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Phd thesis on management accounting

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you’re studying for phd thesis on management accounting, an AP exam right now, or are thinking about essay taking an AP class in the future, you might be wondering: how are AP exams scored? In this post, we'll break down the phd thesis scoring process, all the way from the raw scores you earn on st gallen essay competition, the multiple choice section and essays to how you get assigned a final score of 1 to 5. Knowing how AP exams are scored can help you do your best on them – especially if you want a perfect 5. Each AP test is given a score from 1 to 5. Those numbers mean: 5: Extremely Well Qualified 4: Well Qualified 3: Qualified 2: Possibly Qualified 1: No recommendation. Phd Thesis! Any score 3 or higher is considered passing, though some colleges only accept 4s or 5s for on why be raised, credit. (See AP’s college database for specific policies at phd thesis on management, each university.) Getting a 5 is especially desirable because, for most exams, it puts you in the top 10-20% of scorers. See our list of AP classes for more info on passing rates. The 1 to 5 score is a scaled score , converted from a composite score . Your composite score is calculated from the essay 2013 total number of raw points you get from your multiple choice answers and points from the free response. It’s a bit confusing, but we will guide you through the process! The majority of AP exams consist of two sections: multiple choice and free response. Phd Thesis On Management! On some exams each section is weighted equally, on others one of them is worth slightly more.

You can look up the specifics for each exam on the AP student website, on the AP Courses pages. Custom Papers No Plagiarism! The multiple choice section is on management, graded by a computer. There are no deductions for incorrect or blank answers, so your multiple choice raw score is simply the number of questions you get correct. The free response section is graded during the custom papers report annual AP Reading held during the phd thesis on management accounting first two weeks of June. Fast Food Is Bad For Health! The AP Reading is basically a huge convention. Tons of on management accounting teachers and college professors gather to symposium essay grade thousands and thousands of accounting student-written free responses for each exam.

This is why you don't get your score until July even though you take the test in May — the written portion of fast is bad for health your exam isn't graded until mid-June , and on management accounting, after that College Board has to calculate the composite score and final scaled score for should introduction, each exam, equating the test so the scores stay even from on management year to year. Background! (For example, they want to make sure a 3 on the AP US History exam means the same thing from one year to another, even if one version of the test turned out to be more difficult for students.) (Side note: there is a good chance that an AP teacher at your school goes to the AP Reading each year. It can be interesting and helpful to talk to them about what happens at phd thesis, the convention, how quickly free responses are scored, and the best and worse free responses they’ve seen. These are answers that will vary a lot subject to subject but could be helpful and interesting to you!) This is a picture from the English literature reading from this blog post over at AP Central. It's worth reading if you are curious about what the AP reading is like! Each free response is given a holistic score, meaning it's evaluated for what a thesis contain, its overall effectiveness or correctness. Typically, points aren’t deducted for the occasional small error, for phd thesis accounting, example a spelling or grammar mistake. Most tests grade their free responses between 1 and 9, with 1 being least effective and 9 being nearly perfect. Your free response raw score is the total of the scores you get for each response.

How You Get a Scaled Score of 1 to 5. After your multiple choice is symposium competition 2013, graded by phd thesis a machine and your free response is graded by a human, your essay score and multiple choice are combined by giving each a composite score. The composite score is just a way of combining the two scores such that they are weighted correctly (for example, for AP English, multiple choice is worth 45% and free response is personality, 55%). Often the composite scores are between 100 or 150. The composite score is then converted to a number on the scaled score, between 1 and on management, 5. This means for each scaled score, there is a range of possible composite scores that could earn it. Essays! For example, a 5 could be any composite between 110 and 150 on a certain exam. Since scaling varies year to year, there are no exact cutoff numbers for scores for AP Tests, and College Board does not release detailed scoring data. Furthermore, you will not see what your composite score was on your score report — you will only phd thesis accounting get the personality number between 1 and 5. However, many teachers, prep books, and websites have come up with formulas to predict the scaled score for each AP test, which can help when you are grading practice tests and on management, coming up with a target score. Scoring Example: AP English Language. As we've seen, AP test scoring is should introduction contain, not exactly straightforward. To help clarify the on management process, we will walk through a scoring example using the most popular test, AP English Language and Composition.

Also known as the class where you annotate every. Single. Thing. To go over the basics of the AP English exam, it has 55 multiple choice questions, worth 45% of the score, and 3 essays, worth 55% of the score. Age Should Be Raised! Each essay is phd thesis on management accounting, graded between 1 and 9. Personality Essays! Before we get into the scoring example, remember that this guide is an estimation since the score conversions can vary year to year based on test difficulty. It’s impossible to precisely predict an AP test score before you get your score, but you can get an on management idea of how the process works. There are 55 multiple choice questions on essay on why the driving be raised, the AP English exam. Let's say you get 40 correct, answer 8 incorrect, and leave 7 blank.

Your raw multiple choice score would be an even 40 points. Out of the three essays, let's say you earn the following scores from the graders: 4, 7, and 8, for a total raw essay score of 19. Now this is the tricky part, where we will convert each of those raw scores to a single composite score between 0 and 150. The maximum converted essay score is 82.5, or 55% of phd thesis 150. The maximum converted multiple choice score is 67.5, or 45% of st gallen essay 150. Phd Thesis! So to figure out your composite score, use this formula: (Multiple Choice Raw Score x 1.23) + (Essay Raw Score x 3.05) = Composite Score. In this example, your multiple choice composite would be 49.2, and your essay composite would be 58, so your total composite is total composite is 107, rounded down. The last step is easy. Use the 9 chart below to estimate your scaled score. Your score of 107 would earn you a 5 – but just barely!

Again, these numbers are estimates and phd thesis on management accounting, will shift from year to should contain year based on test difficulty. Accounting! Since 107 is just over the mark of traits 104, it is possible in phd thesis accounting some test years it could earn a 4. We’ve learned how to score an AP English Language and essay on why, Composition exam. However you can’t use the same process for every AP test. Most AP tests have slightly different section weights and question totals, so the scoring formulas are different. For example, AP Calculus AB has fewer multiple choice questions (45), more free response (6 total), and weighs each section at accounting, 50%. Each AP subject is background, a unique challenge. and has its own scoring formula. So how can you figure out how the accounting AP tests you are taking are graded? First, if you’re taking the AP class, ask your teacher if they have a formula for essay, converting practice test scores to scaled scores. Most AP teachers have a formula that they use with their students for practice exams.

If you’re not taking the class or your teacher doesn’t have a formula, either find a prep book for your specific test, or search online. Remember that all formulas are estimates. If you really want a 5, you shouldn’t aim for the lowest possible composite, you should aim for perfection or very close. That’s the only way to guarantee you will get a 5. Or if you just want to make sure you pass, try to aim for a 4 so that even if you make more mistakes than you are hoping to, you’ll still get a 3. Curious about the phd thesis on management benefits of taking an AP Exam? See our in-depth guide about what AP tests are and why you should take them. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at personality traits, improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Halle Edwards graduated from Stanford University with honors.

In high school, she earned 99th percentile ACT scores as well as 99th percentile scores on SAT subject tests. She also took nine AP classes, earning a perfect score of on management accounting 5 on seven AP tests. As a graduate of a large public high school who tackled the college admission process largely on custom papers no plagiarism, her own, she is passionate about accounting helping high school students from different backgrounds get the fast essay knowledge they need to be successful in the college admissions process. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on phd thesis on management accounting, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on of japan essay, all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to phd thesis accounting 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!

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panic attack essay A Comprehensive Overview. This essay summarizes current information about phd thesis accounting, varieties of panic disorder and their treatment. It is based almost entirely on publicly available information gathered during the years 1998 through 2000 from sources (not specifically cited) that include published research papers (most available through MedScape or MedLine), published textbooks and trade books authored by qualified mental health professionals, articles in WebMD and the New York Times, the opinions of custom no plagiarism report, clinicians specialized or experienced in the treatment of panic disorders, and the experiences of accounting, some hundreds of individuals (patients, health care professionals, and peer counselors) who have shown up in various Internet-based support communities focused on panic disorders or other anxiety disorders. The intent is to introduce the reader to the wide body of knowledge that exists today and to what a thesis, integrate and disseminate a variety of emerging insights often omitted from the narrow classical view of these disorders.

This essay should not take the place of medical and on management, psychological treatment. Individuals who believe they may have panic disorder should be evaluated by a physician familiar with the complexities of panic disorders and the conditions that mimic or accompany them (some of which are discussed herein) and should receive an appropriate combination of pharmaceutical and psychological treatment from qualified caregivers specialized in this family of age should, conditions. For further background and on management accounting, a more detailed disclaimer, please refer to the end of papers report, this document. The online source for accounting, this essay resides at st gallen symposium, http://www.panic411.org/ This essay may be linked to or printed for phd thesis accounting, limited noncommercial distribution by individuals.

Any other form of dissemination or republication must be authorized in writing. Panic Disorder is a broad-brush label currently applied to a variety of conditions having clearly distinct etiologies, prognoses, and appropriate treatment strategies. Reasonably distinct causes of panic disorder include: Phobic sensitization to symptoms of panic or anxiety #150; fear of the fear Prolonged stress Anxious or obsessive patterns of fast food is bad essay, thinking Poor breathing habits, whether rooted in anxiety or other causes Emotional or existential turmoil (whether conscious or unconscious), often deriving from phd thesis on management accounting, conflicting expectations, needs, desires, or external requirements and resulting in a subjective perception of helplessnes or paralysis. These first causes are the on why the driving best known and, together with one or two concepts such as false suffocation alarm and separation anxiety, are considered the accounting classic causes. However, they may in fact explain a minority of cases.

Other causes include: A hereditary defect in the metabolism of cholecystokinins (CCK), endocrine substances involved with regulating both digestion and stress endorphins. People with this form of panic disorder have likely exhibited escalating gastrointestinal symptomatology, often Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease or Irritable Bowel Syndrome, for years or decades before the emergence of panic attacks. Norepinephrine and secondarily epinephrine GABA Serotonin. Each of the causes of panic disorder listed above is warlords 9 supported by a body of published research, except as noted in the last point, where the relevance to panic disorder is more speculative and is not suggested by the researchers but is suggested by the well-documented statistical association of panic disorder with schizophrenic families. Accounting. Ongoing advancement in the scientific understanding of panic disorder may reveal etiological overlap among these factors beyond the overlap already suggested or it may lead to of japan essay, further differentiation. In addition, there are a number of distinct medical conditions, some commonly recognized and others not, that mimic panic disorder or exacerbate sub-acute cases into an acute phase. Beyond the universally recognized but very rare pheochromocytoma, some of the more commonly encountered conditions are: Hypothyroidism. Screening for phd thesis accounting, TSH levels is widely regarded among first-line clinicians as sufficient screening for thyroid abnormalities; however, such limited screening consistently fails to identify a number of hypothyroid conditions that lead to panic attacks and other serious and sometimes life-threatening pathology. Once the condition has advanced to personality traits, the stage of panic disorder, correcting the underlying imbalance may not be sufficient to phd thesis on management accounting, bring about remission, as damage to the nervous system can already have occurred at this point. Strictly speaking, it can be argued that panic disorder is a misdiagnosis when it is st gallen 2013 secondary to on management, any of these conditions. In the real world, however, medicine most often fails to diagnose the underlying condition if the presenting symptoms have an anxious presentation to them.

As a result, the traits panic disorder population #150; on which all research is conducted, from which the understanding of panic disorder derives, on which treatments are tested, and to which the resulting diagnostic and therapeutic protocols are applied #150; is exactly this mixed bag of patients and accounting, causes. A diagnosis of warlords of japan background 9, panic disorder carries with it a substantial likelihood that one (or more than one) of these factors is present. Studies over long periods have established that thought patterns once thought to be causative in panic disorder, such as hypervigilance, catastrophic thinking or catastrophic interpretation of sensations, among others, emerge in many patients as a result of the condition and cannot in fact be considered preexisting causative factors in accounting those patients #150; that, for instance, the tendency toward catastrophic interpretation of relatively normal physical sensations typically emerges (if at all) as a gradual consequence of the normal interpretation of catastrophic physical sensations lying outside non-afflicted individuals' realm of experience. It is also critical to understand that individuals with panic disorder do not necessarily worry more, feel more stressed, or internalize or somatize more than non-afflicted individuals. Is Bad For Health. They can certainly develop such traits as a result of the condition (or possess them from birth), but the distinguishing factor is that the accounting neurochemistry of an individual with panic disorder reacts differently from that of a non-afflicted individual even to low or normal levels of stress #150; or to other, idiopathic factors not necessarily related to situational stress or worry.

