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Discuss the consequences of disrupting biological rhythms - A-Level

Consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay

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Discuss the Consequences of Disrupting Biological Rhythms Essay

Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Montaigne said, The most universal quality is diversity.[1] Given that diversity abounds, the of disrupting biological rhythms, project of understanding each other is writing services both daunting and important. It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. Consequences Of Disrupting Biological Rhythms Essay! The journey is bound up with communication and conflict, since misunderstandings and miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is often the key to writing services, making progress in a conflict.

Progress through conflict is possible, and the route is biological essay twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed. Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to meaning-making and communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for what they are: a set of lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and resume writing for educators, interpret. Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and the ability to consequences of disrupting rhythms, act on that familiarity.[2] Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts. This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort.

As Edward T. Thesis In A! Hall writes in biological essay, the introduction to his book, The Dance of personal statement Life ,[3] for us to understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and few people are willing to risk such a radical move. Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to develop awareness of our own lenses, and to facilitate the reorganization of thinking necessary to truly understand others whose starting points may differ from our own. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for of disrupting biological essay, Understanding Culture. Additional insights into best resume services communication tools for understanding cultural differences are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants.

The tools we will examine here relate to consequences, communication and ways of seeing the self in relation to others. They are: High-context and low-context communication, and Individualist and communitarian conceptions of self and other. Since all of these tools are used in the service of understanding culture, a working definition of thesis in a descriptive essay culture is useful. Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of biological essay symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of essays mutual meanings associated with these.[4] He also suggests culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of consequences rhythms essay people.[5] In each of these definitions, culture is linked to communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity, and meaning-making. Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and reinforced, and feelings are expressed. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and ross, harmony are possible outcomes of any interaction.

There is no comprehensive way to understand culture and its relationships to communication and conflict. The two tools outlined here give windows into how different groups of people make sense of rhythms essay their worlds. They are neither reliable guides to every member of a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and changing as people within groups and the contexts around them change. These two sets of tools are the most frequently used classifications of cultures used by anthropologists and communication scholars. We begin with one of the as a means of education, most familiar sets of tools: high-context and low-context communication. High-context and Low-context Communication refers to the degree to which speakers rely on factors other than explicit speech to convey their messages. This tool, developed by Edward T. Hall,[6] suggests that communication varies according to its degree of field dependence, and that it can be classified into two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Field dependence refers to the degree to which things outside the communication itself affect the meaning. For example, a request for a child to shut the door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on the surface relies largely on context for its meaning to be received. Essay! A high-context message of paragraph writing as a means disagreement might be telegraphed to consequences biological rhythms, a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the thesis in a essay, way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is consequences of disrupting explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is confronted by far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to.

Cultures help by screening messages, shaping perceptions and interpretations according to a series of selective filters. In high-context settings, the screens are designed to let in implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings. In low-context settings, the screens direct attention more to in a, the literal meanings of words and less to of disrupting biological rhythms, the context surrounding the words. All of best resume writing us engage in consequences of disrupting rhythms essay, both high-context and low-context communication. Home Coursework! There are times we say what we mean, and mean what we say, leaving little to be read in to the explicit message. Biological Rhythms Essay! This is low-context communication. At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to personal, have conveyed but do not speak. This is of disrupting biological high-context communication.

Most of the time, we are somewhere nearer the best services for educators, middle of the continuum, relying to some extent on consequences of disrupting, context, but also on proposal and dissertation, the literal meaning of words. To understand this distinction between high-context and low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to let my words speak for themselves, or prefer to be less direct, relying on what is implied by my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from others, and am I attuned to of disrupting biological, a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to help me understand the meaning of personal statement for college what is said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at consequences of disrupting essay both ends of the proposal and dissertation, high-context, low-context continuum. There are times when direct, clear communication is most appropriate, and times when it is preferable to communicate in layers of meaning to save face, spare feelings, or allow for diffuse interpretations. Most people rely on a whole range of verbal and of disrupting biological essay, nonverbal cues to understand the meaning of what is said. Even in the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the different starting points of essays vibranture English and Chinese this way: I try to of disrupting biological rhythms, explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to be more direct; an American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in learning about your widget business?' Each to and dissertation help abstract, his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path.[7] As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and low context. Of Disrupting Essay! Depending on ross essays, the kind of relationship, the situation, and the purpose of communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct. In close relationships, communication short-hand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. With strangers, the same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and essay, high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and resume writing for educators, Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication.

Within these huge categories, there are important differences and many variations. Where high-context communication tends to be featured, it is useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of others who may know more of the unstated rules governing the consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay, communication. Where low-context communication is the norm, directness is likely to be expected in return. A Level Economics Coursework! It is less important to classify any communication as high or low context than it is to understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the most prominent. Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for shades of meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of meaning. Consequences Biological Rhythms! The choice of high-context and ross vibranture, low-context as labels has led to unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an implied ranking in the adjectives. In fact, neither is better or worse than the other. They are simply different. Each has possible pitfalls for of disrupting, cross-cultural communicators. Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said; status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and tact may be important, and need to be balanced with the abstract, desire to communicate fully and frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over time; and indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solving when blocks are encountered. High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of layers of meaning; roles and functions may be decoupled from status and identity; efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks; direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to get the other's attention.[8] As communicators factor awareness of of disrupting biological essay high-context and low-context communication into their relations, conflict may be lessened and even prevented.

Individualism and proposal and dissertation help, Communitarianism is the second dimension important to conflict and conflict resolution. In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of relations. This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for of disrupting biological rhythms, allegiance to group norms and values, interdependence, and cooperation. Wherever they go, their identity as a member of home economics coursework their group goes out in of disrupting biological, front. Identity is not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to a level coursework, group needs and consequences of disrupting biological, views. When conflict arises, behavior and responses tend to thesis in a descriptive, be jointly chosen. Individualist patterns involve ideas of the self as independent, self-directed, and autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to of disrupting biological, make proposals, concessions, and maximize gains in their own self-interest. Children raised in this milieu are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership. They may be just as close to resume, their families as a child raised in a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in case of a conflict, they may feel more free to choose their individual preference.

Duty, honor, and consequences of disrupting biological rhythms, deference to authority are less prominent for those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones. Individual and communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in the world. They connect at home coursework some point, of course, since all groups are made up of consequences biological essay individuals and all individuals find themselves in ross, relationship with various groups. But the starting points are different. To discern the basic difference, ask yourself which is most in the foreground of biological your life, the welfare, development, security, prosperity, and well-being of yourself and others as individuals, or the writing services, shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style. Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and a cooperative conflict style.

French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networks. This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is notionally possible to see the self apart from these. In the North American view, there is a sense that the of disrupting, self creates its own identity, as in the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is unnecessary for North Americans to hide things about their past, such as humble origins. In A Essay! It also explains why the alcoholic brother of a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to the president's standing or ability. In a communitarian setting, identity is defined much more by the person's social network, and cannot be so easily separated. One way to discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to listen to forms of greeting and address. Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the Confederated Umatilla Tribes in Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of his father, mother, and tribe, and the place they came from. Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into the collective in his culture: Who preceded you, is who you are.[9] Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances. Boundaries around relationships tend to be less porous in communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is focused on maintaining harmony and cohesion with the consequences of disrupting biological, group.

In the individualist setting of the United States, by contrast, friendly behavior is directed to members of in-groups and strangers alike. This difference can lead to misunderstandings across cultures, since the U.S. American behavior of friendliness to strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by those from communitarian settings, while U.S. Americans may find social networks in writing, communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. No matter which starting point seems natural, it is biological essay important to keep the entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and address conflict. From each vantage point, it is useful to remember some things: From an personal application, individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and consequences of disrupting biological, must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in equality and consider everyone able to make their own personal choices. From a communitarian starting point, maintaining group harmony and cohesion is important, and my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and coursework, authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. I am an overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on my group and I am accountable to them as a member; and I notice hierarchy and consequences of disrupting, accept direction from those of higher status than myself. With these differences in mind, it is important for individualists to recognize the means, web of consequences rhythms essay relations encompassing the communitarian party to a conflict, and to act in recognition of those.

Similarly, it is helpful for those from communitarian settings to remember that individualists value autonomy and initiative, and to act in ways that respect these preferences. Home Economics! Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. As with any set of biological starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. This is not always true, but it is and dissertation worth exploring because it is frequently the case. Where communitarianism is the preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will. Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in such a setting, because it allows for multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for group input into rhythms essay decisions, and displays interdependence. Home Economics Coursework! In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and clarifies the biological rhythms, meaning intended by the speaker. Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the importance of high-context communication with his counterparts from personal statement for college application Israel and consequences of disrupting rhythms, Egypt in a level, the historic Camp David peace negotiations.

In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the negotiations after several days, discouraged at having reached an impasse. Carter met Begin at his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the names of each of Begin's grandchildren. Prime Minister Begin repeated the names of consequences of disrupting rhythms essay his grandchildren out loud as he paused to look at the pictures, seeming to reflect on the importance of the peace negotiations to best resume writing services for educators, the grandchildren's futures. Of Disrupting Biological Rhythms Essay! Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to bring Prime Minister Begin back to the negotiating table. Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success.

Instead, Carter relied on paragraph on travelling means of education, a high-context reference to legacy, future generations, and the relations that Begin cared about. He invoked the communities each leader served by reminding Begin of his grandchildren. Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and biological rhythms, peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in intractable conflict for many years.[10] This example shows the importance of these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and low/high context. While there are many exceptions to cultural patterns and all of proposal help us use different starting points depending on the context, noticing the consequences biological rhythms, intersections of ways of making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics. Ross! [1] Montaigne, 1580. Quoted in Tracy Novinger. Essay! Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) [2] This is closely related to the concept of framing. [3] Edward T. Hall, The Dance of Life. The Other Dimension of Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7. [5] Lustig, Myron and Jolene Koester. 1998.

Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30. [6] Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture . (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971) [7] Tan, Amy. The Language of Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and personal for college, G. Turgeon, eds. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142. [8] These points are taken from consequences biological rhythms essay Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003) [9] Quoted in Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001), 31. Ross Essays Vibranture! [10] Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399. Use the following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. Communication Tools for biological rhythms essay, Understanding Cultural Differences. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/communication-tools. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site.

You can also still use the resume writing services for educators, old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and of disrupting essay, outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to home economics, examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to of disrupting biological essay, difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the writing on travelling as a of education, Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Of Disrupting! Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on ross vibranture, news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Biological Rhythms! Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict.

Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to services for educators, these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of rhythms essay Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Best Resume Writing Services For Educators! Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources.

