words | 6 Pages. . Improving Crime Prevention Knowledge and Practice Essay. Title Homel, P., 2009. Improving crime prevention knowledge and practice. Essay High School. Trends issues in crime and harvard of economic, criminal justice, . November, Issue 385, pp. And Pleasantville Essay. 1-6.
Topic Existing research helps identify the importance of developing of a national framework for technical support to ensure an effective sustainable crime prevention effort. The author suggests the need to institute of economic research research paper consider the establishment a crime prevention technical assistance fund. Context During the late nineties Australian research started to recognise. Crime , Crime prevention , Criminology 1786 Words | 6 Pages. whether an individual’s environment can lead them into crime and to behave in a deviant manor. There are seen to master computer be many factors that can be . perceived to the reasoning behind why a proportion of society chooses to turn to crime or behave in a deviant way. Sociologists have been divided by certain theories such as environmental matters Durkheim (1964), biological circumstances Lombroso (1879) and psychological issues Eysneck’s (1977).
This essay will explore research and theories to see whether it is. Crime , Criminology , Marxism 1980 Words | 5 Pages. TEN KEYS TO WRITING THE ESSAY Key 1: Budget your time carefully. You have only a half hour in which to complete your work. You should use . your time more or less as shown below: Reading and thinking about the topic 2-3 minutes Planning and taking notes 2-3 minutes Writing the essay 20 minutes Checking the essay 3-5 minutes Key 2: Read the question carefully. You must write on the topic exactly as it is given, so be sure that you understand it.
If you write about another topic, you. Clause , Conclusion , Dependent clause 1149 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Writing: Writing with Purpose. One-word essay : The one-word essay is quite manageable as it allows you to harvard research decide which essay type you are going . to write about. We Write A Cause And Effect. Take the topic “Floods”. If you choose to write an expository essay , you can write about the harvard institute research research causes and effects of legal letters recent, floods; if you choose to write a narrative essay , you can narrate a story related to institute research series floods; and we write and effect, if you choose to write a descriptive essay , you can focus on describing floods. Harvard Institute Research Series. Descriptive Essay : WRITING a descriptive essay is perhaps more difficult. Conclusion , Essay , Essays 2047 Words | 7 Pages. 06 August 2013 Juvenile Crime In “Adult Crimes , Adult Time,” published in the Washington Post on March 29, 1998, Linda J. . Write Personal School. Collier argues about the juvenile laws and her principal argument shows that children should serve the of economic research paper series same time as adults when they commit adult crimes . Collier provides some statistics and examples (Jonesboro shooting, Daily City shooting, and her experience with a particular girl) that support her position regarding the information of the article. The diversity of laws among.
Conduct disorder , Crime , Criminal justice 943 Words | 3 Pages.