This difference manifests itself in a variety of ways, some of which are well understood and some of which are not. Absolute elimination of panic attacks should be one goal of fast food is bad for health essay, treatment, because of their kindling effect. With each panic attack, the nervous system becomes more prone to experience the next one. This is phd thesis on management accounting not only a psychological process, but a neurological one as well. Absolute elimination of panic attacks is not a sufficient goal of treatment, much as elimination of sugar from the urine of a diabetic is fast is bad for health not a sufficient goal of treatment for diabetes. The insufficiencies, imbalances, and processes leading up to the panic attacks, both neurological and phd thesis, psychological, are far from benign. Because of the variety of personality traits, causes and processes at work in panic disorder, there are few generalizations one can make that would apply to on management accounting, as much as 75% of the panic population. However, subgroups and regularities do clearly exist, so there are many generalizations one can make that apply to various groups of as much as 30-40% of the population.

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and of japan background, Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV™) describes a panic attack as follows: The essential feature of a Panic Attack is a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort that is accompanied by at least 4 of 13 somatic or cognitive symptoms. The attack has a sudden onset and builds to phd thesis on management accounting, a peak rapidly (usually in 10 minutes or less) and is often accompanied by a sense of imminent danger or impending doom and an urge to escape. The 13 somatic or cognitive symptoms are palpitations, sweating, trembling or shaking, discomfort, nausea or abdominal distress, dizziness or lightheadedness, derealization or depersonalization, fear of custom papers, losing control or going crazy, fear of phd thesis, dying, paresthesias, and chills or hot flashes. Attacks that meet all other criteria but that have fewer than 4 somatic or cognitive symptoms are referred to as limited-symptom attacks. This is probably as good a rudimentary operational description as any, although it is only a committee consensus not based on any consideration of essential underlying mechanisms. (The idea of peaking within 10 minutes is now generally agreed in the panic disorder community to apply to a minority of cases. Full status panicus can persist for hours or even days. Presence of the fast food is bad for health essay 10-minute observation in DSM-IV is probably a legacy from the time when panic disorder was thought to be synonymous with hyperventilation syndrome.) It is important to note that anxiety or fear, although typical, is not a requirement.

Intense discomfort, whether existential or physiological, is equally a qualifying factor. In fact, the terms panic disorder and panic attack may do as much to obscure the phd thesis on management true face of the disorder from clinicians and patients as they do to make it understandable to the general public. Much additional insight can be gained from one of the pioneers in treating panic disorder before there was much medical understanding of the condition, Dr. Traits Essays. Claire Weekes. She wrote of a panic attack as consisting of a first fear and a second fear. The first fear is some cluster of sensations, often untriggered, of which the patient suddenly becomes aware. These would be sensations like those broadly categorized in the DSM-IV definition (and treated in somewhat more detail under later headings in this essay). We know today that the term arousal or dysautonomia is more appropriate than fear to phd thesis, many patients and clusters of personality essays, sensations, but Dr. Weekes' early insight is still remarkable for phd thesis, her time, crucial to understanding the background anatomy of a panic attack, and therapeutically useful today.

The second fear is a reaction to on management accounting, the appearance and st gallen, sensations of the first fear. Competing descriptions have emerged for why this second fear comes about #150; premonition of death, fear of suffocation, resonance with primal separation trauma, catastrophic thinking, etc. #150; but basically, Weekes' premise is that the second fear is fear of the first fear. On Management Accounting. It is warlords background a rapidly escalating, possibly eruptive panic reaction that feeds back into the manifestations of the on management accounting first fear or triggers new manifestations. It is Weekes' second fear that is addressed by most attempts to treat panic disorder. Patients are taught not to fear the primary sensations of the episode. This is an extremely useful concept in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for personality traits, panic attacks. In the days before any such phenomena were recognized, patients either learned to do this on their own or medicated themselves with alcohol or with medications prescribed for phd thesis, nerves. (Or in the worst cases, they were committed to on why age should, psychiatric hospitals.) The aim of such CBT is to learn and internalize the idea that the primary manifestations are benign and to learn not to on management, compound them with a panic reaction. Symposium Essay Competition. Antidepressant medications also primarily treat this second fear, even as some of them may exacerbate the on management accounting primary manifestations of panic disorder. Nonetheless, the fact remains that the primary manifestations of a panic attack, the first fear, can be intensely unpleasant. Even without any second fear, the primary manifestations of a panic attack can have a distinctly paroxysmal quality of traits essays, their own, akin to vomiting or a slow-motion sneeze or a slow-motion shudder or an on management accounting orgasm.

They have differing causes in different cases. Various theories compete to provide an explanation. Some neurologists hypothesize neuroelectrical chaos. Some make an food is bad analogy to a sort of phd thesis accounting, epilepsy outside the brain, while others dispute the warlords of japan background essay appropriateness or desirability of such an analogy. Others find deficiencies of parasympathethic neurotransmitters.

In some patients, blood oxygen saturation drops by 25% or more, sometimes in response to circulatory disturbances and other times in response to underbreathing. It is likely that a relatively large number of transitory endocrinological and neurological manifestations exist but are difficult to observe in progress. And then there are patients in whom the on management accounting primary manifestations are non-paroxysmal. Such patients may simply shake randomly and uncontrollably, or feel intense generalized abdominal distress, or experience a variety of alien internal sensations. These sensations can be frustratingly difficult to describe, since they often lie outside of shared experience, the language lacks any directly descriptive terms for them, and the non-afflicted can only try to interpret such descriptions in terms of personal experience. A further complication is that even medical doctors versed in panic disorder do not always know what is food is bad for health happening biologically or how to observe or measure it in other than superficial terms. On Management Accounting. The experience usually looks like fear and it most often, though not always, feels like fear as well, albeit sometimes a strange fear. These manifestations may continue for hours or even days in the absence of medical intervention (despite the DSM-IV's specification of 10 minutes as a norm), and not all patients experiencing these symptoms experience the escalating or eruptive second fear to which Weekes refers. It is possible to learn not to custom, compound one's reaction when blood oxygen saturation falls substantially, or when a drop in the availability of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine below a certain threshold causes muscles to go into random spasms, or when any of accounting, a host of other manifestations appear, but absence of fast food for health, a compounding second fear by no means implies that one is well or feels well. Phd Thesis On Management. One might well say of is bad for health essay, some cases #150; and such cases are not rare #150; that over on management, time the panic disappears but the disorder remains. On one level, that is a facetious statement, but on another level, it captures an important truth.

So while practicing psychologists and psychiatrists largely focus (wittingly or unwittingly) on treating Weekes' second fear and associated complications (primarily inter-attack anticipatory anxiety, agoraphobia, or phobic avoidance), researchers and neurologists work at expanding our understanding of the first fear, or the primary manifestations of panic attacks. Essay. The belief that most panic disorder patients are simply overreacting to normal sensations that others ignore is rapidly being relegated to history. The primary manifestations of panic attacks are often anything other than normal sensations. On Management. Researchers in whom such sensations have been induced artificially have described them as harrowing. One described them as comparable in degree of trauma to wartime experiences. Hyperarousal and the Mind-Body Duality. The conditions commonly called anxiety disorders #150; Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and other less commonly diagnosed conditions #150; are all essentially disorders of st gallen symposium essay competition 2013, hyperarousal.

In the case of panic disorder, particularly of the familial variety, the hyperarousal tends to be essential (having no single, clearly identifiable cause, much like essential high blood pressure) and, at least in phd thesis the early years, autonomic (expressing itself primarily or initially in physical symptoms not under conscious control). There has been a tendency in the conceptualization of these disorders (at least the first three) to think in terms of hyperarousal specifically of the fear, alarm, and watchfulness circuits of the fast food essay brain, but in truth the hyperarousal tends to be more generalized in nature. It may even lack an intuitively anxious presentation. Because typically anxious arousal is phd thesis more likely to be noticed, clinicians' unawareness of the generalized nature of the on why be raised hyperarousal involved can lead to underdiagnosis of hyperarousal disorders or to too narrow a focus on treatment of specific symptoms. Mental arousal comprises thoughts and feelings, both conscious and unconscious. It may express itself in many ways, some of them subjectively negative (such as worry or non-specific agitation), some of them subjectively positive (such as anticipation), some of them constructive (such as productive focus on a project), some of them destructive (such as constant worry about improbable what-if scenarios). Mental arousal resides in the higher levels of the phd thesis on management accounting brain, those responsible for conscious and unconscious thoughts and feelings. Autonomic arousal consists of many bodily functions that are not under volitional control, such as heartbeat, sweating, digestion, and others; and some bodily functions that are partially under volitional control, such as breathing and excretion, so that they self-regulate in normal circumstances but are subject to conscious or unconscious intervention from higher levels of the essay the driving brain.

Autonomic arousal resides nearly everywhere in the body outside the higher levels of the brain, including the nervous, endocrinological, and immune systems and the most primitive parts of the brain that regulate autonomic function. It is an axiom of psychosomatic medicine that where the mind goes, the body will follow. On Management Accounting. There is, however, an equally true but often neglected corollary to that maxim, namely that where the essays body goes, the phd thesis on management accounting mind will follow. Each type of arousal disorder and essay 2013, each individual case has its characteristic mixture of mental and autonomic arousal and its own characteristic relationship between the two. It turns out to make little difference in accounting panic disorder whether arousal is subjectively perceived as negative or positive, as anxiety or as pleasurable excitement. It is the fact of personality, arousal in itself that primes the phd thesis on management accounting body to experience panic attacks and then triggers the attacks. This is true whether the st gallen essay competition arousal stems from external stimulation or from phd thesis, internal factors, whether from primarily mental influences or primarily autonomic ones such as reactions to medication, food, heat, or panicogenic inhalants (including certain common air pollutants). The classical view of anxiety disorders is what introduction that mental hyperarousal is the impetus behind autonomic hyperarousal. This is an phd thesis on management accounting understandable oversimplification, because it describes what is true much of the should introduction time in normally functional individuals. It ignores the key point, however, that these are precisely disorders of arousal, and that there are various forms of these disorders. An arousal disorder may be driven by phd thesis, intrinsic hyperarousal of the mind, by intrinsic hyperarousal of the autonomic nervous system, or by personality traits, an aberration in the way either one influences the other.

And whatever the primary impetus of the disorder, secondary effects nearly always emerge to phd thesis, complicate the is bad condition and on management, confuse its characterization #150; effects seen in the mental and warlords essay 9, autonomic domains and in the way that the two domains influence each other. Yes, the mind can arouse the body and it can calm the on management accounting body. It can even make the essay the driving body ill, as one sees in the traditional view of stress and psychosomatic medicine; and it can heal the body, as one sees in the response of such conditions as cancer to the influence of psychotherapy #150; although thankfully, one does not see anyone advocating treatment of the mind as the primary care for cancer patients. (One hopes that the average treatment of panic disorder will some day be so enlightened…) However, the reverse is equally true: the body can arouse the mind and it can calm the mind; and it can even make the mind ill or heal the mind. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting. One sees one obvious example in age should be raised the relaxing (or in some cases invigorating) effects of massage #150; indeed the ability of massage therapy to influence the course of mental and even physical illness. Another example is found in the mental illnesses #150; depression, obsession, anxiety #150; that frequently develop as secondary consequences of on management accounting, chronic organic illness.

Food reactions distinct to certain genetic groups constitute another example, as do arousal reactions to certain antibiotics and anticholinergic medications that do not act directly on higher levels of the brain. The spectrum connecting mental and 9, autonomic arousal could be compared to a pushme-pullyou, the fictional creature from Dr. Phd Thesis. Dolittle with two front ends and two brains. The beast is particularly unpredictable in individuals with anxiety/arousal disorders. The mind can be driving the disorder with the body mostly along for the ride. Or the fast food body can be driving the disorder, with the mind doing its best to resist. Treatment of the mind can accomplish surprising effects on biology, but this is compensation, and it does have its limits. If this were not so, then psychotherapy would be the primary treatment against for instance epilepsy, a condition with certain similarities to some forms of panic disorder and a condition that is sometimes partially responsive to psychotherapy. So a good understanding of the mind-body connection in panic disorder generally and in any specific patient is on management accounting essential to intelligent diagnosis and effective treatment. Notwithstanding the mind-body overlap, the is bad for health essence of each case is phd thesis usually to be found in some intrinsic factor on one side or the other. The reader should know that the medical community currently applies the term dysautonomia to an abnormality in the self-regulation of autonomic arousal and applies the traits term anxiety to an abnormality in the level of mental arousal, including any manifestations of on management accounting, autonomic arousal presumed correctly or incorrectly to derive from conscious or unconscious thoughts or feelings.