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The Consequences of Disrupting Biological Rhythms Essay Plan - A

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu is a philosopher from Ghana, who has for decades been involved with a project he terms “conceptual decolonization” in contemporary African systems of thought. By conceptual decolonization, Wiredu advocates a re-examination of current African epistemic formations in order to accomplish two aims. First, he wishes to subvert unsavory aspects of consequences of disrupting rhythms, tribal culture embedded in modern African thought so as to make that thought more viable. Abstract. Second, he intends to dislodge unnecessary Western epistemologies that are to consequences of disrupting rhythms, be found in African philosophical practices. In previously colonized regions of the world, decolonization remains a topical issue both at the highest theoretical levels and also at the basic level of everyday existence. After African countries attained political liberation, decolonization became an immediate and overwhelming preoccupation.

A broad spectrum of academic disciplines took up the conceptual challenges of decolonization in a variety of ways. Proposal And Dissertation Abstract. The disciplines of anthropology, history, political science, literature, and philosophy all grappled with the practical and academic conundrums of decolonization. A central purpose in this article is to examine the contributions and limitations of African philosophy in relation to the history of the debate on decolonization. In this light, it sometimes appears that African philosophy has been quite limited in biological rhythms, defining the horizons of the proposal and dissertation, debate when compared with the achievements of consequences of disrupting essay, academic specialties such as literature and cultural studies. Thesis In A Descriptive. Thus, decolonization has been rightly conceived as a vast, global, and consequences of disrupting biological rhythms trans-disciplinary enterprise. This analysis involves an examination of both the and dissertation abstract, limitations and immense possibilities of Wiredu’s theory of conceptual decolonization. First, the article offers a close reading of the theory itself and then locates it within the broader movement of modern African thought. In several instances, Wiredu’s theory has proved seminal to the advancement of contemporary African philosophical practices. It is also necessary to be aware of current imperatives of consequences, globalization, nationality, and territoriality and paragraph means how they affect the agency of consequences rhythms, a theory such as ideological/conceptual decolonization.

Indeed, the notion of decolonization is far more complex than is often assumed. Consequently, the epistemological resources by which it can be apprehended as a concept, ideology, or process are multiple and diverse. Lastly, this article, as a whole, represents a reflection on writing services the diversity of the dimensions of decolonization. As one of Africa’s foremost philosophers, Kwasi Wiredu has done a great deal to establish the discipline of philosophy, in its contemporary shape, as a credible area of intellection in most parts of the biological, African continent and beyond. In order to appreciate the a level, conceptual and historical contexts of his work, it is necessary to possess some familiarity with relevant discourses in African studies and history, anthropology, literature and postcolonial theory, particularly those advanced by Edward W. Said, Gayatri Spivak, Homi Bhabha, Abiola Irele and Biodun Jeyifo.

Wiredu’s contribution to consequences of disrupting rhythms, the making of modern African thought provides an interesting insight into writing, the processes involved in the formation of postcolonial disciplines and discourses, and it can also be conceived as a counter-articulation to the hegemonic discourses of imperial domination. Wiredu, for many decades, was involved with a project he termed conceptual decolonization in contemporary African systems of thought. This term entailed, for Wiredu, a re-examination of current African epistemic foundations in order to accomplish two main objectives. First, he intended to undermine counter-productive facets of tribal cultures embedded in modern African, thought so as to make this body of consequences of disrupting essay, thought both more sustainable and more rational. Abstract. Second, he intended to deconstruct the unnecessary Western epistemologies which may be found in African philosophical practices. A broad spectrum of academic disciplines took up the conceptual challenges of decolonization in biological rhythms, a variety of paragraph as a of education, ways. In particular, the disciplines of anthropology, history, political science, literature and philosophy all grappled with the practical and academic challenges inherent to decolonization. It is usually profitable to examine the contributions and limitations of African philosophers comparatively (along with other African thinkers who are not professional philosophers) in consequences of disrupting rhythms essay, relation to paragraph on travelling means of education, the history of the debate on decolonization. In addition to the scholars noted above, the discourse of decolonialization has benefitted from many valuable contributions made by intellectuals such as Frantz Fanon, Leopold Sedar Senghor, Cheikh Anta Diop, and Ngugi wa Thiongo. In this light, it would appear that African philosophy has been, at certain moments, limited in defining the horizons of the rhythms essay, debate when compared with the paragraph on travelling as a means of education, achievements of academic specialties such as literature, postcolonial theory and cultural studies. Thus, decolonization, as Ngugi wa Thiongo, the Kenyan cultural theorist and consequences of disrupting biological novelist, notes, must be conceived as a broad, transcontinental, and multidisciplinary venture.

Within the Anglophone contingent of African philosophy, the analytic tradition of British philosophy continues to be dominant. This discursive hegemony had led an evident degree of paragraph on travelling as a of education, parochialism. This in turn has led to the neglect of many other important intellectual traditions. For instance, within this Anglophonic sphere, there is not always a systematic interrogation of the limits, excesses and consequences biological rhythms uses of colonialist anthropology in writing on travelling as a, formulating the consequences, problematic of identity. In this regard, the problematic of identity does not only refer to the question of personal agency but more broadly, the challenges of discursive identity. This shortcoming is not as evident in Francophone traditions of a level coursework, African philosophy, which usually highlight the foundational discursive interactions between anthropology and modern African thought. Thus, in this instance, there is an consequences of disrupting biological, opening to descriptive essay, other discursive formations necessary for the nurturing a vibrant philosophical practice. Also, within Anglophone African philosophy, a stringent critique of imperialism and contemporary globalization does not always figure is not always significantly in rhythms essay, the substance of the discourse, thereby further underlining the drawbacks of services for educators, parochialism. As such, it is of disrupting rhythms, necessary for critiques of Wiredu’s corpus to move beyond its ostensible frame to include critiques and discussions of on travelling as a of education, traditions of philosophical practice outside the Anglophone divide of modern African thought (Osha, 2005). Accordingly, such critiques ought not merely be a celebration of post-structuralist discourses to consequences rhythms essay, the detriment of African intellectual traditions.

Instead, they should be, among other things, an exploration of the discursive intimacies between the Anglophone and Francophone traditions of proposal help abstract, African philosophy. In addition, an interrogation of of disrupting biological rhythms, other borders of philosophy is required to observe the gains that might accrue to the Anglophone movement of contemporary African philosophy, which, in many ways, has reached a discursive dead-end due to its inability to surmount the intractable problematic of identity, and its endless preoccupation with the question of its origins. These are the writing as a of education, sort of interrogations that readings of Wiredu’s work necessitate. Furthermore, a study of Wiredu’s corpus (Osha, 2005) identifies—if only obliquely—the necessity to re-assess the importance of other discourses such as colonialist anthropology and various philosophies of black subjectivity in the formation of the modern African subject. These are some of the central concerns which appear in Kwasi Wiredu and Beyond : The Text, Writing and Thought in Africa (2005). Kwasi Wiredu was born in 1931 in Ghana and had his first exposure to philosophy quite early in life. He read his first couple of books of philosophy in school around 1947 in Kumasi, the capital of of disrupting biological essay, Ashanti. These books were Bernard Bosanquet’s The Essentials of Logic and C.E.M. Resume. Joad’s Teach Yourself Philosophy . Logic, as a branch of of disrupting rhythms essay, philosophy attracted Wiredu because of its affinities to grammar, which he enjoyed. Home Economics. He was also fond of practical psychology during the formative years of his life. In 1950, whilst vacationing with his aunt in Accra, the capital of Ghana, he came across another philosophical text which influenced him tremendously.

The text was The Last Days of Socrates which had the following four dialogues by consequences of disrupting rhythms essay Plato: The Apology , Euthyphro , Meno and Crito . These dialogues were to influence, in resume writing services, a significant way, the biological, final chapter of his first groundbreaking philosophical text, Philosophy and an African Culture (1980) which is also dialogic in structure. He was admitted into the University of Ghana, Legon in 1952, to read philosophy, but before attending he started to study the thought of John Dewey on his own. However, mention must be made of the help abstract, fact that C. E. M. Joad’s philosophy had a particularly powerful effect on him. Indeed, he employed the name J. E. Joad as his pen-name for a series of political articles he wrote for a national newspaper, The Ashanti Sentinel between 1950 and1951. At the of disrupting essay, University of Ghana, he was instructed mainly in Western philosophy and he came to find out about African traditions of thesis, thought more or less through his own individual efforts. He was later to of disrupting biological essay, admit that the character of his undergraduate education was to proposal help, leave his mind a virtual tabula rasa , as far as African philosophy was concerned.

In other words, he had to consequences biological essay, develop and maintain his interests in African philosophy on his own. One of the first texts of African philosophy that he read was J. B. Danquah’s Akan Doctrine of God: A Fragment of Gold Coast Ethics and Religion. A Level. Undoubtedly, his best friend William Abraham, who went a year before him to Oxford University, must have also influenced the direction of his philosophical research towards African thought. A passage from an interview explains the issue of his institutional relation to African philosophy: Prior to 1985, when I was in Africa, I devoted most of my time in almost equal proportions to research in African philosophy and in other areas of philosophy, such as the philosophy of logic, in which not much has, or is of disrupting, generally known to have, been done in African philosophy. I did not have always to be teaching African philosophy or giving public lectures in African philosophy. There were others who were also competent to teach the subject and give talks in our Department of Philosophy.

But since I came to the United States, I have often been called upon to teach or talk about African philosophy. I have therefore spent much more time than before researching in vibranture, that area. This does not mean that I have altogether ignored my earlier interests, for indeed, I continue to teach subjects like (Western) logic and epistemology (Wiredu in Oladiop 2002: 332). Wiredu began publishing relatively late, but has been exceedingly prolific ever since he started. During the biological rhythms essay, early to for college application, mid 1970s, he often published as many as six major papers per consequences of disrupting essay, year on topics ranging from logic, to epistemology, to African systems of thought, in reputable international journals. His first major book, Philosophy and an African Culture (1980) is truly remarkable for its eclectic range of interests. Paulin Hountondji, Wiredu’s great contemporary from the services, Republic of Benin, for many years had to deal with charges that his philosophically impressive corpus lacked ideological content and therefore merit from critics such as Olabiyi Yai (1977). Hountondji (1983; 2002) in those times of extreme ideologizing, never avoided the of disrupting rhythms, required measure of socialist posturing. Wiredu, on for college application the other hand, not only avoided the lure of socialism but went on consequences of disrupting rhythms essay to denounce it as an unfit ideology. Within the context of the on travelling as a of education, socio-political moment of that era, it seemed a reactionary—even injurious—posture to adopt. Of Disrupting Rhythms Essay. Nonetheless, he had not only laid the foundations of his project of conceptual decolonization at the theoretical level but had also begun to explore its various practical implications by his analyses of concepts such as “truth,” and proposal also by his focused critique of some of the more counter-productive impacts of both colonialism and traditional culture.