This conceptual bias tends to hobble treatment, but it is important for essay be raised, the reader to understand the doctor's likely perspective at the outset of the relationship. Most of the phd thesis accounting clinical progress currently taking place in competition 2013 the medical treatment of panic disorder occurs through the process of patients exposing their doctors to phd thesis, the body of research relevant to their own variant of panic disorder. Dysautonomia and its Paroxysms. The panic attacks in panic disorders are usually just the tip of the iceberg. Just as significant as panic attacks per st gallen symposium essay se is the chronic dysautonomia present in panic disorder. A number of phd thesis on management, expressions of dysautonomia are often present for extended periods in competition panic disorder patients, even in the absence of frank panic attacks. Indeed panic attacks could in most cases be called dysautonomic paroxysms, and on management, the disorder could reasonably be called paroxysmal dysautonomia. The following is a reasonably comprehensive but certainly not exhaustive list of mostly dysautonomic symptoms associated with panic disorder. Food For Health. (Not all of these are strictly speaking dysautonomic, though most are, but this is a convenient place to gather symptoms frequently associated with panic disorder.) Any given person is likely to experience only a handful of phd thesis accounting, these symptoms, though they may be frequent and intense. The point of such an extensive list is to provide reassurance to someone diagnosed with panic disorder who is experiencing any of these very diverse symptoms that they can indeed be merely symptomatic of panic disorder and not necessarily a sign that some other medical or biological condition is present.

Heart-and circulation-related: Rapid, irregular, or forceful, loud heartbeat. Sensation of skipped heartbeats. Chest pain. Low or high blood pressure, often with remarkably wide swings. Essay On Why Be Raised. Panic disorder patients are sometimes diagnosed with atypical mitral valve prolapse or mitral valve prolapse syndrome.

It is characteristic of panic disorder that symptoms from several of the groups above occur together. (panic disorder is a polysystemic condition, which is one factor leading to poor recognition, diagnosis, and phd thesis, treatment.) It is also normal for some varying level of these symptoms to be present much or most of the time for uncontrolled patients, but for the symptoms periodically to personality, escalate to on management, the point of paroxysm followed by is bad for health, relief of varying duration. It is common for panic attacks to occur during sleep, especially in patients with the gene for cholecystokinin-related bile reflux panic disorder. In many respects, these dysautonomic symptoms ought to be of more concern to clinicians than the panic attacks themselves, except that patients experiencing panic attacks are at phd thesis on management, a strikingly elevated risk of personality traits essays, suicide. Normal research subjects who have had panic attacks induced by the administration of GABA antagonists have described the experience as completely unbearable and the worst experience of on management, their lives. (It is conceptually interesting that although synthetic panic attacks can be created with some degree of success under laboratory conditions using serotonin depleters, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cholecystokinin, sodium lactate, and norepinephrine, no class of substances but perhaps cholecystokinin comes anywhere close to st gallen symposium essay, the panicogenic effect of on management, a GABA antagonist. This suggests that the old GABA-based conceptualization of panic disorder in the wild was more correct than newer serotonin-based conceptualizations.) In a significant number of patients, dysautonomic symptoms and panic attacks emerge not during periods of long-term or short-term stress, but after the cessation of such stress or during its period of abatement. This is custom papers no plagiarism probably true in particular of the patients with cholecystokinin abnormalities.

In a significant number of patients, mental/emotional anxiety waxes and wanes, and the dysautonomia waxes and wanes, but there is no identifiable pattern of correlation. It is in these patients that the neurological dimension of the disorder is the most obvious. There is an interesting minority of patients who experience severe dysautonomia, even to the point of physical incapacitation, without experiencing what they themselves would call a panic attack. This is phd thesis not too difficult for many sufferers of panic disorder to fast is bad, understand, particularly after therapy or years of experience with the condition have desensitized (to varying degrees) the fear response that can be aroused by the dysautonomia. One experiences all of the escalating dysautonomic arousal without the paroxysmal culmination that provides temporary relief. People who have not experienced a panic attack can perhaps understand this distinction by thinking of sexual arousal and orgasm as an analogy. It is possible to be highly aroused without experiencing orgasm. Similarly, these non-paroxysmal dysautonomic states can be very intense #150; indeed they can be more intense than the states that would induce paroxysmal panic in other panic disorder patients or in accounting normal individuals. Current thinking distinguishes between Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and panic disorder largely (though not entirely) on the basis of absence or presence of panic attacks.

But in some respects, these conditions appear much of the time to be differing degrees of the the driving age should be raised same biological disorder, and if it is useful to distinguish at all, it might be more diagnostically and therapeutically useful to apply a distinction at right angles to the current one, recognizing one disorder that is primarily somatic/dysautonomic and another that is primarily cognitive/emotional. Granted there is overlap, but there does appear often to be an etiological distinction in reality. It is common practice to consider panic disorder controlled when panic attacks are eliminated. However, the goals of treatment should actually include elimination of most or all of the associated dysautonomia, as the dysautonomia is symptomatic of phd thesis accounting, uncontrolled underlying pathology and in some cases exacerbates the underlying pathology (just as uncontrolled panic attacks escalate through neurological as well as psychological mechanisms). Panic disorder of biological genesis is chronic and mildly progressive. Although some clinicians claim encouraging cure rates, usually in carefully selected groups, studies have shown that when one looks at what should a thesis introduction, patients over periods of time four years or longer, a preponderance of phd thesis on management, patients experience relapse in the absence of st gallen, ongoing pharmaceutical treatment. This is not always evident to treating clinicians (who have been known to claim cure rates as high as a thoroughly suspicious 100%), because patients frequently change doctors if they perceive that their treatment was unsympathetic or ineffective; and phd thesis accounting, relapse is essay age should readily perceived as a sign that treatment was ineffective if the treating physician has created unrealistic expectations of a permanent cure or has exerted subtle pressure to recover or to phd thesis accounting, tough out minor episodes. It is is bad for health often stated that panic attacks do not lead to heart attacks. This is phd thesis on management true as far as it goes; however, sufferers of uncontrolled panic disorder are at a quadrupled risk for eventually experiencing a serious cardiac event. For instance, QT prolongation (a type of subtle heart arrhythmia) is present in a disproportionate number of undertreated panic disorder patients.

In fact, a variety of arrhythmias are observed with disproportionate frequency in food for health panic disorder patients, though many of on management, them are only observable during an episode or during the lead-in to an episode. The paroxysm of the attack itself may serve to correct the arrhythmia. One of the greatest health risks for sufferers of panic disorder as they grow older is unrecognized serious illness that would be diagnosed earlier in other patients. If it is true that a certain proportion of panic disorder patients tend toward hypervigilance and hypochondria, particularly in the years just prior to and following correct diagnosis with panic disorder, yet it is also documented that primary care physicians and essay age should, many specialists tend to dismiss the complaints of patients bearing a diagnosis of phd thesis on management accounting, panic disorder (or generalized anxiety disorder) without sufficient foundation for doing so. Panic disorder patients get organic illness just as often as other patients. They just don't get it diagnosed as often. In fact, it has been clearly shown that patients with anxiety disorders go longer before diagnosis of serious conditions than do patients without these stigmatizing diagnoses, and physicians have cause to is bad for health, be more concerned with the potential for accounting, medical error and liability. Particularly problematic is the practice in some emergency rooms of shunting panic disorder or GAD patients presenting with chest pain or other possible cardiac symptomatology into psychiatric observation without sufficient examination. Fast Is Bad For Health. There are documented instances of fatalities resulting from such systematized negligence. On the other side of the same coin, emergency rooms also represent frequently missed opportunities to identify potential cases of panic disorder.

Many ER doctors are poorly trained to recognize panic disorder, particularly in its pre-emergent guise of non-paroxysmal dysautonomia. This is not surprising given the diagnostic criteria in use today. Pre-emergent panic disorder often does not look much like GAD, as it is is likely to phd thesis on management accounting, be primarily somatic until the first string of what should introduction, panic attacks initiates the cycle of fear or worry and cognitive-emotional-behavioral disturbance. Unfortunately, even when ER doctors do recognize panic disorder, they are still as likely as not to dismiss it as neurosis unworthy of serious attention and counseling or referral. Patients are still likely to be told to breathe into a paper bag next time, although this is in fact more likely to trigger than to stave off a panic attack for a sufferer of biologically rooted panic disorder. In fact, panic disorder patients are often told (not asked) that they are claustrophobic, or anxious travelers, when in on management accounting fact their bodies are reacting in predictable and well-understood ways to the elevated levels of CO2 present in personality poorly ventilated spaces full of breathing bodies. This ties in with the false suffocation alarm interpretation of panic disorder, although this theory has become less prominent in the field as other mechanisms have become better documented.

This is not to say that the on management accounting interpretation will prove to essay be raised, be wrong, merely that it is accounting not universal. And in traits essays point of fact, it has not as yet been proven to be anything; hypotheses and phd thesis accounting, assertions relating to panic disorder must be subjected to the same standard of proof as other, non-psychology-related, statements of medical doctrine. One finds that clinicians who demonstrate admirable scientific rigor in making non-psychiatric diagnoses are given to comically whimsical leaps of faith in attributing patients' symptoms to psychosomatic processes. (Hence the of japan derisive terms psycho-so-magic and psycho-so-magical that one sometimes encounters in patient discussions.) Note: There is ample research around the false suffocation alarm to indicate that elevated CO2 levels do in accounting fact provoke hyperarousal and panic attacks in a subset of the essay the driving be raised panic disorder population. At issue is the histrionic labeling of this reaction on on management accounting, the assumption that all individuals ought to food for health, experience identical toxic reactions to CO2 at phd thesis accounting, identical concentrations. One might just as easily label hypoglycemic states as false starvation alarm reactions. It is not the alarm per se that is on why the driving age should false, it is merely its characterization as one of life-threatening suffocation or starvation that is false #150; and on management accounting, that is not the patient's error of should, interpretation, as the term implies, but the diagnostician's. (And when this model was extended to phd thesis on management, a population with anxiety from papers no plagiarism report, pulmonary disease, the alarm sadly turned out not to be so false.) There are a number of conditions frequently associated with panic disorder. On Management Accounting. Some of should a thesis introduction, them may be cause or effect of the disorder, while others are merely associated. It is phd thesis important for physicians to recognize the associations, because sometimes it is warlords background 9 difficult to treat the associated condition if the underlying or associated panic disorder is left untreated.

GERD, IBS. Probably the conditions most universally present in panic disorder are Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Phd Thesis. In approximately 40% of panic disorder patients, both are caused primarily though not entirely by the excessive and irregular secretion of bile so characteristic of custom report, hereditary panic disorder. In some patients the effects are mostly upward in the GI tract, resulting in excessive stomach acid secreted to neutralize the bile and leading to accounting, GERD #150; sometimes with associated asthma or sinusitis that is not recognized as related to panic disorder or GERD. (Gastric swelling and consequent pressure on food is bad for health, the diaphragm or a nerve center has been proposed as one possible cause of abnormal breathing in phd thesis accounting panic disorder; such a suggestion is supported by warlords essay 9, the fact that subjective difficulty in breathing related to panic disorder can be alleviated in some individuals by phd thesis accounting, pressing fingertips downward into symposium 2013, the abdomen not far below the sternum.) Often patients will have had GERD or IBS for phd thesis accounting, years or decades, frequently even since childhood, before the emergence of panic disorder diagnosable by current DSM-IV criteria. Even panic disorder patients who do not show overt symptoms of GERD or IBS often exhibit the characteristic abnormalities of age should, bile secretion. Accounting. The combination of Xanax and Carafate has been found to be remarkably effective in treating these conditions in panic disorder patients; indeed therapeutic response of GERD or IBS to essay the driving age should, this combination can almost be regarded as a diagnostic criterion. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting. (It is not known why Carafate is often so much more effective in the panic disorder population than newer drugs like acid blockers and proton pump inhibitors, but the traits essays phenomenon is accounting distinct.) As one follows any group of panic disorder patients over essay 9, a period of years, half or more do apparently keep the diagnosis of essential panic disorder. However, every year a certain percentage are found to have an organic condition the diagnosis and treatment of which resolves the panic disorder. Obviously the phd thesis on management organic condition, or at least a tendency to it, was present years before it became overt enough to trigger normal diagnostic flags. Essay The Driving Age Should. A panic disorder patient should be prepared to believe and to accept the accounting benign diagnosis of panic disorder for the rest of what should introduction contain, their life. But clinicians and patients alike should be alert to changes and phd thesis on management accounting, should recognize that for instance normal ranges on laboratory tests apply to a statistical abstraction and warlords background, not necessarily to every individual.

Often individuals experience well-being only within a narrower range of values than the stated range (which varies from lab to lab in any case), and on some types of phd thesis on management, tests, even the the driving be raised optimal center point may be different for different individuals. Panic disorders, the comorbid conditions mentioned above, and the possible reasons for comorbidity offer much fertile and largely unturned ground for research in the coming years. There are quite a few chicken-and-egg questions raised by just the phd thesis accounting associations discussed above, not to mention associations that will emerge with more research. One thing that is clear even now, though, is that with or without statistical documentation, most of the associations discussed above are widely recognized in the panic disorder community. On Medicine As Biology. Those of st gallen symposium competition, us without a medical education tend to think of our doctor as a kind of master detective biologist. It's a natural assumption but it reflects an important misunderstanding of phd thesis on management, medicine as art or science. A doctor is should a thesis introduction contain only a master biologist in phd thesis accounting the loose sense that an architect or a structural engineer would be a master physicist. After a few notoriously rigorous courses in personality essays certain traditional elements of human biology, a medical education branches rather quickly into phd thesis on management, the study of established medical protocols for custom papers no plagiarism, diagnosis and treatment of well-recognized conditions. Phd Thesis Accounting. When a doctor examines and diagnoses us, he is not, as we might easily imagine, unraveling the mysteries of our biological individuality. Rather he is comparing our presentation to a multitude of checklists that would match us to one of the standard diagnoses and treatments he has (in the best case) mastered.

American medicine in particular prides itself in being based on on why the driving, statistical models of disease. Phd Thesis Accounting. The European medical tradition recognizes the statistical perspective and and the what should a thesis case-based or anecdotal perspective as complementary halves of a complete picture, halves that are roughly analogous to macroeconomics and microeconomics. On Management Accounting. But the case-based perspective interests American medicine only insofar as cases reflect what is typical of the statistical perspective on papers, a patient's illness. Doctors are explicitly trained to gloss over and filter out the phd thesis on management idiosyncrasies that conflict with the accepted model of the condition. Thus many will persist with a favored class of medication despite a patient's obvious adverse effects or lack of response. It is on why the driving age should revealing that the phd thesis doctor's impatience will be with the patient, not with the medication. They will ignore patients' reports of warlords background 9, unusual symptoms as irrelevant when in fact they could be highly relevant to unraveling the individual mystery and finding a treatment that is effective for the individual patient. In such cases, the phd thesis doctor is personality traits essays not treating the patient, he is phd thesis accounting treating the statistical model of the patient's diagnosis (a diagnosis which may or may not be correct) . Nowhere does this approach to medicine fail more spectacularly than in of japan a condition like panic disorder, where it is so difficult to define what is typical. But it fails in other contexts as well.

The author of this document himself was evaluated by phd thesis on management, 14 doctors over a span of more than 10 years before aldosteronism was finally noticed, proven, and identified as the root cause of all the symptoms that had received such a variety of diagnoses and misdiagnoses (including panic disorder) over that time. Fast Food Is Bad. Mumblings about anxious patient and panic attacks were always somewhere in the background. In the end, he himself had to suggest the diagnosis that proved to be correct and argue vigorously for the definitive test that clinched the diagnosis. Unfortunately, the author's experience is not at all unusual. Such outcomes are commonplace in panic disorder support groups.

They may even be more the rule than the phd thesis exception. No Plagiarism Report. The overlooked diagnoses vary, but the experience is the same. Patients go years and even decades getting hurried, substandard and frequently condescending care from doctors (often at phd thesis, premier practices or medical facilities) who jump to hasty conclusions and rush to try out the latest psychotrophic medication. Often the final and correct diagnosis is a condition thought to is bad essay, be rare, such as celiac disease, aldosteronism, or thyroid dysfunction, but which appears to be strikingly common in the panic disorder population. Sometimes these failures of diagnosis occur because a doctor who might recognize a single unmistakable result on a routine test or some other unmistakable clinical indicator is not good at recognizing a constellation of borderline results or suggestive indicators that must be considered in combination before they add up, as in the author's case, to a clear picture. More often such failures of diagnosis reflect a simple failure to be meticulous. So patients suffer years of adverse medication reactions, stigma, and other woes that often include lost jobs, lost mobility, lost careers, lost marriages, and lost financial security.

Then a single meticulous doctor provides a correct diagnosis and on management accounting, correct treatment, and the neurotic symptoms magically evaporate. One truth is abundantly clear in all of 2013, this: the extent to phd thesis on management, which our presentation is warlords of japan essay 9 atypical is almost precisely the extent to which our doctors will fail to correctly diagnose and phd thesis, treat us. They are trained to ignore the atypical, not to seek an food essay explanation or accommodation for it. And there are virtually no typical cases in phd thesis on management panic disorder or the conditions that mimic it. There are only should a thesis, typical treatments. There have been studies showing that doctors almost universally overstate their treatment successes and understate their patients' adverse reactions. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting. Some studies have even explored psychological reasons for the disconnect from reality. But it is also easy to explain by natural selection. There are many doctors who treat panic disorder ineffectively and who fail to diagnose medical conditions masquerading as panic disorder.

There are only a few who routinely do well at it. It is well documented that most panic patients see multiple doctors (averaging ten or more) before finally receiving effective treatment or correct diagnosis. Almost every one of those earlier doctors assumes that treatment has been successful, or at the very least fails to receive any feedback on the negative outcome or misdiagnosis. Thus there will inevitably be a large majority of doctors who think they are doing much better than they actually are. One could well object, in cases of delayed diagnosis, that then it's not panic disorder. But if all the patients who have had this experience or will have it in the future could omnisciently be removed from the population that forms the core of the panic disorder industry, it's not clear that there would be many left. Certainly much that the medical community now thinks it knows about the condition would no longer be valid in such an omnisciently sifted patient population, because most of the current knowledge (such as it is) has been derived from food is bad, this heterogeneous population.

Unfortunately, all of this talk about undiagnosed and misdiagnosed conditions feeds into the worst and most common fear in phd thesis on management accounting the panic disorder community, namely that some terrible condition has gone unnoticed, one that will kill us before it is discovered. The bad news is that undiagnosed medical conditions are very common in the panic disorder population. But the report good news it that they are almost never fatal conditions. On Management. The fatal conditions do get diagnosed quickly. In fact, finding things that will kill you is the one thing that modern American medicine does better than anything else. By the time a panic disorder patient has undergone EKGs, MRIs, and traits, all of the accounting other routine technological marvels requiring little initiative or detective work from a doctor, the patient can be confident there is of japan essay 9 no undetected brain tumor, no undetected adrenal tumor, no potentially fatal heart arrhythmia, and phd thesis, no other killer lurking unseen in the background. The conditions that commonly mimic panic disorder are almost never fatal. But it is fast for health essay inarguably difficult to phd thesis on management accounting, get adequate testing.

Out of personality traits essays, every 30-60 Americans with celiac disease (a common mimic of panic disorder), only one will be diagnosed during his or her lifetime. Countless celiac patients have written in online panic support groups about the long battle for testing that they had to wage before getting the definitive tests and a correct diagnosis. For aldosteronism, the figure would be around one out of about 10-30 who ever receives the correct diagnosis. For autoimmune hypothyroidism, the accounting prospect of st gallen symposium competition 2013, diagnosis is presumably brighter, but many people write of waging long battles before the accounting diagnosis was made. Panic disorder or the syndrome of its symptoms, even when caused by traits, some other condition makes it hard for the patient to practice acceptance. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting. Yet it is vital to do so. We should recognize and of japan background, accept that if we had a fatal condition, it would be noticed. On Management. We should recognize and accept that there may very well be some non-fatal condition causing our symptoms that has not yet been noticed #150; and st gallen essay competition, that is not a catastrophe . Phd Thesis. We should recognize and custom report, accept that in the doctor corps, as in on management accounting every other walk of life, there is a small percentage (maybe 5%?) of people who do their work really well, a somewhat larger minority who are adequate for garden-variety patients (which we are not), and a full 50% who are below average (not to mention inadequate). We must be our own detectives and advocates, but we should do so methodically, patiently, and st gallen essay competition 2013, without rancor. We should ignore the condescension and hostility of doctors threatened by our persistence or our discontent.

People can only be as good as they are, and it is futile to hold anyone's mediocrity against them. Phd Thesis. We should never remain locked in should a thesis introduction contain conflict with an unresponsive doctor, but should undramatically find another. We should remember that statistically, it will probably be the phd thesis on management tenth or eleventh doctor who turns out to understand our condition and its treatment. Every new doctor is warlords of japan background essay a step toward the right one. We should not be ashamed of looking for accounting, the right doctor, not be intimidated by traits essays, charges of on management, doctor shopping. If there is a treatable and unnoticed medical condition underlying our case, it will be our own initiative and nobody else's that leads to a doctor who can diagnose it. But in personality essays many cases, maybe half or more, no such underlying medical condition will ever be found, and phd thesis, we should accept that probability as well. The fact that panic is so hereditary (and genetically linked to a variety of other conditions) makes it clear that biology is a strong factor, but not every biological problem has found its way into the protocols of medicine. We should accept that as well. It is very possible to live a good life with panic disorder if only we find a doctor who can practice appropriate and individualized treatment. We should seek a therapist as well, one who can teach us to use the mind to compensate for failings of the body.

The first resolution must be to should, live as well as possible within the parameters of the condition. Often correct medication and accounting, competent therapy can lead to virtual normality. The search for explanations should never become more important than making the most of the function and possibilities we have. The search for another explanation is like prospecting for gold: it is a long-term quest, one in which we must pace ourselves wisely and one in which there may never be a payoff. On Treatment Options. The most commonly used treatments for panic disorder, in no particular order, are Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (or a special variant known as Panic Control Therapy), various meditation or progressive relaxation practices, medication with tricyclic antidepressants, medication with SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, another class of antidepressant agent), medication with benzodiazepines (a form of minor tranquilizer), medication with anti-epileptic agents other than benzodiazepines, and occasionally hypnosis or medication with one or another class of warlords background 9, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs or RIMAs) or antipsychotic agents. Hypnosis is relatively uncommon because it is seldom effective for non-phobic panic and can easily worsen the situation. Phd Thesis. Attempts to unearth and treat the underlying trauma are usually misguided because if the initial diagnosis of panic disorder has been rigorous, it appears that there is seldom an underlying trauma to unearth. Medication with MAOIs is relatively uncommon because of the dietary restrictions involved and the danger of hypertensive crisis.

Some clinicians are working with reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors, but so far there appears to be little data on success. In listening to patients, it becomes apparent that there are patients who respond well to each of the therapies in common use, either alone or in combination. Papers. It appears somewhat common and accounting, highly advisable, for example, to st gallen competition 2013, supplement medication with CBT or PCT, but one also sees combinations of medications. Reactions to medications appear to be highly variable in panic disorder #150; less consistent, for instance, than reactions to on management accounting, anti-hypertensive medications in the treatment of hypertension. Food Is Bad For Health Essay. One sees that some patients respond negatively to several medications or classes of medications, only to respond well to another. Some patients report that SSRI medications foster a return to spontaneity and exuberance, but others report a range of negative outcomes ranging from a dulling out of emotions or even physical sensations (resulting in serious accidental burns or cuts) at one extreme to phd thesis, unbearable agitation at the other. St Gallen Competition 2013. Similarly, some patients report a normalizing effect from benzodiazepines, but others experience negative outcomes ranging from stupefaction or emotional dulling at one extreme to awkward or even dangerous disinhibition at the other. It seems quite clear in phd thesis talking to patients that reactions are highly individual, and it seems probable that this is due to of japan background essay, differences in on management respective patients' underlying biochemical disturbances. (A number of studies have pointed out that generally speaking, antidepressants seem to work well when the primary manifestations are of fast is bad essay, a psychological character, while benzodiazepines seem to work better when the primary manifestations are of a somatic character. Here again we see evidence that there are separate etiologies underlying such a systematic difference in phd thesis accounting efficacy #150; that indeed distinct conditions are probably involved: a sort of GAD plus panic attacks and a dysautonomia with paroxysms and sometimes secondary worry.) It appears that few psychiatrists are aware of the distinct varieties of panic disorder outlined in custom papers report the beginning of this essay, although the research documenting them is readily available in research journals and correct identification of the variety of panic disorder is critical to the correct choice of treatment.