By conceptual decolonization, Wiredu advocates a re-examination of current African epistemic formations in rhythms essay, order to accomplish two objectives. First, he wishes to subvert unsavoury aspects of indigenous traditions embedded in modern African thought so as to make it more viable. Second, he intends to undermine the best writing, unhelpful Western epistemologies to be found in African philosophical traditions. On this important formulation of consequences of disrupting biological essay, his he states: By this I mean the purging of African philosophical thinking of all uncritical assimilation of personal application, Western ways of of disrupting rhythms, thinking. That, of course, would be only part of the battle won. The other desiderata are the careful study of our own traditional philosophies and the synthesising of any insights obtained from that source with any other insights that might be gained from the intellectual resources of the modern world. In my opinion, it is only by such a reflective integration of the traditional and the modern that contemporary African philosophers can contribute to the flourishing of our peoples and, ultimately, all other peoples. (Oladipo, 2002: 328) In spite of his invaluable contributions to modern African thought, it can be argued that Wiredu’s schema falls short as a feasible long term epistemic project. Due to the hybridity of the postcolonial condition, projects seeking to retrieve the precolonial heritage are bound to be marred at and dissertation help, several levels. It would be an error for Wiredu or advocates of his project of conceptual decolonization to attempt to universalize his theory since, as Ngugi wa Thiongo argues, decolonization is biological rhythms, a vast, global enterprise.

Rather, it is safer to read Wiredu’s project as a way of articulating theoretical presence for the de-agentialized and deterritorialized contemporary African subject. In many ways, his project resembles those of Ngugi wa Thiongo and Cheikh Anta Diop. Ngugi wa Thiongo advocates cultural and linguistic decolonization on a global scale and his theory has undergone very little transformation since its formulation in best resume writing, the 1960s. Of Disrupting Essay. Diop advances a similar set of ideas to Wiredu on the subject of vibrant modern African identities. Wiredu’s project is linked in conceptual terms to the broader project of political decolonization as advanced by on travelling as a means of education liberationist African leaders such as Julius Nyerere, Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah, and Nnamdi Azikiwe. But what distinguishes the rhythms, particular complexion of his theory is its links with the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition. This dimension is important in differentiating his project from those of writing on travelling as a, his equally illustrious contemporaries such as V. Y. Mudimbe and Paulin Hountondji.

In fact, it can be argued that Wiredu’s theory of conceptual decolonization has more similarities with Ngugi wa Thiongo’s ideas regarding African cultural and linguistic agency than Mudimbe’s archeological excavations of African traces in Western historical and anthropological texts. 3. Decolonization as Epistemological Practice. In all previously colonized regions of the world, decolonization remains a topic of considerable academic interest. Wiredu’s theory of conceptual decolonization is essentially what defines his attitudes and gestures towards the content of contemporary African thought. Also it is an consequences biological rhythms, insight that is a level home economics coursework, inflected by years of immersion into British analytic philosophy. Wiredu began his reflections of the nature, legitimate aims, and possible orientations in contemporary African thought not as a result of any particular awareness of the trauma or violence of colonialism or imperialism but by a confrontation with the of disrupting biological essay, dilemma of modernity by the reflective (post)colonial African consciousness. This dialectic origin can be contrasted with those of thesis in a descriptive essay, his contemporaries such as Paulin Hountondji and V. Y. Mudimbe.

Despite criticisms regarding some aspects of his work, in terms of founding a tradition for the practice of modern African philosophy, Wiredu’s contributions have been pivotal. He has also been very consistent in his output and the quality of his reflections regardless of some of their more obvious limitations. As noted earlier, Wiredu was trained in of disrupting biological essay, a particular tradition of Western philosophy: the analytic tradition. Personal Application. This fact is reflected in his corpus. A major charge held against him is that his contributions could be made even richer if he had grappled with other relevant discourses: postcolonial theory, African feminisms, contemporary Afrocentric discourses and the global dimensions of projects and discourses of decolonization. Kwasi Wiredu’s interests and biological rhythms essay philosophical importance are certainly not limited to conceptual decolonization alone. Paragraph On Travelling As A Of Education. He has offered some useful insights on Marxism, mysticism, metaphysics, and the general nature of the philosophical enterprise itself. Although his latter text, Cultural Universals and Particulars has a more Africa-centred orientation, his first book, Philosophy and an African Culture presents a wider range of discursive interests: a vigorous critique of Marxism, reflections on the phenomenon of ideology, analyses of truth and the philosophy of language, among other preoccupations. It is interesting to see how Wiredu weaves together these different preoccupations and also to consequences biological essay, observe how some of them have endured while others have not. The volume Conceptual Decolonisation in African Philosophy is an apt summation of Wiredu’s philosophical interests with a decidedly African problematic while his landmark philosophical work, Philosophy and ross vibranture an African Culture , published first in 1980, should serve as a fertile source for more detailed elucidation.

In the second essay of Conceptual Decolonisation in African Philosophy entitled “The Need for Conceptual Decolonisation in African Philosophy”, Wiredu writes that “with an consequences essay, even greater sense of urgency the intervening decade does not seem to have brought any indications of a widespread realization of the need for conceptual decolonisation in African philosophy” (Wiredu, 1995: 23). Abstract. The intention at this juncture is to examine some of the ways in which Wiredu has been involved in the daunting task of conceptual decolonization. Decolonization itself is a problematic exercise because it necessitates the jettisoning of consequences essay, certain conceptual attitudes that inform one’s worldviews. Secondly, it usually entails an attempt at the retrieval of a more or less fragmented historical heritage. Decolonization in Fanon’s conception entails this necessity for all colonized peoples and, in addition, it is “a programme of complete disorder” (Fanon, 1963:20). This understanding is purely political and has therefore, a practical import. This is not to say that Fanon had no plan for the project of decolonization in the intellectual sphere. Also associated with this project as it was then conceived was a struggle for the mental liberation of the colonized African peoples.

It was indeed a program of violence in more senses than one. However, with Wiredu, there isn’t an thesis in a essay, outright endorsement of violence, as decolonization in this instance amounts to conceptual subversion. As a logical consequence, it is consequences of disrupting essay, necessary to stress the difference between Fanon’s conception of decolonization and Wiredu’s. Fanon is sometimes regarded as belonging to the same philosophical persuasion that harbours figures like Nkrumah, Senghor, Nyerere and application Sekou Toure, “the philosopher-kings of early post-independence Africa” (Wiredu,1995:14), as Wiredu calls them. Biological. This is so because they had to live out the various dramas of existence and the struggles for self and collective identity at coursework, more or less the same colonial/postcolonial moment. Those “spiritual uncles” of professional African philosophers were engaged, as Wiredu states, in a strictly political struggle, and whatever philosophical insight they possessed was put at the disposal of rhythms, this struggle, instead of a merely theoretical endeavour. Statement For College Application. Obviously, Fanon was the most astute theoretician of decolonization of the lot. In addition, for Fanon and of disrupting biological the so-called philosopher-kings, decolonization was invested with a pan-African mandate and political appeal.

This crucial difference should be noted alongside what shall soon be demonstrated to be the Wiredu conception of decolonization. Africans, generally, will have to continue to for college, ponder the entire issue of decolonization as long as unsolved questions of of disrupting biological rhythms, identity remain and the challenges of collective development linger. Services For Educators. This type of challenge was foreseen by Fanon. The end of colonialism in Africa and other Third World countries did not entail the end of biological rhythms essay, imperialism and the dominance of the metropolitan countries. Instead, the dynamics of dominance assumed a more complex, if subtle, form.

African economic systems floundered alongside African political institutions, and, as a result, various crises have compounded the seemingly perennial issue of paragraph on travelling as a means of education, underdevelopment. A significant portion of post-colonial theory involves the entry of Third World scholars into the Western archive, as it were, with the intention of dislodging the erroneous epistemological assumptions and structures regarding their peoples. This, arguably, is another variant of decolonization. Wiredu partakes of consequences biological rhythms, this type of activity, but sometimes he carries the program even further. Accordingly, he affirms: Until Africa can have a lingua franca, we will have to essay, communicate suitable parts of our work in our multifarious vernaculars, and in consequences of disrupting, other forms of popular discourse, while using the metropolitan languages for international communication. (Wiredu, 1995:20) This conviction has been a guiding principle with Wiredu for thesis in a essay several years. In fact, it is not merely a conviction; there are several instances within the broad spectrum of his philosophical corpus where he tries to put it into practice. Consequences Biological. Two of such attempts are his essays “The Concept of paragraph means, Truth in the Akan Language” and “The Akan Concept of Mind.” In the first of these articles, Wiredu states “there is no one word in Akan for truth” (Wiredu, 1985:46). Similarly, he writes, “another linguistic contrast between Akan and English is that there is no word “fact” (Ibid.). It is necessary to consequences rhythms, cite the central thesis of the essay; Wiredu writes that he wants “to make a metadoctrinal point which reflection on the African language enables us to see, which is paragraph on travelling as a, that a theory of truth is not of any real universal significance unless it offers some account of the notion of being so” (Ibid.).

Wiredu’s argument here, needs to be firmer. In many respects, he is only comparing component parts of the English language with the Akan language and not always with a view to drawing out “any real universal significance” as he says. The entire approach seems to be irrevocably restrictive. This is the distinction that lies between an oral culture and a textual one. Most African intellectuals usually gloss over this difference, even though they may acknowledge it. Of Disrupting. The difference is in a descriptive, indeed very significant, because of the rhythms, numerous imponderables that come into play. Best Resume. Abiola Irele has been able to demonstrate the tremendous significance of orality in the constitution of modern African forms of consequences of disrupting rhythms, literary expression. However, Wiredu is more convincing in his essay “Democracy and Consensus in African Traditional Politics: A Plea for a Non-Party Polity”.

In this essay, Wiredu argues that the: Ashanti system was a consensual democracy. It was a democracy because government was by the consent, and subject to the control, of the people as expressed through the representatives. It was consensual because, at least, as a rule, that consent was negotiated on the principle of personal, consensus. (By contrast, the majoritarian system might be said to be, in principle, based on consent without consensus.) (Ibid. pp58-59) When Wiredu broaches the consequences biological, issue of politics and its present and future contexts in postcolonial Africa, then we are compelled to visit a whole range of debates and discourses especially in the social sciences in home, Africa. These arearguably more directly concerned with questions pertaining to consequences of disrupting, governance, democracy, and the challenges of contemporary globalization.

Another essay by Wiredu, entitled “The Akan Concept of Mind” is also an attempt of conceptual recontextualization. Wiredu begins by stating that he is restricting himself to a study of the writing on travelling as a means of education, Akans of Ghana in order “to keep the consequences of disrupting, discussion within reasonable anthropological bounds” (Wiredu, 1983:113). Ross. His objective is a modest but nevertheless important one, since it fits quite well with his entire philosophical project which, as noted, is concerned with ironing out philosophical issues “on independent grounds” and possibly in one’s own language and the metropolitan language bequeathed by the colonial heritage. It is therefore appropriate to proceed gradually, traversing the problematic interfaces between various languages in search of satisfactory structures of meaning. The immediate effect is a radical diminishing of the entire concept of African philosophy, a term which under these circumstances would become even more problematic. The consequence of Wiredu’s position is that to arrive at the essence of African philosophy, it would be necessary to dismantle its monolithic structure to make it more context-bound.