Moreover, it appears that few cases of panic disorder are even referred for psychiatric evaluation in the first place. Instead, primary care physicians tend to feel competent to diagnose and treat the phd thesis condition. A typical PCP is even less aware of the complexities of panic disorder than a psychiatrist, and introduction contain, will almost certainly regard the condition as invariably a serotonin deficiency (which term is itself a considerable oversimplification of one of several serotonin-related pathologies sometimes present in depression, panic disorder, anxiety disorders generally, and some other conditions not relevant to this discussion). So while it is quite apparent that reactions to panic disorder medications and the correct choice of phd thesis on management accounting, medication vary by fast food is bad for health, individual and by subtype of panic disorder, it also becomes apparent in on management accounting listening to patients that many if not most physicians prescribe not according to what should or does work for individual patients, but according to warlords, what works for the individual doctor. One doctor treats virtually all cases of panic disorder with SSRI medications; another treats virtually all cases with tricyclic antidepressants; another treats virtually all cases with benzodiazepines. Patients who respond poorly to that class of medication typically suffer through several trials of four to six weeks each before changing doctors. It is not uncommon for accounting, a panic disorder patient to have gone through a number of physicians (with considerable personal suffering and sometimes loss of employment) before responding well to treatment. Oddly, it is the patient rather than the physician who is fast food for health labeled non-responsive when one size does not fit all.

(Patients also tend to phd thesis on management accounting, be unaware of the large proportion of doctors who have conflicts of interest in the form of subtle and sometimes not-so-subtle financial incentives to prescribe particular medications. In this respect, the ethical canons in warlords background essay 9 medicine appear, at least based on actual practice, to be remarkably lax in comparison to on management accounting, those of other licensed professions.) It is unfortunate that individual response is typically ignored in prescribing for panic disorder, because the more one examines the evidence, the more it becomes apparent that any given individual is likely to respond really well to a benzodiazepine or to an antidepressant, but not interchangeably. Response to one of these classes of drugs is likely to be optimal, while response to the other will be marginal at best. A small minority of patients seem to need both, but it can also happen that the two types of meds antagonize each other instead of complementing each other. This is contrary to the prevailing treatment practice, but at present, practice appears to be based more on agenda (or sometimes on tradition, lore, or peer pressure) than on objective evidence. Indeed most non-specialists appear to be wholly unfamiliar with the actual evidence, which is traits often at odds with the claims of the salespeople (most of whose education is in sales,marketing, or communication) on whose counsel they rely.

The first rule of phd thesis, treatment in panic disorder should be: If it's currently working, don't even think about changing it! It is utterly appalling to see the numbers of patients who have been controlled and highly functional with one strategy of management over the course of years, only to move to a new state or change employer (and thus change insurance company) or have their doctor retire, and then have complete havoc wrought in their medical condition, their emotional state, their marriage, and even their employment and financial status, all because an inept and overly self-assured doctor sought to essay on why, adhere to one or another of the continually emerging vogues in prescribing. On Management. One need only of japan background 9, search MedLine to see the course of these successive vogues over the last two decades, and it is clear that what is in today will be out a few years from now. There are choices to make in treating any newly emergent case of panic disorder, and phd thesis on management accounting, humane, flexible, patient-responsive experimentation may be necessary. St Gallen Competition 2013. But experimentation with patients who are functional and satisfied is unconscionable, should be regarded as malpractice, and accounting, has indeed been grounds for successful malpractice litigation. Undermedication of chronic anxiety or dysautonomia is just as irresponsible and just as ripe for a thesis introduction, judicial redress as undermedication of chronic pain. On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

(and Panic Control Therapy) A large proportion of patients undergoing CBT or PCT report that they have experienced significant benefits from such therapy, particularly in the area of coping with their symptoms, reducing the severity of their panic attacks, and improving their overall well-being. However, very few report that CBT or PCT alone is sufficient to on management accounting, eliminate or even necessarily to personality traits essays, reduce the number of their panic attacks. Although there have been reports in the past of very high success rates with CBT alone, a recent study revisited some of the results and came to quite different conclusions. David Barlow, Ph.D., one of the leading figures in psychological treatment of phd thesis, anxiety, commented on this study with the what should a thesis introduction laudable observation that The one thing that we've learned . now that more data are in, is that we're not really as good as we thought we were. This was refreshing candor and integrity in a field where professional pride has often taken priority over a dispassionate and monetarily disinterested look at phd thesis on management, the relative merits of essay be raised, various approaches to treatment. One would expect the best results of CBT or PCT to be achieved when the condition is rooted in anxious or obsessive patterns of thought. However, it is not always easy to distinguish such cases. Certainly it seems incumbent to treat such thinking whenever it is present, whether it is a preexisting causative factor or merely a result of the disorder. Further investigation is needed into accounting, the effects of CBT and PCT on symposium essay competition 2013, the dysautonomia associated with panic disorder.

Although a patient is phd thesis on management likely to be very grateful (and at a sharply reduced risk for suicide) after learning to experience less severe panic attacks in the face of prolonged dysautonomia or dysautonomic paroxysm, little has been gained from a medical perspective if the patient nonetheless experiences prolonged and frequent dysautonomic episodes. There is a certain value in teaching patients to cope with the symptoms of medically uncontrolled essential dysautonomia (especially if such treatment may reduce actual symptoms), just as there is value in teaching patients to cope with the symptoms of of japan background, other chronic medical conditions. Nonetheless, such therapy should not be substituted in phd thesis accounting whole for treatment of the medical condition itself. Meditation and progressive relaxation techniques are helpful for some people. Meditation techniques need to be undertaken with the understanding that dissociative states like those it may promote are not always desirable in panic disorder patients #150; that indeed they can trigger panic attacks in traits essays themselves or simply be more difficult to terminate for individuals with anxiety disorders. (There is a fair amount of controversy around meditation in panic disorder, with strong opinions for on management, and against.) And individuals undertaking either meditation or progressive relaxation need to understand that even when the practices are beneficial, a panic attack is most likely to occur during the transition from a state of on why, high arousal to one of lower arousal.

This appears to phd thesis on management accounting, be true of all or most panic disorder patients, but it is especially noticeable among those who have the aberrant CCK gene. Obviously it is desirable to of japan background essay 9, make the transition from high to phd thesis accounting, low arousal, but most people would prefer to do so without triggering panic attacks in the process. Learning effective relaxation may thus be more complicated for the panic disorder patient than for fast for health essay, other individuals. On Tricyclic Treatment. A growing number of clinicians now treat panic disorder using tricyclic medications, often after having used SSRI treatment for a number of years and then reverted to the use of phd thesis, tricyclics based on symposium 2013, the number of adverse patient experiences. Tricyclics seem to work well for a minority of panic disorder patients. Statistically, some tricyclics are the most successful type of antidepressant for on management, treating panic disorder, and those statistics were compiled in fast for health an era of less brazen manipulation of clinical trial data than we see today.

However, due to the parasympathetic insufficiency so frequently present in the disorder, a certain subset of accounting, panic disorder patients seem particularly prone to excessive cardiac stimulation from this class of medications, which increase the availability of norepinephrine. Tricyclics are also inherently less safe than most modern antidepressants, with substantially lower margins for what should a thesis introduction, dosage error or deliberate misuse. Tricyclic medications also reduce the availability of acetylcholine, and reduced availability of on management accounting, acetylcholine is believed to be implicated in the mechanism of essay on why the driving age should, panic disorder. Phd Thesis On Management. Their overall effect is to increase autonomic arousal, so like the SSRIs, they seem to work best where the panic disorder is of psychological origin or has highly prounounced psychological manifestations. On SSRI Treatment. Among clinicians new to treating panic disorder or new to personality traits, using SSRI-type medications, these medications are often regarded as the treatment of choice or even a panacea. This point of view appears to be in retreat among more experienced clinicians, although it is still heavily promoted by pharmaceutical companies, whose representatives still grossly understate the side effect and withdrawal profiles while greatly overstating the success rates of these medications in treating panic disorders. However, the side effect profile for SSRI medications is much worse than initially published studies revealed, the effectiveness is highly unpredictable in treating panic disorder, and there is high risk for precipitating iatrogenic crisis when using this class of medications to treat panic disorder (especially during the beginning of phd thesis accounting, treatment). An alarming percentage of patients in the Internet support communities for panic disorder had never experienced or even heard of a panic attack before they were treated for depression with an SSRI, but experienced panic attacks leading to an ultimate diagnosis of panic disorder within their first week or even the first day of treatment and have not been able to rid themselves of the disorder after discontinuation of the SSRI.

Now they have depression and personality, panic disorder, or sometimes panic disorder that persists beyond recovery from depression. Primary care physicians on the whole, and a sizable minority of psychiatrists, are unfamiliar with the phd thesis true side effect profiles of various SSRI medications, are unaware of the tolerance that develops to symposium essay competition 2013, these medications when they are used to treat panic disorder, and are unaware of the withdrawal syndromes, despite the fact that all of these have been well documented in such sources as the British Medical Journal and phd thesis accounting, the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, among others. Should Contain. (And yes, it is called withdrawal and phd thesis on management accounting, not discontinuation or discontinuation syndrome everywhere except in the United States.) A disturbing number of patients are not informed of the personality essays potential long-term risks of their medications, including the significant weight gain and sexual dysfunction, both of on management, which can persist long after discontinuation of SSRI medications. Essay On Why The Driving Age Should. When patients report some of the accounting side effects of symposium essay competition 2013, usage or discontinuation that are typical in panic disorder, such as visual lag and sensations of random electric shock, their physicians incorrectly state that these are not recognized as attributable to SSRI medications, even though they are well documented in the psychiatric literature. Additionally, almost every recent, independent study that has looked at suicidality with SSRIs has concluded that although these medications are indeed safer in overdose than tricyclic antidepressants, a significantly greater proportion of SSRI users than tricyclic users actually attempt suicide. These people are not uninformed, either #150; they know that their SSRI is not lethal, so they tend to use acetaminophen, gunshot, or hanging instead. Both anecdotal reports and systematic surveys of clinical practice reveal that a majority of physicians prescribing SSRIs do not know how to correctly taper the beginning and end of treatment with these medications, nor what reduced dosages to use in treating panic disorder, nor what protocol to follow in switching from one SSRI to another #150; usually a direct switch is advisable, but some physicians prescribe a washout period that is both uncomfortable (if not debilitating) and dangerous to the patient #150; nor how to switch between an SSRI and another class of antidepressant. One does see a large minority of on management accounting, panic disorder patients whose condition responds well to SSRI medications, even though these patients are no more exempt from the usual side effects than other patients. (Some find that the addition of Serzone [now banned], or less often Wellbutrin, can restore sexual function lost to the primary SSRI and/or reverse the perversely treatment-resistant weight gain experienced by a majority of long-term SSRI users; however, neither of these medications appears to st gallen essay competition, be useful alone in the treatment of panic disorder.) Not all of the patients who respond to phd thesis on management accounting, SSRI treatment are the ones in whom the condition seems attributable to anxious or obsessive thought patterns, so it appears likely that there is some set of personality traits, patients for whom these medications correctly target some underlying abnormality or imbalance.

However, many physicians seem unaware that a significant number of panic disorder patients react very badly and sometimes very suddenly to the anticholinergic effects of SSRI medications, a reaction that should not be surprising given the parasympathetic insufficiency posited to be so often present or even causative in panic disorder. Most long-term panic disorder patients who show up in the Internet support communities have been on a progression of different SSRI medications, often with a progression of different doctors, before being stabilized long-term on a regimen of Xanax, Ativan, or Klonopin. A small number end up on Valium, Tranxene or other benzodiazepines. On Management. [Update: A study presented in Atlanta at the 2001 annual conference of the Anxiety Disorders Association of st gallen symposium essay competition, America made a similar observation regarding the panic disorder population as a whole.] A significant number of other panic disorder patients who show up in the Internet support communities began treatment on both an SSRI and a benzodiazepine, but were forced to discontinue the SSRI due to unacceptable side effects, and then found that they were well controlled on the benzodiazepine alone. One of the disturbing characteristics of SSRI medications is that once a particular SSRI has ceased to be effective in controlling panic disorder, it usually cannot be used effectively again in the future, not even years later #150; the cessation of effect is persistent and perhaps permanent. This raises some troubling questions about the phd thesis mechanisms behind the well-known poop out phenomenon distinctive to SSRIs and personality essays, other reuptake-inhibiting medications.

Current research hypotheses with some degree of phd thesis, experimental foundation include depletion of what should introduction, dopamine (though it is unclear why that would be so persistent), an phd thesis excess of the fast is bad for health essay otherwise therapeutic effect of desensitizing serotonin receptors (but why so persistent?), and on management, physiological damage to or destruction of serotonin receptors (in which case it is doubtful but unproven whether they can be regenerated). SSRI medications reduce the availability of nitric oxide, and fast food essay, reduced availability of nitric oxide is suspected as a factor in the mechanism of panic disorder. They also increase production of prolactin, which may be a factor in the high incidence of sexual dysfunction, and alter the function of the hypothalamus, which is one of the mechanisms being studied as a possible factor in the strangely treatment-resistant weight gain associated with SSRI usage. (It is a shame that the dramatic differences in phd thesis reactions to symposium, SSRI treatment are so often minimized, trivialized, or dismissed outright instead of being acknowledged and studied more closely. It is a shame because the differences probably provide, in their sheer starkness, some of the best clues currently available to the varieties of biochemical mechanisms underlying panic disorders #150; and to the various mechanisms underlying depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder too, for that matter. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting. Groups of people with similar reactions to is bad for health, one class of phd thesis, drugs, particularly drugs as selective and powerful as SSRIs, probably represent de facto classifications of people with similar variants of panic disorder or depression. It is possible that failure to follow up such an obvious line of investigation is due to commercial agendas. But it is also possible that it is simply easier, with current research technology, to plan and study interactions between drugs and neurons in the laboratory than it is to look inside a living human being and fast food is bad for health, observe the individual's true neurochemical processes or status at a given moment #150; that our ability to create drugs that act at the neuronal level has far outpaced our ability to observe in thorough and objective ways their actual effects on living creatures' neurochemistry. And so we rely on accounting, a priori speculation, we rely on subjective reporting of the driving be raised, sensations and feelings far removed from the biochemical processes that cause them, and we conjecture as to their meaning.

Typically this takes place in trials where the protocol assures minimization or even outright dismissal of reactions that are not universal or at least common to phd thesis on management accounting, a large proportion of subjects. So when something goes wrong for a minority of patients, we conjecture around variations on personality traits, the presumed and intended workings of the drug at the biochemical level; but we do not know, and on management accounting, we have few tools to uncover, the subtleties that explain the full range of unintended effects.) There is an old saw that antidepressants cure panic disorder, whereas tranquilizers merely control it. Never mind that such a belief erroneously regards panic disorder as a single monolithic disorder. Even overlooking that point, when one looks beyond the short-term perspective of typical clinical trials, it becomes apparent that antidepressants do not cure panic disorder, other than in rare cases #150; the what a thesis introduction contain condition is chronic and often mildly progressive.

Follow-up studies show similar relapse rates in the long term, and it is dishonest and irresponsible to tell patients anything else. With CBT or PCT, one can sometimes reduce the incidence of outright attacks by reducing sensitivity to triggers, but the underlying dysautonomia persists #150; and phd thesis on management accounting, it is the dysautonomia, not its paroxysms, that represents the most insidious threat to health and longevity. In any case, the cure/control distinction is at best misleading because very few pharmaceutical treatments cure anything. Control of symptoms is an is bad admirable ambition and one that is deemed fully sufficient in many other medical contexts. Accounting. There is no call to discriminate against warlords of japan essay 9, the panic disorder population with a specious and condescending distinction between cure and bandaid. The fixation on SSRIs as the accounting one-size-fits-all treatment of choice for panic disorders is largely attributable to a marketing campaign targeting primary care physicians and their patients that was conducted for SmithKline Beecham (as the essays makers of Paxil were known at phd thesis, the time) by the Ruder Finn agency.

As Ruder Finn trumpeted until recently on a World-Wide Web site intended for advertising industry insiders, the Paxil for Panic Disorder program was one of the most spectacular successes of pharmaceutical blitzmarketing in the history of the industry. To quote from the Web site: The Paxil for Panic Disorder program leveraged a new indication of an existing antidepressant for a relatively obscure anxiety disorder to generate unprecedented product sales growth. Seven months after the panic disorder launch, The Wall Street Journal referred to fast food is bad for health essay, panic attacks as the hot new malady that is quickly replacing depression as the mental illness du jour.. The objectives of the Paxil for Panic Disorder campaign are: Increase sales and overall market noise [sic] about Paxil by generating widespread awareness of FDA clearance of the medication's new indication as a treatment for on management, panic disorder. Urge undiagnosed sufferers to see their physicians for a diagnosis and ask for Paxil.

Take advantage of seasonal and other opportunities. Custom Report. The launch phase of the program was also supported with a Morning Drive-Time Radio Tour in 18 cities across the country. A satellite media tour was considered [but dropped]. Tie in to accounting, the stressful nature of the holiday season. Sales growth of custom report, Paxil since May, which SmithKline Beecham describes as unprecedented, has been attributed by the company to the sales and phd thesis, public relations launch of the panic disorder indication. SmithKline Beecham saw its share of the total SSRI market share grow by custom no plagiarism, 8.7% and on management, its share of new prescriptions grow 7.7% between April and st gallen symposium essay 2013, November.

Note that by Ruder Finn's published report, SKB itself attributed the success of Paxil not to scientific or medical documentation but to its savvy sales and public relations launch. The clinical trials submitted as the basis of the FDA approval and phd thesis on management, ensuing media blitz were three, and in them the drug was successful in eliminating or reducing panic attacks in 25% (misstated as 76%*), in 51%, and in 33% of trial subjects on Paxil, versus 44%, 32%, and fast food for health essay, 14% of subjects on placebo. On Management Accounting. To specialists in the treatment of panic disorder, these numbers are anything but impressive #150; indeed if the drug had been promoted on numbers like these rather than the competition sweeping generalizations primary care physicians hear from pharmaceutical salespeople, it is unlikely that much enthusiasm would ever have developed in the first place. Additionally, grave questions have since been raised about the integrity of the research itself. * The company did not cite a figure for all subjects in the first study, but instead counted only the one-third of accounting, subjects who responded best #150; and who were on a dosage intolerable to many patients. Thus the st gallen essay 76% for best-responders actually represents 25% for the study as a whole. (3/4 x 1/3 = 1/4) This little white lie is among the least of the irregularities that have emerged in court cases involving the accounting clinical trials of Paxil. The Ruder Finn campaign aimed to broadcast the warlords background essay cleaner side effect profile of Paxil, although the sad truth is that clinicians are largely in phd thesis accounting agreement today, about personality essays, three years later, that of all the phd thesis commonly prescribed SSRIs, Paxil seems to have the dirtiest long-term side effect profile and the most problematic withdrawal. (The World Health Organization's statistics on complaints about withdrawal put Paxil in a very clear #1 position.) Based on the difficult-to-ignore evidence of their own clinical experiences, primary care physicians are spontaneously moving away from Paxil in favor of milder or supposedly cleaner SSRIs. The plaintiffs in st gallen symposium essay 2013 a California class-action lawsuit against the makers of Paxil (seeking changes to labeling, release of embargoed data, and only modest monetary damages) intend to phd thesis, introduce documentary and testimonial evidence: that Paxil performed significantly, indeed markedly, worse than placebo in its early trials, before statistical spin doctors were brought in to fix the problem; that when dozens of trials did not yield positive results, statisticians manipulated the numbers to produce hypothetical trials in which one single patient who endured or thrived on Paxil for 365 days would completely offset 365 patients who could not endure the medication for more than one day; that the makers changed numerous reports (adding up to tens of warlords background, percents) complaining explicitly of withdrawal, as distinct from relapse, to instances of relapse instead; that the company suppressed evidence of a 0.77% incidence of suicidality (considered quite high for such a serious side effect, and later demonstrated to be even higher); that a certain identified FDA official illegally coached the makers of Paxil in clandestine conversations on how to avoid scrutiny on on management, the suicidality issue; that the company suppressed information on a 20-25% dropout rate in early trials; that the company deliberately claimed on the record in an FDA hearing that it had studied withdrawal issues and found none, when in fact it had not studied withdrawal issues but had inadvertently become aware of fast is bad, frequent and severe withdrawal experiences; and that the company has systematically promoted the impression that the phd thesis on management accounting only people who become dependent on Paxil are multi-drug abusers, even though the of japan background 9 company has abundant evidence (which it suppresses) that dependence and a pronounced neurological withdrawal syndrome are common. As internal company documents have come to light in other civil and criminal trials regarding Paxil in the United States and other countries, it has become clear that the drug's makers possessed far more documentation of the drug's potential for adverse effects than they ever disclosed to on management accounting, the FDA, to the public, or to the scientific community.

There is obviously a place for the discriminating use of SSRI medications in traits the treatment of panic disorder. They are irreplaceable, indeed life-saving for many people. However, they have been prescribed indiscriminately and even recklessly in recent years. The appropriateness of their use has been greatly exaggerated and on management accounting, the long-term risks and sometimes severe dependence and no plagiarism report, withdrawal effects (which bear no resemblance at all to the condition being treated) have been swept under the carpet for on management accounting, as long as humanly possible. Should Contain. The question is accounting not whether there is a place for SSRIs in the treatment of panic disorder. The question is what is the proper role of an advertising agency in of japan 9 shaping medical opinion and practice in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. On Benzodiazepine Treatment. By far the largest group of phd thesis, functional, well-controlled panic disorder patients who show up in the Internet support communities are those on a regimen of fast food is bad, long-acting or short-acting benzodiazepines (or both). Phd Thesis Accounting. This parallels the of japan background essay conclusions of recent long-term reports following up on earlier studies and in some cases coming to phd thesis accounting, new conclusions.

The most common regimen among such patients is a long-acting benzodiazepine taken on a regular schedule, with a short-acting benzodiazepine to be taken for warlords of japan background 9, breakthrough symptoms. However, significant numbers do well on phd thesis on management, a regimen of short-acting or long-acting benzodiazepines alone. A substantial proportion of what should contain, these patients take only enough medication to manage their autonomic arousal, thus breaking the autonomic link in phd thesis accounting the arousal-anxiety-arousal-panic cycle, and normally rely on techniques learned in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to manage the cognitive-emotional aspects of the condition. Many clinicians are reluctant to prescribe benzodiazepines long-term for panic disorder, despite abundant evidence that panic disorder patients respond better to this class of medication than any other group of patients and that panic disorder patients are the least likely to abuse these or any other medications. The typical pattern is that panic disorder patients require some adjustment of dosage in the beginning of symposium competition, their treatment #150; either up or down #150; and on management accounting, then remain at or below that dosage for symposium essay, years. When considering research on benzodiazepines, there is every reason to look at research specifically into their use in panic disorder, because the patterns that emerge are quite different from those that emerge when this class of medication is used to treat GAD or situational conditions. It is phd thesis on management common for panic disorder patients spontaneously to reduce their medication after six months to a year, and to remain satisfactorily controlled at the lower maintenance dosage.

It is common for panic disorder patients to try to eliminate their medication after a considerable period free of symptoms, only to find that they must go back on their original level of medication. There may be a medication-free period of what a thesis contain, success lasting months or occasionally years, but the condition eventually returns #150; sometimes with an intensity requiring more medication than before. Panic disorder, at least in its biologically-rooted forms, is a chronic condition. Where normal individuals report a dulling of sensation from benzodiazepine treatment, panic disorder patients typically report that they feel normal again for the first time in years. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting. This subjective assessment is often supported by an increased level of performance at work or in school. Such an personality traits essays assessment might even be regarded as a useful diagnostic factor. The baseline levels of autonomic arousal and of parasympathetic nervous system activity tend to be different in panic disorder patients from those found in normal individuals, and that helps explain why benzodiazepine treatment can be not merely therapeutic but normalizing in the panic disorder patient, with a lower incidence of side effects than those experienced by the general population and an incidence of abuse so low as to accounting, be almost nil. Optimal cognitive and motor function require the nervous sytem to be within a certain functional range of arousal. If you have just woken up from a deep sleep or you have just hopped off a treadmill after ten minutes of running your fastest, your cognitive ability in particular but also your motor ability to deal with demanding tasks are both going to essay on why age should be raised, be well below adequate.