First, Africa as a spatial entity would require further re-drawing of its often problematic geography. Second, a new thematics to mediate between the general and of disrupting biological the particular would have to be found. Third, the critique of unanimism and on travelling as a of education ethnophilosophy would be driven into more contested terrains. These are some of the likely challenges posed by Wiredu’s approach. Furthermore, in dealing with the traditional Akan conceptual system, or any other, for that matter, it should be borne in mind that what is in contention is “a folk philosophy, a body of originally unwritten ideas preserved in the oral traditions, customs and biological essay usages of a people” (Ibid.) . It would be appropriate to examine more closely his article “The Akan Concept of Mind”.

Here, Wiredu enumerates the ways in which the and dissertation abstract, English conception of mind differs markedly from that of the Akan, due in consequences of disrupting rhythms, a large part to certain fundamental linguistic dissimilarities. He also makes the point that “the Akans most certainly do not regard mind as one of the entities that go to constitute a person” (Ibid. 121). It is significant to writing services for educators, note this, but at the same time, it is difficult to imagine the ultimate viability of this approach. Indeed after reformulating traditional Western philosophical problems to suit African conditions, it remains to be seen how African epistemological claims can be substantiated using the natural and logical procedures available to African systems of thought. As such, it is possible to consequences rhythms, argue that this conceptual manoeuvre would eventually degenerate into a dead-end of epistemic nativism. These are the kinds of issues raised by Wiredu’s project. As such, inherent in the thrust for complete decolonization is the and dissertation help, presence of colonial violence itself. In addition, there is essentially a latent desire for epistemic violence, as well as difficulties concerning the negotiation of linguistic divides. In the following quotation, for example, Wiredu attempts to demonstrate the of disrupting biological, significance of some of those differences:

By comparison with the conflation of concepts of mind and and dissertation help soul prevalent in Western philosophy, the Akan separation of the of disrupting biological rhythms, “Okra” from “adwene” suggests a more analytical awareness of the sanctification of human personality. (Ibid.128) It is necessary to substantiate more rigorously claims such as this because we may also be committing an error in establishing certain troublesome linguistic or philosophical correspondences between two disparate cultures and traditions. Another crucial, if distressing, feature of decolonization as advanced by services Wiredu is that it always has to measure itself up with the colonizing Other, that is, it finds it almost impossible to create its own image so to speak by the employment of autochthonous strategies. This is not to assert that decolonization always has to avail itself of indigenous procedures, but the very concept of of disrupting biological rhythms essay, decolonization is in fact concerned with breaking away from imperial structures of dominance in order to express a will to self-identity or presence. To be sure, the Other is always present, defacing all claims to full presence of the decolonizing subject.

This is a contradictory but inevitable trope within the for college application, postcolonial condition. The Other is always there to present the criteria by which self-identity is adjudged either favourably or unfavourably. Of Disrupting Rhythms Essay. There is no getting around the essays, Other as it is introduced in its own latent and covert violence, in the hesitant counter-violence of the decolonizing subject and invariably in the counter-articulations of all projects of consequences of disrupting biological, decolonization. 4. Tradition, Modernity and the Challenges of Development. Wiredu’s later attempts at conceptual decolonization have been quite interesting. An example of such an attempt is the personal statement for college, essay “Custom and Morality: A Comparative Analysis of essay, some African and Western Conceptions of Morals.” He is able to explore at thesis in a descriptive, greater length some of the conceptual confusions that arise as a result of the transplantation of Western ideas within an African frame of reference. This wholesale transference of foreign ideas and conceptual models has caused the consequences rhythms essay, occurrence of severe cases of identity crises and, to borrow a more apposite term, colonial mentality. Indeed, one of the aims of Wiredu’s efforts at conceptual decolonization is to indicate instances of colonial mentality and determine strategies by which they can be minimized. Accordingly he is quite convincing when he argues that polygamy in a traditional setting amounts to efficient social thinking but is most inappropriate within a modern framework.

In this way, Wiredu is offering a critique of coursework, a certain traditional practice that ought to be discarded on account of the demands and realities of a modern economy. On another level, it appears that Wiredu has not sufficiently interrogated the distance between orality and textuality. If indeed he has done so, he would be rather more skeptical about the consequences rhythms, manner in which he thinks he can dislodge certain Western philosophical structures embedded in the African consciousness. Wiredu has always believed that traditional modes of thought and folk philosophies should be interpreted, clarified, analyzed and subjected to critical evaluation and assimilation (Wiredu, 1980: x). Services For Educators. Also, at the beginning of biological rhythms essay, his philosophical reflections, he puts forth the crucial formulation that there is no reason why the African philosopher “in his philosophical meditations […] should not test formulations in those against intuitions in his own language” (Wiredu, 1980: xi).

And, rather than merely discussing the possibilities for evolving modern traditions in African philosophy, African philosophers should actually begin to do so (Hountondji, 1983). In carrying out this task, the African philosopher has a few available methodological approaches. First, he is a level home coursework, urged to “acquaint himself with the different philosophies of the different cultures of the world, not to be encylopaedic or eclectic, but with the aim of trying to see how far issues and concepts of universal relevance can be disentangled from the contingencies of culture” (Wiredu, 1980: 31). He also adds that “the African philosopher has no choice but to conduct his philosophical inquiries in relation to the philosophical writings of other peoples, for his ancestors left him no heritage of of disrupting biological rhythms, philosophical writings” (Wiredu, 1980: 48). For Wiredu, the use of translations is a fundamental aspect of contemporary African philosophical practices. A Level Home Economics Coursework. However, on the dilemmas of translation in the current age of neoliberalism, it has been noted: “translations are [..] put ‘out of joint.’ However correct or legitimate they may be, and whatever right one may acknowledge them to have, they are all disadjusted, as it were unjust in the gap that affects them. This gap is within them, to be sure, because their meanings remain necessarily equivocal; next it is in the relation among them and thus their multiplicity, and finally or first of all in the irreducible inadequation to the other language and to the stroke of of disrupting essay, genius of the event that makes the means of education, law, to biological essay, all the virtualities of the original” (Derrida, 1994:19).

Wiredu does not contemplate the implications of this kind of indictment in his formulations of an approach to African philosophy. Perhaps the in a essay, task at hand is simply too important and demanding to cater to such philosophical niceties. In relation to the kind of philosophical heritage at the disposal of the biological, African philosopher, Wiredu identifies three main strands; “a folk philosophy, a written traditional philosophy and a modern philosophy” (Wiredu, 1980:46). Wiredu’s approach to questions of this sort is embedded in his general theoretical stance: “It is a function, indeed a duty, of philosophy in any society to examine the intellectual foundations of its culture. For any such examination to be of writing services, any real use, it should take the consequences essay, form of reasoned criticism and, where possible, reconstruction. No other way to philosophical progress is known than through criticism and adaptation” (Wiredu, 1980: 20). The drive to attain progress is not limited to philosophical discourse alone. A Level Home Coursework. Entire communities and cultures usually aim to consequences of disrupting, improve upon their institutions and practices in order to remain relevant. Societies can lose the momentum of growth and “various habits of as a means, thought and practice can become anachronistic within the context of the development of a given society; but an entire society too can become anachronistic within the context of the whole world if the ways of life within it are predominantly anachronistic.

In the latter case, of course, there is no discarding society; what you do is to modernize it” (Wiredu, 1980:1). The theme of modernization occurs frequently in consequences rhythms, Wiredu’s corpus. He does not fully conceptualize it nor relate it to ross essays vibranture, the various ideological histories it has encountered in the domains of social science, where it became a fully fledged discipline. Of Disrupting Rhythms. Modernization, for him, is based on abstract an uncomplicated pragmatism that owes much to of disrupting rhythms essay, Deweyan thought. This kind of posture, that is, the consistent critique of the retrogression inherent in tradition and its proclivity for the fossilization of culture, is directed at Leopold Sedar Senghor. On Senghor, he writes, “it is almost as if he has been trying to exemplify in his own thought and discourse the lack of the on travelling as a means of education, analytical habit which he has attributed to the biology of the African. Most seriously of all, Senghor has celebrated the fact our (traditional) mind is consequences biological, of a non-analytical bent; which is very unfortunate, seeing that this mental attribute is home economics, more of a limitation than anything else” (Wiredu, 1980:12). Wiredu’s main criticism of Senghor is one that is always leveled against the latter. Biological Rhythms. Apart from that charge that Senghor essentializes the concept and resume ideologies of blackness, he is also charged with defeatism that undermines struggles for liberation and decolonization. However, Paul Gilroy has unearthed a more sympathetic context in consequences biological essay, which to read and situate Senghorian thought.

In Gilroy’s reading, an acceptable ideology of blackness emerges from Senghor’s work. And in this way, Wiredu’s critique loses some of its originality. Senghor is economics coursework, cast as a traditionalist and tradition itself is the subject of a much broader critique. On some of the drawbacks of tradition Wiredu writes, it is as true in Africa as anywhere else that logical, mathematical, analytical, experimental procedures are essential in biological, the quest for the knowledge of, and thesis essay control over, nature and therefore, in of disrupting essay, any endeavour to improve the condition of man. Our traditional culture was somewhat wanting in this respect and this is largely responsible for the weaknesses of traditional technology, warfare, architecture, medicine ….” (Wiredu, 1980: 12) (italics mine) Sometimes, Wiredu carries his critique of tradition too far as when he advances the view that “traditional medicine is a level economics coursework, terribly weak in diagnosis and weaker still in pharmacology” (Wiredu, 1980: 12). In recent times, a major part of Hountondji’s project is to demonstrate that traditional knowledges are not only useful and viable but also the necessity to situate them in of disrupting rhythms, appropriate modern contexts. Hountondji’s latest gesture is curious since both he and Wiredu are supposed to belong to the same philosophic tendency as described by Bodunrin under the for college, rubric of West-led universalism.

However, Wiredu’s attack on tradition is consequences essay, vitiated by his project of home economics, conceptual decolonization which, in order to work, requires the biological rhythms, recuperation of resume services for educators, vital elements in traditional culture. Wiredu’s stance in relation to modernization and tradition gets refined by his condemnation of some aspects of urban existence which exhibit a manifestation of postmodern environmentalism. First, he writes, “it is consequences of disrupting biological, quite clear to me that unrestricted industrial urbanization is contrary to any humane culture; it is certainly contrary to our own” (Wiredu, 1980:22). Personal. Also, “one of the powerful strains on consequences biological rhythms essay our extended family system is the very extensive poverty which oppresses out rural populations. For College. Owing to this, people working in the towns and rhythms essay cities are constantly burdened with the financial needs of rural relatives which they usually cannot entirely satisfy”(Wiredu, 1980:22).

Contemporary anthropological studies dealing with Africa have dwelt extensively on this phenomenon. Proposal. The point is, in of disrupting biological, Africa, forms of proposal abstract, sociality exists that can no longer be found in the North Atlantic civilization. If this civilization (the North Atlantic) is characterized by extreme individualism, African forms of social existence on the other hand tend towards the gregarious in consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay, which conceptions of generosity, corruption, gratitude, philanthropy, ethnicity and even justice take on different slightly forms from what obtains within the vastly different North Atlantic context. Also problematic is Wiredu’s reading of colonialism which is very similar to those of authors such as Ngugi wa Thiongo, Walter Rodney or even Chinua Achebe. In this reading, the colonized is abused, brutalized, silenced and re constructed against her/his own will. Colonialism causes the destruction of essays vibranture, agency. On de-agentialization, Wiredu states, “any human arrangement is authoritarian if it entails any person being made to do or suffer something against his will, or if it leads to biological rhythms, any person being hindered in the development of his own will” (Wiredu, 1980:2). Homi Bhabha advances the notion of best writing services for educators, ambivalence to highlight the cultural reciprocities inherent in the entire colonial encounter and structure.

This kind of reading of the colonial event has led to a rethinking of colonial theory. But Wiredu’s reading of the colonial encounter is consequences biological essay, infected by the radical persuasion of early African theorists of decolonization: “The period of colonial struggle was […] a period of cultural affirmation. It was necessary to restore in ourselves our previous confidence which had been so seriously eroded by colonialism. We are still, admittedly, even in post-colonial times, in an era of cultural self-affirmation” (Ibid.59). 5. Writing Services. An African Reading of Karl Marx. Marxist theory and discourse generally provided many African intellectuals with a platform on which to conduct many sociopolitical struggles. In fact, for rhythms essay many African scholars, it served as the only ideological tool. But not all scholars found Marxism acceptable.

Wiredu was one of the home economics coursework, scholars who has deep reservations about it. But he is not in doubt about the philosophical significance of of disrupting biological essay, Marx: “I regard Karl Marx as one of the great philosophers” (Wiredu, 1980:63). Derrida is even more forthcoming on the depth of this significance: “It will always be a fault not to read and reread and discuss Marx- which is to say also a few others- and to go beyond scholarly “reading” or “discussion.” It will be more and more a fault, a failing of theoretical, philosophical, political responsibility” (Derrida, 1994:13). Again, he writes, “the Marxist inheritance was- and still remains, and so it will remain- absolutely and thoroughly determinate. Paragraph As A. One need not be a Marxist or a communist in order to accept this obvious fact. We all live in a world, some would say a culture, that bears, at an incalculable depth, the mark of this inheritance, whether in a directly visible fashion or not”(Ibid.). Marxism during era of the Cold War was the major ideological issue and in the present age of of disrupting biological rhythms, neoliberalism it continues to haunt (Derrida’s precise phrase is hauntology ) us with its multiple legacies. Wiredu’s critique of Marx and Engels is located within the epoch of the Cold War. But from it, we get a glimpse of not only his political orientation but also his philosophical predilections. For instance, at a point, he claims “the food one eats, the hairstyle one adopts, the amount of money one has, the power one wields- all these and such circumstances are irrelevant from an epistemological point of statement application, view” (Wiredu, 1980:66). But Foucault-style analyses have demonstrated that these seemingly marginal activities have a tremendous impact on knowledge/power configurations that are often difficult to ignore.

Michel de Certeau has demonstrated these so-called inconsequential acts become significant as gestures of resistance for the benefit of the weak and biological politically powerless. In his words, “the weak must continually turn to their own ends forces alien to them” (de Certeau 1984: xix). On those specific acts of the weak, he writes, “many everyday practices (talking, reading, moving about, shopping, cooking, etc.) are tactical in character. And so are, more generally, many “ways of operating”: victories of the “weak” over the “strong” (whether the statement for college application, strength be that of powerful people or the violence of things or of an imposed order, etc.), clever tricks, knowing how to get away with things, “hunter’s cunning,” maneuvers, polymorphic simulations, joyful discoveries, poetic as well as warlike. The Greeks called these “ways of consequences of disrupting essay, operating” metis (Ibid.). This reading gives an entirely different perspective on acts and proposal and dissertation abstract themes of resistance as panoptical surveillance in the age of global neoliberalism becomes more totalitarian in nature at specific moments. As a philosopher versed in analytic philosophy, truth is a primary concern of Wiredu and this concern is incorporated into his analysis of Marxist philosophy. Rhythms Essay. Hence, he identifies the following points, “the cognition of truth is recognized by Engels as the business of philosophy; (2) What is denied is absolute truth, not truth as such; (3) The belief, so finely expressed, in the progressive character of truth; (4) Engels speaks of this process of cognition as the ‘development of science.’ (5) That a consciousness of limitation is a necessary element in ross, all acquired knowledge” (Wiredu,1980:64-65). Wiredu explains that these various Marxian assertions on truth are no different from those of the essay, logician, C. S. Peirce who had expounded them under a formulation he called “fallibilism.” John Dewey also expounded them under the concept of ‘pragmatism’(Ibid.67). So the point here is that some of the main Marxist propositions on truth have parallels in analytic philosophy.

Nonetheless, this raises an unsettling question about best resume for educators Marxism and consequences of disrupting biological essay its relation to truth: “How is help, it that a philosophy which advocates such an admirable doctrine as the humanistic conception of truth tends so often to lead in practice to the suppression of freedom of thought and expression? Is it by accident that this comes to be so? Or is it due to causes internal to rhythms essay, the philosophy of Marx and Engels”(Ibid.68). Wiredu demonstrates strong reservations about resume services what Ernest Wamba dia Wamba calls ‘bureaucratic socialism.” Derrida on his part, urges us to consequences biological essay, distinguish between Marx as a philosopher and the innumerable specters of Marx. In other words, there is a difference between “the dogma machine and the “Marxist” ideological apparatuses (States, parties, cells, unions, and a level home economics coursework other places of doctrinal production)”(Derrida,1994:13) and the necessity to treat Marx as a great philosopher. We need to “try to play Marx off against Marxism so as to neutralize, or at any rate muffle the political imperative in the untroubled exegesis of classified work” (Ibid.31).

We also need to remember that “he doesn’t belong to the communists, to the Marxists, to the parties, he ought to figure within our great canon of […] political philosophy” (Ibid.31). Wiredu’s reading of Marxism generally is quite damaging. First, he states, “Engels himself, never perfectly consistent, already compromises his conception of truth with some concessions to absolute truth in Anti-Duhring” (Wiredu, 1980:68). Consequences Rhythms. He then makes an even more damaging accusation that a form of thesis descriptive, authoritarianism lies at the heart of consequences of disrupting biological essay, conception of home economics coursework, philosophy propagated by Marx and Engels. On what he considers to a deep-seated confusion in their work, he writes, “Engels recognizes the consequences rhythms essay, cognition of proposal and dissertation, truth to be a legitimate business of consequences biological essay, philosophy and makes a number of excellent points about truth. Ross Vibranture. As soon, however, as one tries to find out what he and Marx conceived philosophy to be like, one is faced with a deep obscurity.

The problem resolves round what one may describe as Marx’s conception of essay, philosophy as ideology” (Ibid.70). Here, Wiredu makes the crucial distinction between Marx as a philosopher and the effects of his numerous spectralities and for best writing this reason he offers his most important criticism of his general critique of Marxism. He also accuses Marx of instances of “carelessness in the use of cardinal terms” which he says “may be symptomatic of deep inadequacies of biological, thought”(Ibid.74). Thesis In A. This charge, which relates to Marx’s conception of consciousness is indeed serious since it borders on the question of conceptual clarification as advanced by consequences of disrupting the canon of analytic philosophy. Wiredu argues that Marx and Engels are unclear about personal their employment of the of disrupting biological rhythms essay, concept of ideology: “Marx and Engels are […] on the horns of a dilemma. If all philosophical thinking is ideological, then their thinking is ideological and, by their hypothesis, false”(Ibid.76). Wiredu’s insights are very important here: “He and Engels simply assumed for paragraph writing on travelling as a themselves the biological rhythms, privilege of exempting their own philosophizing from the for college, ideological theory of ideas”(Ibid.77). Consequently, Marx commits a grave error “in his conception of consequences essay, ideology and best resume writing services for educators its bearing upon philosophy”(Ibid.81). Another area Wiredu finds Marx and consequences rhythms essay Engels wanting is moral philosophy. In other words, Marx “confused moral philosophy with moralism and assumed rather than argued a moral standpoint”(Ibid.79). Furthermore, he had precious little to say on the nature of the writing, relationship between philosophy and morality.

Engels does better on this score as there is consequences of disrupting biological essay, a treatment of morality in Anti-Duhring . Nonetheless, Engels is charged with giving “no guidance on the conceptual problems that have perplexed moral philosophers” (Ibi.80). Henceforth, Wiredu becomes increasing dismissive of Marx, Marxism and its followers. First, he writes, “the run-of the-mill Marxists, even less enamoured of philosophical accuracy than their masters, have made the ideological conception of philosophy a battle cry”(Ibid.80). And then he singles out ‘scientific socialism’ which he regards as being unclear in its elaboration and which he typifies as “an amalgam of factual and evaluative elements blended together without regard to writing as a means of education, categorical stratification”(Ibid.85). In one of his most damaging assessments of Marxism, he declares: “Ideology is the death of philosophy. To the extent to which Marxism, by its own internal incoherences, tends to be transformed into consequences rhythms, an ideology, to that extent Marxism is a science of the unscientific and a philosophy of the unphilosophic” (Ibid.87). In sum, Wiredu general attitude towards Marxism is one of condemnation. However, in the contemporary re-evaluations of Marxism a few discursive elements need to be clarified; the personal statement for college, inclusion of the demarcation of Cold War and post Cold War assessments of Marxism ought to be employed as an analytical yardstick and also the necessity to sift through the various specters and legacies of Marx as distinct from those of Marxism. This is the kind of reading that Derrida urges us to do and it is also one to which we shall now turn our attention. Derrida states it is imperative to distinguish between the legacies of Marx and the various spectralities of Marxism.

In addition to this distinction we might add another crucial one: analyses of Marxism before and after the fall of the former Soviet Union. Wiredu’s critique is based on the pre-Soviet debacle whilst Derrida’s draws some of his reflections based on the post-Soviet fall. Of Disrupting Biological. In these two different critiques, we must be careful to always strive to isolate the theoretical elements and insights that bypass short-lived discursive trends and political interests which often tend to vitiate the more profound effects of the ross vibranture, works of Karl Marx and those that do not. The debacle of the former Soviet Union and the apparent hegemony of neoliberal ideology have generated discourses associated with the “ends” of discourse. But Derrida points out that there is nothing new in the contemporary proclamations affirming the end of discourses which are in fact anachronistic when compared to the earlier versions of the same discursive orientation that emerged in the 1950s and of disrupting rhythms which in a vital sense owed a great deal to a certain spirit of Marx: “the eschatological themes of the “end of history,” of the “end of Marxism,” of the “end of philosophy,” of the “ends of man,” of the “last man” and proposal so forth were, in the ‘50s, that is, forty years ago our daily bread. We had this bread of apocalypse in consequences of disrupting rhythms, our mouths naturally, already, just as naturally as that which I nicknamed after the fact, in statement application, 1980, the “apocalyptic tone in philosophy” (Derrida, 1994:14-15).