Your nervous system is outside its functional range of arousal. States of phd thesis on management accounting, depression and states of autonomic anxiety like those seen in panic disorder are analogous. Essay On Why The Driving Age Should. Both may fall outside the optimal range of autonomic arousal, or even outside the functional range. This explains why people with panic disorder often demonstrate improved cognitive or motor function when taking benzodiazepines. Learning is a particularly demanding task, and accounting, the brain is biochemically inhibited from learning well when there are high levels of traits, arousal-inducing hormones or neurotransmitters. Thus patients with panic disorder or a condition that mimics it may be unable to learn in an academic setting and unable to benefit from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (which teaches the brain new patterns of thought and phd thesis on management, new reflexive behaviors) until an appropriate dose of a benzodiazepine is taken. The dose must be large enough to lower nervous arousal into the optimal range without being so large as to push it from what should introduction, over-arousal to a state of under-arousal.

Much of the early research on the use of benzodiazepines in on management accounting anxiety and panic was conducted with dosages that today appear stunningly high. It is strange indeed to read of studies using 6-10 mg of Xanax for panic disorder when today we know that the great majority of patients function optimally on 1-4 mg spread across 24 hours. Some patients require as much as 6 mg per day, but that is so rare that even the most benzodiazepine-friendly physician would almost certainly question the should diagnosis or consider a different type of medication. On Management Accounting. At present Xanax is the best-known benzodiazepine used against panic disorder (and the one that is FDA-approved for the condition), but perusal of personality essays, early research into on management, the use of Klonopin and other benzodiazepines against panic disorder shows the same thing: the fast food is bad dosages tested tended to be far higher #150; 2x, 3x, or even 4x #150; than the dosages commonly used and known to on management, be effective today. It is of course important to taper the cessation of benzodiazepines carefully. Papers on this subject report that a three-month taper is a reasonable standard, but that six months or a year is not unreasonable for high dosages or long-term use.

In the essays case of panic disorder, there should not be undue pressure to get off of accounting, any class of medication, and during cessation it is fast food is bad often difficult to distinguish withdrawal symptoms from symptoms of the underlying panic disorder (except in the case of discontinuing SSRIs, where the most dramatic withdrawal symptoms are clearly neurological and bear no resemblance to accounting, panic disorder or depression). Traits. A number of papers report that panic disorder patients are frequently withdrawn successfully from accounting, their medication only to have to introduction, go back on it at the same or a higher level half a year or a year or two later. These papers suggest that it is accounting probably healthier to maintain panic disorder patients at a constant level of medication, if no problems emerge, than to subject them to personality essays, this cycle of cessation and recommencement of phd thesis on management accounting, medication #150; regardless of the class of personality traits essays, medication in question. There are occasional patients who taper cessation of benzodiazepines over two weeks or less without difficulty. This is definitely the exception, however, and should not represent an expectation. Such a rapid taper can be dangerous and even life-threatening. One sees a small number of panic disorder patients who do not tolerate benzodiazepines well.

It is widely regarded as canonical that benzodiazepines cannot be used in the treatment of phd thesis on management accounting, patients with a history of alcohol abuse. However, with proper supervision, this is custom no plagiarism report not necessarily true. Phd Thesis. In fact, it turns out that benzodiazepine treatment for essay on why, panic disorder can be a key to preventing alcoholic relapse. Abusers of alcohol who experience panic attacks may have been self-medicating for their panic disorder, and some even lose the desire to drink at all once the underlying state of arousal is controlled. This seems particularly true in the case of measured drinkers, those who drink regular amounts at regular times of day. Both anecdotal reports and phd thesis, published research emphasize that the definition and manifestations of report, tolerance, dependence, and addiction are commonly misunderstood among physicians and even among a surprising number of psychiatrists. Experts in the use of benzodiazepines report that tolerance normally develops to their sedative, cognitive, emotional, and motor effects, but not to the autonomically anxiolytic effects, i.e. Phd Thesis Accounting. not to food is bad, their ability to interrupt the phd thesis on management accounting neurological panic circuit. Thus a patient may report drowsiness in the early days of is bad, treatment, but the phd thesis accounting drowsiness wears off. Once an effective dosage is found in the first weeks of treatment, this dosage (or, after a while, a lower one) will eliminate panic attacks and background essay 9, most dysautonomia for years and decades. Patients on such a maintenance dosage should be regarded as medically dependent, just as many patients are dependent on glucophage or insulin or anti-hypertensive medications that exhibit a rebound effect on phd thesis on management, cessation #150; or on Paxil, for that matter #150; but should not be regarded as addicted in the absence of all the custom no plagiarism other criteria that characterize addiction. The matter of dependence is also put into a new light by the appearance of more and more studies (particularly, it would seem, in Britain) stressing the point of view that antidepressants also promote physical dependence in accounting anxiety disorders.

A World Health Organization report goes so far as to custom no plagiarism, state plainly that SSRI withdrawal is a more difficult problem today than Valium withdrawal was in its time. Reports such as these call into question whether it is well-advised after all to promote antidepressants over accounting, benzodiazepines in the belief that ADs do not cause dependence. It is after all widely recognized that benzodiazepines are often more effective and work more quickly. It is the consensus within the panic disorder community that every medication that is actually effective in treating panic disorder has the potential to create dependence. Dr. Robert DuPont, a former director of the [United States] National Institute On Drug Abuse, has stated that the concept of using the lowest possible dose of st gallen essay, a benzodiazepine for on management accounting, the shortest period of time is inconsistent with sound clinical practice. Should Contain. This concept needs to include the important qualification that our goal is to phd thesis on management, maximize the papers no plagiarism report patient's ability to function well and to enjoy life. Benzodiazepines are among the phd thesis safest and most effective treatments in all of medicine , including their role in the treatment of panic disorder. He is joined in his opinion by many experts of background, comparable stature and by a World Health Organization report entitled Rational Use of Benzodiazepines , WHO/PSA/96.11. (This consensus document from the WHO is distinct from the accounting 1994 document Guidelines For The Rational Use Of Benzodiazepines authored by what a thesis, Dr.

Heather Ashton.) These medications are not a panacea and they are not without their potential drawbacks. However, they have been the subject of such a fierce backlash from their extravagant misuse and overprescription in the 1970s (similar to but exceeded by the SSRI bonanza of today), and have been the on management accounting target of such unscrupulous propaganda from the promoters of other drugs which still, unlike most benzodiazepines, enjoy the profitability of patent protection, that most doctors are unfamiliar with the actual evidence that should govern their prescribing. The evidence clearly shows that at present there is no other class of food for health essay, medication that works nearly as well, in nearly as large a proportion of the panic disorder population, as benzodiazepines; it shows that dependence is real but is not unique to benzodiazepines and thus not a major differentiating factor; and it shows that there is no other population less prone to addiction or abuse of benzodiazepines prescribed as part of phd thesis on management accounting, a comprehensive management strategy. No discussion of benzodiazepine treatment would be complete without a brief mention of at least two quasi-cult-like self-help networks of individuals who claim that use of even very low doses of benzodiazepines for brief periods caused them permanent neurological damage and years or decades of anxiety and panic attacks a thousand times worse than anything they experienced before. (One wonders what they were experiencing before that could stand 1000-fold amplification.) With a vehemence and personality traits essays, personally directed vitriol strongly suggestive of fanaticism, they reject any suggestion that they might instead be suffering from phd thesis, untreated anxiety or panic disorders, since the symptoms they describe when one pins them down to specifics sound very much like the symptoms of uncontrolled, advanced panic disorder. If this were all there were to the story, it would not be worth dignifying with mention here. However, this group cruises the Internet panic disorder support communities looking for newcomers and then bombards them with email offering self-help cures for prices that begin in the thousands of dollars and gradually decline, and terrorizing these vulnerable individuals with dreadful anecdotes that sound perfectly outlandish to pharmacologists and clinicians alike. Essay Be Raised. Identifiable individuals who speak up against this group are deluged with organized hate mail, some of it threatening in nature. In this age when many patients research their conditions using the Internet (as well they should), physicians should know something about this bizarre phenomenon so that they can offer knowledgeable and convincing support to patients who fall prey to these groups' terroristic tactics. On Treatment With Other Classes of Drugs.

Other classes of phd thesis accounting, drugs are sometimes used in introduction contain treatment of panic disorder but do not represent first-line choices. Other drugs used clinically or in research include anti-psychotics, beta blockers, CCK antagonists, alpha2-adrenergic agonists, and phd thesis accounting, anti-epileptics. Although the author lacks statistical data, there are a notable number of reports from patients experiencing good results with Effexor XR (which seems for essay on why the driving age should be raised, unknown reasons to behave very differently from its non-extended-release version Effexor), often after having bad results with SSRIs or simply having run the gamut of the major SSRIs, only to have each one in phd thesis accounting turn poop out (if the reader will excuse the scientific jargon) after a period that typically begins at a number of years but tends to essay the driving be raised, shorten with each successive replacement drug. Some patients are also reporting good results with the RIMA moclobemide, and a few are reporting doing well with beta blockers. Reports of success with alpha2-adrenergic agonists are not common but do occur. This class of phd thesis on management accounting, medication can be helpful in conjunction with other treatments. The same observations apply to beta blockers.

There is a small but growing trend to treat panic disorder with anti-epileptic medications. Papers No Plagiarism. Success is mixed, but these medications are successful for an indeterminate proportion of panic disorder patients. There has been a puzzling surge of reports over the last year of doctors resorting to antipsychotic medications in the treatment of panic disorder, often before even trying all of the mainstay classes of on management, medications, and a thesis, often with unfortunate consequences. However, there are a few patients who do respond better to these medications and need to on management, use them despite their extensive side effects. A small number of patients have reported success with the opiate blocker naltrexone, which at least theoretically could be of help to people whose symptoms are caused by stimulation from the opioid peptides in gluten or casein.. By patient accounts, the least effective drugs commonly misprescribed for the treatment of panic disorder (although there are always exceptions), are BuSpar, Wellbutrin, and Serzone. Essay On Why The Driving. Serzone has the particular complication, of which an alarming number of prescribing physicians seem unaware, of substantially inhibiting the accounting metabolism of other psychotropic drugs, thus making it difficult to calibrate effective dosages. This is not to say that there are no panic disorder patients who benefit from these drugs, but they are a small percentage. There is a trend toward polypharmacy in the treatment of the driving be raised, panic disorder, with drugs added to treat the accounting side effects of drugs added to treat other side effects. What Introduction. Often drugs are piled on in an attempt to avoid or make acceptable the obvious but in phd thesis accounting some circles politically incorrect choice of benzodiazepines, or in blind adherence to the doctrine that SSRI medications simply must work for all.

The author has not encountered much anecdotal or published evidence that a polypharmaceutical approach works better than (or even as well as) the mainstay treatments, except for rare complex cases; and complex cases should absolutely be referred to food essay, a specialist in panic disorder. Complications of panic disorder can occasionally be severe and even life-threatening. Pharmaceutical industry insiders report that the next big push in anxiolytics will be the CCK antagonists. On Management Accounting. Already marketed successfully outside the United States for this purpose (as well as for treatment of GERD and IBS), these are reportedly intended for an aggressive push into no plagiarism report, the American market when a favorable point is reached in the product life cycle of the SSRI medications. (It is possible that this CCK-antagonist generation of anti-anxiety medications may yet be leapfrogged by a newer class of medications under development to target GABA receptors even more finely than existing drugs do, but new patent filings for CCK antagonists quietly continue to accounting, accumulate.) For the time being, the SSRIs are still among the essay the driving age should be raised most profitable of pharmaceutical products in accounting the United States and what should introduction contain, are among the least vulnerable to competition. On Management Accounting. Their makers aggressively seek new areas of application for warlords of japan background essay, these flagship profit-makers.

But factors already at work to shift the market equilibrium include recently published major studies identifying the chromosomal locus and the importance in phd thesis on management panic disorder, GERD, and IBS of defects in custom no plagiarism CCK metabolism, increasingly general awareness of SSRI complications, and accounting, the proliferation of fast food, lawsuits alleging improprieties in the conduct of clinical trials for SSRIs and the withholding of unfavorable research data. It is simply a matter of time before we see the next shift in focus. On Reported Effectiveness and phd thesis, Side Effects. It is evident to custom report, the author that at least in the case of newer psychotropic drugs, one should trust postmarketing research and the reports of experienced clinicians over the published results of Food and Drug Administration -supervised clinical trials for approval of phd thesis accounting, new drugs. For instance, in the case of one popular medication, approval trials reported an incidence of sexual dysfunction well under 5%. Yet today experienced clinicians are in agreement that over the same length of personality traits, time covered by the original trials, the true incidence of sexual dysfunction is at least 60%. Some claim up to an 85% incidence in their practices. And such numbers have been substantiated in postmarketing research. How does one explain such discrepancies in on management accounting the light of FDA oversight? Looking at personality traits, clinical trials generally, without examining specifics of this particular medication, sources of such misrepresentation can lie along a spectrum ranging from accounting, poor research protocol to outright fraud.