In a way, in fact the contemporary discourses of endism that draw from the spirit of neoliberal triumphalism, without acknowledging it, are greatly indebted to Marxism and the more constructive critiques of it. Deconstruction, in part, emerged from the necessity to critique the various forms of statist Stalinism, the numerous socio-economic failings of Soviet bureaucracy and the political repression in Hungary. In other words, it emerged partly from the need to organize critiques for degraded forms of socialism. In speaking about the inheritance of Marx, Derrida also reflects on the injunction associated with it. The task of reflecting on this inheritance and the injunction to which it gives rise is demanding: … “ one must filter, sift, criticize, one must sort out rhythms essay, several different possibles that inhabit the and dissertation abstract, same injunction. And inhabit it in a contradictory fashion around a secret. Consequences Of Disrupting Rhythms. If the readability of a legacy were given, natural, transparent, univocal, if it did not call for and at the same time defy interpretation, we would never have anything to inherit from it” (Ibid.16). Ross. Derrida’s employment of terms and consequences of disrupting phrases such “inheritance,” “injunction,” and the “spectrality of the specter” in a level economics coursework, relation to the legacies of Marx has to do with the question of the genius of Marx: “Whether evil or not, a genius operates, it always resists and defies after the fashion of a spectral thing. The animated work becomes that thing, the consequences of disrupting biological rhythms, Thing that, like an elusive specter, engineers [ s’ingenie ] a habitation without proper inhabiting, call it is a haunting , of both memory and translation” (Ibid.18). A work of genius, a masterpiece in addition to giving rise to spectralities also generates legions of imitators and followers.

Of the Marxists who came after Marx, Wiredu writes; “I find that Marxists are especially prone to confuse factual with ideological issues. Undoubtedly, the great majority of ross essays vibranture, those who call themselves Marxists do not share the ideology of Marx”(Wiredu,1980:94). In order to transcend the violence and consequences of disrupting biological confusion of Marxists who misread Marx, we need “to play Marx off against Marxism so as to neutralize, or at any rate muffle the political imperative in the untroubled exegesis of a classified work”(Derrida,1994:31). The work of re-reading Marx, of re-establishing his philosophical value and importance is best services for educators, a task needs to be performed in universities, conferences, colloquia and also in less academic sites and fora. Within the contemporary cultural moment, new configurations have arisen that were not present during Marx’s day. Consequences Of Disrupting Rhythms Essay. Indeed, “a set of thesis descriptive, transformations of all sorts (in particular, techno-scientific-economic-media) exceeds both the traditional givens of the Marxist discourse and those of the liberal discourse opposed to it”(Ibid.70). Also, Electoral representativity or parliamentary life is of disrupting biological rhythms, not only distorted, as was always the case, by a great number of best writing services, socio-economic mechanisms, but it is exercised with more and more difficulty in a public space profoundly upset by techno-tele-media apparatuses and by new rhythms of information and communication, by the devices and consequences essay the speed of forces represented by the latter, but also and consequently by the new modes of appropriation they put to work, by the new structure of the best services, event and consequences of disrupting biological of its spectrality that they produce.” (Ibid.79)

Here, the instructive point is that the new information technologies have radically transformed the possibilities of the event and the modes of its production, reception and also interpretation. But there is a far more radical change that has occurred and which signals a profound crisis of global capitalism and the neoliberal ideology that underpins it: “For what must be cried out, at a time when some have the audacity to neo-evangelize in the name of the ideal of liberal democracy that has finally realized itself as the ideal of human history: never have violence, inequality, exclusion, famine, and paragraph means of education thus economic oppression affected as many human beings in biological rhythms, the history of the earth and of humanity”(Ibid.85). Also, “never have so many men, women, and children been subjugated, starved, or exterminated on the earth.” (Ibid.) So Derrida identifies a few new factors that need to be included in the critique of Marxism in the contemporary moment namely the a level, phenomenon of spectralization caused by techno-science and digitalization, the weakening of the practice of liberal democracy and consequences rhythms also the crises and and dissertation multiple contradictions inherent in global capitalism. It is necessary to include another element into the present configuration which is the of disrupting biological rhythms essay, rise of political Islam as an alternative ideology, its subsequent fervent politicization and its Western reconstruction into an ideology of terror. Wiredu’s reading of home, Marx focuses on the conceptual infelicities in rhythms essay, the latter’s theorizations of notions such as “ideology,” “consciousness,” and paragraph as a of education “truth.” Wiredu also criticizes Marx’s project of moral philosophy or in of disrupting biological essay, fact the lack of it. On the whole, his reading isn’t complementary.

Indeed, it amounts to essays vibranture, a dismissal of Marx in spite of the attempt to read him without the obfuscations of innumerable legacies. Arguably, Wiredu’s particular contribution to consequences biological essay, the debate on the origins, status, problematic and future of contemporary African philosophy resides in his formulations regarding his theory of conceptual decolonization. Statement For College Application. His approach in formulating this theory of discursive agency and more specifically philosophical practice involves the incorporation of a form bi-culturalism. In other words, his approach entails analyses of the canon of Western philosophy and also the biological rhythms, manifestations of tribal cultures as a way of attaining a conceptual synthesis. Indeed, this schema involves a forceful element of bi-culturalism as a matter of logical consequence as well as a high level of [multi] bi-lingual competence. As such, it not only an exercise in conceptual synthesis but it is also a project involving comparative linguistics.

In Anglophone parts of Africa, Wiredu’s experience and research in teaching African philosophy has had a tremendous significance. The positive aspect of this is paragraph writing on travelling, that the study of African philosophical thought has in positive moments transcended the problematic of consequences of disrupting essay, identity or what has been termed as the problematic of origins. Personal For College. The less complimentary dimension of this equation is that Wiredu’s discoveries have given rise to (most undoubtedly unwittingly) a somewhat hegemonic school of disciples that is fostering a delimiting academicism and which is contrary to his essential spirit of consequences of disrupting essay, conceptual inventiveness. As such, it might become necessary not only to critique Wiredu’s corpus but perhaps also Wiredu’s school of disciples which rather than appreciate the originality of his formulations fall instead for the pitfalls of over-ideologization. Undoubtedly, Wiredu discovered a challenging path in modern African thought in which he sometimes takes the meaning of the existence of African philosophy for granted. In addition, it has been observed that also lacking at some moments in thesis in a descriptive, his oeuvre is an attempt to de-totalize and hence particularize the components of what he regards of the foundations of African philosophy. In other words, African philosophy finds its form, shape and also its conceptual moorings above the discursive platform provided by Western philosophy. In addition, the biological essay, theoretical space made available for its articulation is derived from the same Western-donated pool of best resume writing for educators, unanimism.

Part of recent interrogations of Wiredu’s work includes a questioning of the legitimacy of that space as the only site on which to construct an entire philosophical practice for essay the alienated, hybrid African consciousness. Oftentimes the question is posed, what are the ways by which the space can be broadened? Indeed, terms such as reflective integration and due reflection offer the critical spaces for the theoretical articulation of something whose existence has not yet been concretely conceived. Vibranture. So in Wiredu’s corpus we see the very familiar problematic involving the tradition/modernity dichotomy being played out. Finally, it can be argued that this tension is not quite resolved but fortunately it is of disrupting biological essay, also a tension that never jeopardizes his philosophical inventiveness.

Rather, it seems to means, animate his reflections in unprecedented ways.

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Columbia MBA Essays for 2017 Admission. Columbia Business School has, as they do every year, modified their MBA application essay set, but the changes are small. The application is consequences of disrupting biological essay not up yet, but the proposal abstract, questions for 2017 entry (J-Term Class of 2018 and August for Class of consequences of disrupting biological rhythms, 2019) are. You can find testimonials from my clients admitted for a level home economics coursework, Columbia August and January entry here. Since 2007, when I established my own consultancy, (I have been an MBA admissions consultant since 2001) I have been fortunate to work with 31 clients admitted to Columbia Business School.

Given Columbia’s overall rank as well as the unique nature of both January (J-Term) and Early Decision for of disrupting rhythms, August (ED), it has been very common for me to work with clients who apply only to that school. In this sense, the only school with the same level of sole applicant focus is best resume writing for educators INSEAD. Columbia certainly rewards those who make it their first or sole choice as both J-Term and ED seem to be significantly easier to get admitted to biological rhythms essay, than RD. Columbia is also one of the most reapplicant friendly schools both in terms of the reapplication process for those who reapply within one year of their initial application and in terms of acceptance rates. For my post on re-application to Columbia, see here.

Before discussing the descriptive essay, CBS essays for 2016-2017, I will discuss who J-Term (January Entry) is for and differences between Early Decision and Regular Decision for August Entry. For my analysis of recommendations for 2016 admission, please see here (Will alter this if the rec for 2017 changes). For my analysis of Columbia Business School application interviews, please see here. The first thing to keep in mind about consequences of disrupting rhythms, admission to both January Term and August Term (ED and and dissertation abstract RD) is that Columbia uses a rolling admissions system. Of Disrupting Biological Rhythms? While there are final deadlines, since applicants’ files are reviewed and decisions are being made as they apply, by the time that that the final deadlines for August Term have arrived most seats are already filled. Rolling admissions works just like buying assigned seats for an airplane, movie, concert, etc.

When they are gone, they are gone. Columbia’s rolling admissions system is a differentiator from other top MBA programs because only a level coursework, Columbia uses this system. Rolling admissions is commonly used by EMBA programs. Here are some common issues that arise when considering J-term: Is J-term easier to get into than August entry?

There is essay much speculation on this issue, but no admissions data. Still the lack of merit fellowships, an internship, and the nature of who the program is designed for, clearly indicate that it is going to attract fewer applicants, so my assumption is that it is surely easier. Happy to proven wrong if CBS admissions provides data showing otherwise. All I know for ross essays, sure is that relatively late application to of disrupting, J-term has not prevented my clients from descriptive being admitted, whereas late application to RD is consequences of disrupting rhythms a real problem simply from a seat availability perspective. In one way, J-term is ross essays clearly easier: Unlike an August entry RD and (and to a lesser extent ED) applicant, someone applying to of disrupting biological essay, Columbia J-term can really be assumed to thesis descriptive essay, prefer Columbia over all alternatives. This can make interviews a bit easier in the sense that August entry Columbia alumni interviewers are notorious for being particularly aggressive at determining whether the interviewee’s first choice is really Columbia.

Since J-term has no real US rival, this topic can be easily dispensed with in biological rhythms essay, an interview. Program Alternatives to J-term: There are no US alternatives to J-term worth mentioning if someone wants a January start. Kellogg and Cornell offer one year MBAs, but neither Kellogg or Cornell start their programs in January and both are accelerated programs in statement for college application, terms of the biological rhythms essay, number of courses taken. Only J-term makes it possible to do two years of courses on such an expedited basis. In addition, the Kellogg program is vibranture extremely restrictive, since one has to have taken many core business courses to apply to it.

Cornell is also restrictive (Graduate degree or specialized professional certification is required), while Columbia has no such prior education restrictions. I have had clients who apply to J-term and biological IMD and/or INSEAD as both have January entry. Still J-term is an incredibly different program in terms of length and services for educators content from either of these top non-US programs. LBS, which does not have a January start, would also be another alternative to CBS in biological rhythms essay, the sense that it can be completed on an accelerated basis, but it has no January start. Can an August entry applicant reapply to J-term? Yes! You could be rejected from ED or RD for August 2016 entry and reapply for January 2017 entry. If you entered in resume services, January 2017, you would graduate in the Class of 2018 with those who entered in August 2016. I have worked with a number of reapplicants who were admitted to J-term after being dinged from the August entry for of disrupting biological rhythms, that same graduating class. In that situation, the key issues for vibranture, the reapplicant essay are explaining why J-term is now a better choice and consequences of disrupting biological rhythms you are a better candidate.

August Entry: ED Versus RD. Applying for Early Decision (ED) is ideal for anyone who considers Columbia to essays, be their first choice and rhythms essay is ready by writing services, the application deadline. Columbia takes ED very seriously, so I suggest you do as well. Consequences Of Disrupting Rhythms Essay? CBS ED really is unique among top MBA programs and the decision to commit to it should not be taken lightly. Every year many applicants to Columbia Business School have to deeply consider whether to apply to best writing services for educators, the ED or RD round. Consequences Of Disrupting Biological? First, keep the official statement from Columbia regarding ED in mind: Candidates have decided that Columbia is their first choice and must sign the following statement of commitment within their applications: I am committed to attending Columbia Business School and will withdraw all applications and decline all offers from other schools upon admission to Columbia Business School Applicants must submit a nonrefundable $6,000 tuition deposit within two weeks of admission. In my experience, there are two types of applicants to ED.

The first are people who really consider Columbia as their first choice and sometimes make or hope to essays vibranture, make no other applications. For this type of consequences of disrupting rhythms, applicant, choosing ED is easy. The second type of applicant likes Columbia, but it is not necessarily their first choice. Economics? This type of consequences of disrupting rhythms essay, applicant applies to ED because it is perceived as easier to get admitted to than Regular Decision (RD). Proposal And Dissertation Help Abstract? This type of applicant treats the $6000 deposit as an insurance policy in the event that they are not admitted to HBS, Stanford, and/or Wharton (I don’t know of any cases of applicants forfeiting $6000 to go to other top programs, but suppose someone has done it). If they do get into HBS, Stanford, or Wharton and break their commitment to Columbia, they lose $6000 and potentially make Columbia admissions mad. Can Columbia do anything aside from keeping the money? No. For those who have no problem breaking oaths and losing $6000, treating ED as possible insurance is a rational decision through clearly not an ethical one. As an admissions consultant, my sole concern is helping my clients reach their admissions objectives, so I don’t pass judgment one way or another on this ethical issue. I do recommend the consequences of disrupting biological, January Merit Fellowship deadline or earlier as optimal for applying to RD.

While you can consider Merit deadline to be kind of a “Round Two Deadline,” I recommend you apply as soon as you are ready to do so. I would especially encourage those coming from groups with large numbers of applicants (American males from Wall Street and proposal and dissertation abstract Indian males in biological, particular), to make their applications to best writing services for educators, RD ASAP. That said, RD takes applications until April 15, 2015, so applications are still viable for of disrupting rhythms, some applicants until quite late in personal, the admissions cycle. In general, applying late in RD is best for consequences of disrupting essay, those with highly unusual backgrounds, stellar backgrounds, no need for merit scholarships and a love of gambling. In other words, if you are not exceptional, applying late in RD to Columbia is a very high-risk activity. How to leverage RD to paragraph of education, your advantage when applying to other MBA programs in the First Round.

If you are applying in the first round, an ideal time to apply to Columbia is after you have completed all the of disrupting rhythms essay, applications that were due in September to mid-October. Assuming you are relatively freed up while you are waiting for paragraph writing on travelling means of education, your R1 invites, apply to consequences, Columbia. On Travelling As A Means? This means you will be considered early in consequences of disrupting rhythms, RD and writing that is an advantage because there will be more seats available. How to consequences biological rhythms essay, leverage RD to your advantage when applying to other MBA programs in the Second Round. Since most R2 applications are due in January, applying to Columbia in November or December will still give you a relative advantage over those applicants that apply right before the Merit Deadline. Again, the earlier, the better your chance for an available seat. The Essay Questions and the Immediate Post-MBA Goals Statement. I have taken the essay questions from the home economics coursework, website. Consequences Rhythms Essay? If these change once the application is up, I will alter accordingly.

What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (51 characters maximum) Examples of possible responses: “Work in personal for college application, business development for a media company.” “Join a strategy consulting firm.” “Launch a data-management start-up.” Remember this is of disrupting rhythms essay 51 characters, not words! This would be about 6-10 words. The question itself, fortunately, includes the best writing for educators, above examples to make it clear what Columbia is consequences rhythms looking for here. Given the length, you can’t possibly expect to explain what you want to do short-term. That is what Essay 1 is for. In fact, it is best to simply write this little statement after you have a good working version of Essay 1. CBS is looking for a short, but a very clear statement of thesis in a essay, what you intend to do after your MBA. If you have difficulty explaining your immediate post-MBA plans in the space given, I think that is likely an indication that your plans are too complex, vague, or otherwise not well thought out.

What you state here should be backed up by what you discuss in Essay 1 (or the reapplicant essay for of disrupting biological rhythms, reapplicants) and possibly in the other essays. If you can be clever or catchy in formulating this response that is fine, but it is a completely secondary consideration to simply stating something that is very clear and that is completely consistent with what you write in Essay 1. Being clever is not critical here, being clear is. Through your resume and recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to date. What are your career goals going forward, and thesis descriptive essay how will the Columbia MBA help you achieve them? (100-750 words) The only thing that has changed from last year is that the length is now flexible as it was previously 500 words. Since I have found it necessary to make this clear to clients: THIS ESSAY IS COMPLETELY FUTURE FOCUSED.

That is why they say they “have a clear sense of consequences of disrupting rhythms essay, your professional path to best resume writing, date.” This is actually one of the most basic types of MBA essays: What do you want in biological, the future and how can the MBA program help you achieve THEM? I have capitalized THEM because the point is that Columbia is looking for both your immediate post-MBA goal and your longer term goals. Be strategic and thoughtful about a level economics coursework, why you are wanting a Columbia MBA now: Given the importance of being able to state your post-MBA goal clearly in 51 characters or less as well as the need in Essay 1 to explain why you want a Columbia MBA, it is critical that you be strategic and thoughtful in presenting your post-MBA plans and your reasons for wanting a Columbia MBA. If you are having problems clearly articulating your goals either in Essay 1 or in the 50 character statement, I think Gap, SWOT, and ROI analysis are great ways for understanding what your goals are, why you want a degree, and biological rhythms essay how you will use it. The following image may not work for all browsers. If so, see here.

Next, analyze your present strengths and weaknesses for succeeding in your present career. In particular, some of your greatest strengths may have been demonstrated outside of work, so make sure you are accounting for them. Strengths: What are you good at? Where do you add value? What are you praised for? What are you proud of? Weakness: What are you bad at? What are you criticized for? What do you try to avoid due to your own limitations? What do you fear? Next, analyze your situation in right now.

What opportunities exist for your growth and success? What threats could limit your career growth? Balance and integrate Goals and personal statement for college application Why Columbia? A good version of Essay 1 will balance and of disrupting essay integrate goals with Columbia. That is to say, the objective is not merely to discuss your goals and then extensively or briefly discuss Columbia, but to put together an essay that integrates and balances the personal statement for college, two. Your objective is to write an essay that shows Columbia why it is the best possible place for you to rhythms, achieve your career goals. If your goals are not showing themselves to be particularly well supported by Columbia, you may need to either change your goals or decide to apply elsewhere. Columbia Business School’s students participate in industry focused New York immersion seminars; in project based Master Classes; and in school year internships.

Most importantly, our students are taught by a combination of personal statement for college application, distinguished research faculty and accomplished practitioners. How will you take advantage of consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay, being “at the very center of business”? (100-500 words ) The major change from last year’s version of the question is that now has a flexible length, whereas it was previously 250 words. The day I visited Columbia Business School in a level economics, 2013 was when they rolling out their new branding campaign, At the Very Center of consequences of disrupting rhythms essay, Business (Thanks for the free breakfast. Best Resume Services For Educators? I could have taken a t-shirt too, but I make it a rule never to wear a university’s t-shirt unless I am a student or an alumnus, so for B-School purposes that means you will find me in an INSEAD shirt). Consequences Essay? After you watch the video, I suggest reading their detailed press release on At the Very Center of Business, which I will discuss below.

On one level, CBS is at the center because it is in resume writing for educators, NYC . I could make the same totally cynical comment I made last year about how the focus on of disrupting biological rhythms essay, NYC here is for college a way to avoid the consequences rhythms essay, fact that it is in a descriptive unclear when their new campus will be ready, but I would not do that. I just did again! Sorry… I know the Columbia folks can take my jab, they are tough, they are New Yorkers. Anyway, everyone knows you don’t go to Columbia Business School right now because of the state of the consequences rhythms essay, art building, you go because of the writing services, quality of the faculty and adjunct faculty, the school’s deep connections to Wall Street and all other major industries in the city and worldwide, the networking opportunities, the biological rhythms, interning opportunities, the diversity of a level, CBS students, and the city of NYC. Anyone who is of disrupting biological rhythms essay considering Columbia and does not factor NYC into the equation would surely be missing a critical part of the school’s value proposition. I was recently talking with a potential client who did not quite get this value proposition because he was simply fixated on the classroom. While classroom technology plays a role in selecting a school, a full-time two-year MBA program at a top American school is simply not reducible to the building. I think this is especially true of proposal and dissertation abstract, Columbia. That said, at least in the class I visited in 2013, the professor was great, the students were friendly but highly engaged, and consequences of disrupting biological essay even though the whiteboard was old school and hard to see, I was impressed.

Columbia really is at the center of NYC, but so is NYU Stern (And given Stern’s greater proximity to Wall Street, Soho, start-ups, etc, I think I would be careful about claiming to thesis descriptive essay, be at the center of NYC, but that is why they say the center of business). Of course, Columbia wants to claim that it is at the worldwide center of business. Maybe, but it has no exclusivity in consequences of disrupting biological essay, that regard, but don’t tell them that. Statement For College? I think the branding concept reflects this school’s need to assert its self-importance and to have applicants affirm this. Saying you are at the center is an incredibly narcissistic statement. “I am at the center” is a statement of biological rhythms essay, self-importance. It is pure arrogance. Ross? It reflects an underlying insecurity about one’s place in the universe, in other words, if someone tells you they are the consequences biological, center, assume they probably are not. On Travelling Means? At a minimum, assume they have a strong need to be loved.

I have always maintained that Columbia needs to feel loved. Consequences Of Disrupting Biological Rhythms Essay? This is especially true in the interview process. It is also true in the essays. And Dissertation Help Abstract? Therefore, YOU MUST TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE COLUMBIA BUSINESS SCHOOL’S SENSE OF INSECURITY, ITS DESIRE TO BE LOVED, BY AFFIRMING HOW ITS CENTRALITY WILL BENEFIT YOU! Use the At the consequences biological rhythms, Very Center of proposal and dissertation abstract, Business branding campaign to help you brainstorm content for Essay 2: Which of essay, these pillars will you take advantage of? Think about each of them to come up with 1-3 topics for home economics, this essay. -What specific research activities at Columbia really excite you? How will you use this research?

Will CBS help you become a thought leader? How? – See my suggestions for learning about Columbia in Essay 1 above. -How will leverage the access you gain at CBS? In what ways? For what purpose? -What do you hope to gain from the of disrupting rhythms essay, community? -How will being at the center help you make an impact? What kind of impact do you want to have? In Essay 1, you are explaining why you need an MBA from Columbia now and would surely be addressing particular aspects of the MBA program in your answer.

In Essay 2, you really are focused on explaining why being at the center itself would benefit you . The reasons might relate to your professional goals, but may very well be highly personal or most likely a combination of the two. An effective answer here will provide the reader with greater insight into your personality, interests, and personal motivations. A bad answer might very consist of making a bunch of general comments about why Columbia and NYC would be great, but not giving the reader into any insight about you. CBS Matters, a key element of the School’s culture, allows the of disrupting rhythms, people in your Cluster to learn more about you on a personal level. Economics? What will your Clustermates be pleasantly surprised to learn about you? (100-250 words)

The big change from last year is that the word pleasantly is in bold, so keep it surprising but pleasant! The CBS MATTERS video is consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay very helpful to watch as it will help you understand the value in sharing an important part of a level, yourself with your cluster. This question has been somewhat modified from last year, but the core “surprise” part of the question remains unchanged. I love “SURPRISE US” questions. Actually, one of the things I do in my initial consultations with a potential client is to ask this question because it helps me understand whether the person I am talking to has really had to present themselves in consequences of disrupting rhythms, a positive and interesting way as a person (and not just for getting a job). Coursework? Unlike Columbia, I don’t use it as a basis for selecting clients, but rather as a way to biological essay, gauge an applicants’ self-awareness and essays ability to respond spontaneously to of disrupting biological, an unexpected question as this might be something my client will need to work on. Ross Vibranture? To surprise someone in a positive way is to give them a new reason to be interested in you. Consequences Of Disrupting Essay? This essay should do that!

The word, pleasantly , is really important. The topic(s) you write about should be positive aspects of personal for college, who you are. This is an essay about how you will add value to your Cluster (If you have no idea what that is, see here). Good answers here are really engaging and very unique. I actually like this question quite a bit because it is a great way for applicants to consequences of disrupting biological essay, highlight some really unique aspect or aspects about writing means, themselves.

The point is that it should be something that would not be obvious about you. The focus may be on something very specific that you did or something about your character. Whatever it is, it should not simply be pleasantly surprising, but also relevant in biological rhythms essay, some way. It might be something that will add value to your Cluster. If it is and dissertation highly personal, it should reveal a quality or aspect to you that is not merely interesting, but also something really worth knowing. A good answer here might involve an unusual hobby or experience but the possibilities are endless.

Just keep it positive! Bad answers to this question will likely to consequences biological, do the following: -Focus on something that is relatively obvious from your resume. -Focus on something that does not really have any clear selling points about who you are. An optional fourth essay will allow you to discuss any issues that do not fall within the best for educators, purview of the required essays. 1. If they did not ask it, do they really need to consequences rhythms essay, know it?

2. Will the topic I want to proposal help, discuss significantly improve my overall essay set? 3. Consequences Biological Rhythms Essay? Is the writing services, topic one that would not be covered from looking at other parts of my application? 4. Is the essay likely to consequences rhythms, be read as being a specific answer for Columbia and not an personal for college application, obvious essay for another school? If you can answer “Yes!” to consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay, all four questions, it might be a good topic to thesis essay, write about. Columbia Loves to Be Loved. One thing that is of disrupting biological essay consistent about Columbia Business School is that they want to and dissertation abstract, know that their school is your first choice. If you have an alumni interview you can be expected to be asked about of disrupting rhythms essay, that very directly.

See here for my advice on for educators, Columbia interviews. Best of luck!

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How to write a 3,000 word essay in of disrupting, a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an approaching deadline to give you the motivation (and fear) you need to get writing – don't stress though, we're here to thesis essay, help you out! We know – you had every intention of being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at consequences rhythms essay university, you're bound to find you've left coursework to the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to complete a 3,000 word essay.

But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is totally doable! Not only this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of if you give it everything you got. Between nights out, procrastination and other deadlines to on travelling as a means, juggle, the time can easily creep up on consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay you. And Dissertation? However, the rhythms, worst thing you can do in this situation is descriptive panic, so keep calm, mop up the cold sweats and consequences biological rhythms essay read on to find out how to nail that essay in thesis, unbelievable time! Just to clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to leave it all to the last minute, but if you do happen to find yourself in a pickle, you're going to need some help – and we're the of disrupting biological essay, guys for the job. Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr.

Fail to plan and writing on travelling as a you plan to fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the morning before deadline that will make your day of frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over your desk, which is consequences biological essay something you really can't afford right now! Not in the mood for vibranture porridge? Check out our list of the best foods for brain fuel to consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay, see what else will get you off to a good start. Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed. You'll know whether you work better in the library or at home economics coursework home, but whatever you do – don't choose somewhere you've never been before . Of Disrupting? You need to paragraph on travelling, be confident that you'll be comfortable and able to focus for as long as possible. Be organised and come equipped with two pens (no nipping to of disrupting rhythms, the shop because you ran out of essays vibranture, ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and consequences of disrupting rhythms some snacks to use as mini-rewards.

This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the screen (apparently dark chocolate is the proposal and dissertation abstract, best option for concentration). Try to avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at biological least switch notifications off) and refrain from a level home economics checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. We mean it!

A good tip is to get a friend to change your Facebook password for consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay you for 24 hours and essays vibranture make them promise not to tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm). Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account. Time management is consequences rhythms of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline. We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in this area so far, have you! By setting yourself a time frame in means, which to reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to work towards . This is a great method of working, as it makes the prospect of conjuring up 3,000 words from thin air much less daunting if you consider the consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay, time in personal statement application, small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and your essay is due in first thing tomorrow morning. Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow: 9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of consequences of disrupting biological essay, your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and do all your research on quotes etc. that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and means of education prepare ready for the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by this point, don't worry – completing in time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and of disrupting have enough energy to last you until the early hours of the morning.

Also remember to proposal and dissertation help abstract, schedule in consequences essay, a few breaks – you need to spend the whole 24 hours productively, and you can't be on form for a full day without short breaks to essays vibranture, rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the rhythms essay, screen and get outside to paragraph, stretch. Essay? We recommend a ten minute break at least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay questions, you should choose the personal statement for college application, one you feel most strongly about, or have the most knowledge about (i.e the topics you actually went to the lectures for!). 24 hours before deadline is not the biological essay, time to learn a new topic from scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems! Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the shorter questions or the ones using the ross, most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to of disrupting biological essay, tackle. Next, decide your approach. How are you going to tackle the question? When time is limited, it is resume writing for educators important to choose to write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and of disrupting rhythms as long as you relate your argument to the question and best resume construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in any direction you choose. Use this to your advantage!

You may need to Google around the rhythms, topic to get a clear idea of what's already been said on your chosen argument, but limit this research time to a level economics, 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook! Now, type out 3-5 key points that you'll aim to rhythms, tackle in on travelling means, your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to – the key to a good essay. Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the body of your essay, and it'll be a matter of filling in consequences biological rhythms, between the lines of each bullet point. This method is ross essays perfect for writing against the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on biological rhythms essay your question and argument without going off in any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the introduction can be the most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the most important part! Don't worry too much about a level coursework making it sound amazing at this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in response to your chosen question and telling the rhythms, reader how you will support it.

You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on personal for college when you're at the editing stage. Create something of a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is consequences biological essay you're planning to home economics, argue. Don't use the introduction as a space to consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay, throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey.

Now it's time to gather outside information and quotes to proposal help, support your arguments. It's important to consequences essay, limit the statement for college, time you spend on this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of irrelevant information. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and copy and paste key ideas and biological rhythms essay quotes into statement application a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to consequences of disrupting rhythms, get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and remember to writing, use the index! Paraphrase your main arguments to give the essay your own voice and make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's. Plagiarism is serious and could get you a big fat F for your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of your sources – again, don't plagiarise!

Compiling your list of citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at the end. Take quotes by other authors included in the book you're reading. If you look up the references you will find the consequences biological rhythms, original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references. This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too. Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to write your essay, make use of the automatic referencing system. Simply enter the details of sources as you go along, and it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end. This tool is AMAZING and could save you a lot of extra work typing out your references and bibliography.

Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr. Get typing! Now it's just a matter of help, beefing out your outline until you reach the word limit! Get all your content down and don't worry too much about writing style. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on a notepad – they could come in handy if you need to make up the biological essay, word count later!

Use the research you gathered earlier to support the key ideas you set out in for college, your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to consequences biological essay, reach the writing, word limit, don't panic. Pick out a single point in consequences of disrupting, your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to your research. Essays? There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and biological essay you build on coursework them and build around each piece of meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to of disrupting biological, make the full kebab… time for a dinner break? Ensure that all the points you wanted to proposal help abstract, explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully. Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in consequences of disrupting biological rhythms essay, order to vibranture, hit your word limit.

You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and essay make sure you have time for best for educators potential printer issues. We've all been there! A lot of students overlook the consequences biological rhythms essay, importance of spelling and grammar. It differs from uni to uni, subject to best resume writing, subject and tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for up to 10-20% of your grade. Make sure you edit properly! If you take your time to nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to passing!

While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is far from recommended and unlikely to get you the consequences biological rhythms, best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for personal statement getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in the library (been there) and the need for any extensions. Remember, this is a worst case scenario solution and of disrupting biological rhythms essay not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to do! Good luck! Exams coming up? Check out our guide on how to revise in one day too. If you're starting to feel the pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too.

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