In the area of protocol, test subjects for the medication above were not asked about sexual dysfunction and felt reluctant to of japan background 9, bring it up, especially given the relatively short duration of the trial. And while randomization may have been scrupulous within the trial, it has come to phd thesis, light that all candidates for the study, whether they ended up on placebo or the on why the driving age should be raised experimental drug, were carefully hand-picked for previously demonstrated tolerance of that drug's side effects. (As an aside, it is phd thesis on management accounting interesting to note that physicians participating in clinical trials state that the concept of double-blind placebo control is symposium little more than a convenient fiction in phd thesis accounting the testing of psychotropic medications, and a somewhat ridiculous fiction at that. They say that in what most cases, the high incidence of dramatic side effects with psychotropics makes it perfectly obvious to the health care personnel, if not indeed to the patients, who is taking the medication and who is taking the placebo. For this reason, drug-against-drug trials are often more useful.)

Looking again at the general case, there is phd thesis also the question of fraud. Can this actually be a significant factor in American pharmaceutical testing? Doesn't the traits FDA ensure the validity and integrity of such testing? The General Accounting Office seems to think otherwise. The New York Times, in on management accounting a 1999 series of should a thesis contain, articles on fraud in drug approval trials, cited a GAO report criticizing the FDA for repeatedly failing to investigate whistle-blower reports of fraud and for colluding in some cases to cover up evidence of its commission. According to the NYT, this GAO report concluded that the FDA was oriented toward overseeing methodological correctness and toward screening for scientific error, but was essentially helpless and disinclined to on management accounting, take action in the face of deliberate deception. As the symposium 2013 NYT series documented, there are clinics that make a cottage industry out of phd thesis on management accounting, manufacturing patients, complete with interview results and bogus specimens to go along. Whistle-blowers have faced disbelief, systematic discrediting, and retribution comparable to food essay, any found in defense industries.

Far from ferreting out and assuring prosecution of such fraud, certain FDA employees and their supervisors seem to have facilitated its commission and cover-up, according to the GAO. This may be one reason that American pharmaceutical testing is viewed with skepticism in for phd thesis on management accounting, instance Germany and Finland, two of the thirty-odd countries consistently recognized by the World Health Organization (and other international observers) as practicing higher standards of health care and governmental oversight than the United States. The FDA is essay on why the driving age should be raised just another government agency. While it is held in peculiar veneration by the medical community, there is no reason to expect it to on management, be any more competent or any more scrupulous in its regulatory and essays, inspection/examination activities than other agencies such as the Internal Revenue Service, the Department of Energy, or the on management accounting Department of Agriculture. (Nor is there reason to expect it to be worse, although that is personality traits faint reassurance.) All of these agencies have many competent, dedicated, high-minded people trying to accomplish good things, but there is only so much that individuals can do in the face of entrenched bureaucratic culture. All of these agencies, including the FDA, experience periodic scandals around competence and integrity.

The FDA comes under blistering criticism from European medical authorities (not to phd thesis on management accounting, mention domestic sources) for its pattern of approving medications for which pre-approval research demonstrated serious problems, only to end up withdrawing approval under pressure from consumer organizations after unacceptable levels of fatality or injury appear. It is naive to exaggerate the competence or integrity of the United States' drug approval and oversight compared to taxpayer service, oversight of the nuclear energy and weapons industries, or inspection of meat and agricultural products. Many who work in subordinate roles in pharmaceutical testing claim that data and conclusions are routinely and unethically manipulated under the very noses of the st gallen essay 2013 FDA. Diet and Supplementation. The mainstream view in the panic disorder community is that neither diet nor dietary supplementation is sufficient for the management of panic disorder, but that both can make substantial contributions.

There is a sizable minority, though, who find that it is on management possible to manage their own panic disorder primarily or entirely with diet and on why age should, supplementation. The four most dramatic examples of dietary management are elimination of on management accounting, caffeine-like stimulants, adoption of a gluten-free/casein-free diet, supplementation with the amino acid taurine, and adoption of a ketogenic diet. Each of these measures is on why age should helpful only to a subset of the panic-disorder population, a subset consisting of people with unusual sensitivities. Elimination of caffeine-like stimulants. Some people are exceptionally sensitive to the stimulants known collectively as xanthines, principally caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, found in various combinations in coffee, most colas, tea (even green tea), and chocolate. The panic disorder population appears to include a greater proportion of these people than the general population. People who are not caffeine-sensitive have a hard time appreciating the extent to which the phd thesis accounting substance affects sensitive individuals. For some people, a single 12-ounce diet cola per day, the personality essays equivalent of about half a cup of American-brewed coffee, is enough to keep symptoms of panic disorder active. Quite a few people have reported that a single cup of phd thesis on management accounting, decaffeinated green tea daily was the essay 2013 difference between experiencing heart palpitations and not experiencing them. Caffeine must be discontinued carefully. On Management Accounting. People seem to have the best success by tapering gradually #150; ounce by ounce at the end, if necessary #150; before completely quitting.

Many people take an food is bad for health NSAID like ibuprofen or aspirin for a few days starting the day before complete elimination in order to avoid the ferocious caffeine-withdrawal headaches that can otherwise result. It takes 3-8 weeks for phd thesis on management, a caffeine-sensitive individual to return to true baseline functionality and papers, sensation after completely quitting caffeine-like stimulants. Prominent symptoms during the withdrawal phase are likely to include headache, depression, loss of phd thesis, energy and initiative, muscular stiffness, constipation, temporary changes in vision, reduction in coordination, minor edema, sleeping several hours longer than usual, and markedly reduced athletic, physical, and mental performance. Because of the way caffeine affects biochemical production of energy to power muscle cells and brain cells, one is warlords quite literally not as strong and not as smart during caffeine withdrawal, but full function does return after withdrawal is complete. At some point there may be a day or two of unaccustomed heart palpitations as the body moves minerals around, establishing a new balance of electrolytes. On Management Accounting. But when the withdrawal phase is over, there is normally improvement over pre-withdrawal function in most of these areas. Many caffeine-sensitive people who complete withdrawal find that they are able to reduce or in some cases even eliminate their psychotropic medication. But this should not be an expectation; the reason to try caffeine-elimination and persist until withdrawal symptoms disappear is essay the driving be raised simply to feel better, function better, and quite likely lessen some of the dysautonomia. Gluten-free casein-free (GF-CF) diet. It has been known for accounting, years that some patients' panic disorder (or GAD) improves with elimination of gluten sources and personality, milk products. Only recently has a strong theoretical foundation for such observations emerged from research abroad and at a few major American medical centers.

It also turns out that truly aggressive dietary restriction, using the same vigilance a celiac patient must practice in avoiding even minimal, hidden amounts of gluten, benefits more people than was previously apparent with avoidance of only obvious, major sources. Unfortunately there is no quantification available yet, but it is an inviting area for research. Phd Thesis. Patients who suspect gluten intolerance should have an inexpensive screening for IgG anti-gliadin antibodies before commencing the GF diet. With strict avoidance, the antibodies disappear in 3-12 months. However, one is still intolerant to gluten. Is Bad Essay. It may be important to phd thesis accounting, know one's status in that respect, since gluten intolerance is such a strong predictor or risk factor for other serious conditions including various forms of gastrointestinal cancer and papers no plagiarism report, a variety of autoimmune conditions. If celiac disease (one particular autoimmune consequence of gluten intolerance) is suspected, additional screening should be undertaken before commencing the GF-CF diet. A large proportion of people with very high levels of anti-gliadin antibodies also have very high levels of antibodies to casein. Even without such high antibody levels, the gluten-intolerant patient is likely to experience psychotropic effects from casein, although the top American experts in celiac disease note that some patients recover the ability to tolerate milk products as their digestive tract regenerates itself. The amino acid glutamine is particularly helpful to phd thesis on management, patients with celiac disease, non-celiac gluten intolerance, or other GI problems that respond favorably to dietary elimination. The digestive tract is one of the fastest-rebuilding parts of the food is bad essay human body and phd thesis on management, one of on why age should be raised, its principal building blocks is glutamine.

Even though glutamine sounds a little like gluten, it does not contain gluten. When pure it is a safe nutrient and actually an important nutrient for phd thesis on management accounting, gluten-intolerant individuals. Taurine supplementation. On Why Age Should Be Raised. Taurine was first tried in phd thesis on management accounting the treatment of panic disorder because it was known to what a thesis introduction, be effective in phd thesis accounting the treatment of epilepsy. There are patients who control their panic disorder with nothing more than aggressive taurine supplementation. A number of other panic disorder patients find that they can reduce their medication with the help of fast food is bad essay, taurine supplementation. Ketogenic diet. The overall healthfulness of a ketogenic diet is certainly debatable. However, it is accounting clear that some panic disorder patients are able to control their panic disorder without medication by following a ketogenic diet, or more often a diet that is essay borderline ketogenic.

The reasons for the benefit of this diet are not known, although it is phd thesis accounting well established that a ketogenic diet can also reduce or eliminate the incidence of seizure in epileptic patients. Many panic disorder patients report doing better on reduced-carbohydrate diets that do not, however, go as far in this regard as many of the currently popular low-carbohydrate or high-protein weight-loss diets. There is considerable research to suggest that this might be due to the fact that the insulin-glucagon axis influences a host of other hormonal and enzymatic systems. However, there has been little direct study of carbohydrate restriction in the treatment of panic disorder, and the only connection that seems obvious and likely to be uncontroversial is the adrenaline response that can be provoked by competition, falling blood sugar levels. On Management Accounting. Further study will probably show this to be a highly simplistic interpretation. Magnesium supplementation. Some people find that supplementation with a small amount of magnesium reduces their symptoms, particular symptoms like heart sensations, muscle tics, and annoying nerve sensations. Essays. Too much magnesium will cause diarrhea and exacerbate the body's imbalance of minerals, but just enough can noticeably improve nervous function in people who have a deficiency of magnesium in nerve cells. (The relationship between magnesium in blood serum and phd thesis, magnesium in nerve cells is custom no plagiarism a bit complicated and should be interpreted by a physician who can consider the full picture, including medications that may influence where your body stores the magnesium it has available.) Fat restriction, supplementation with essential fatty acids.

In cases of phd thesis, defective cholecystokinin metabolism, fat restriction is an important but insufficient measure for the prevention of panic attacks. On the other hand, in cases of panic disorder in families where schizophrenia is present, it seems prudent to follow a diet that is sufficient in fat. There are anecdotal reports of panic disorder apparently being precipitated in such families, even relatively late in life, by adherence to the ultra-low-fat diets so recently popular, and there is solid evidence that schizophrenics do better on high-fat diets than on fat-restricted diets. While the author has uncovered no proof that a diet relevant to what should contain, the care of schizophrenia is also relevant to the care of panic disorder in families where schizophrenia is present, it seems prudent, at this point in the understanding of such panic disorder and of schizophrenia, for panic disorder patients from schizophrenic families to follow the on management dietary measures that should be followed in schizophrenia. These include strict avoidance of casein (a milk protein) and gluten and gliadin (a family of proteins found in wheat, oats, barley, rye, and some exotic grains), and the inclusion of traits, sufficient amounts of fat, perhaps above-average amounts of fat. This has obvious implications for weight control but is documented as beneficial to schizophrenics. Some mainstream medical sources also warn against supplementation of the schizophrenic diet with sources rich in the fatty acid GLA (gamma linolenic acid), principally evening primrose oil and borage oil. However, where the author has observed such warnings, they have occurred in accounting contexts attempting to debunk the st gallen competition 2013 purported benefits of on management accounting, these supplements, and therefore the on why standard of phd thesis, proof was probably lower than if the authorities in question had been asserting a benefit rather than a danger. Personality Essays. (In other words, there is in medicine, as opposed to the body of science proper, one standard of proof applied to accounting, a claim like substance X may cause hair to grow back on warlords of japan background 9, your balding scalp, but quite a lower standard of proof applied to a scare-claim like not only will substance X not cause hair to on management, grow back on a balding scalp, but furthermore, substance X may cause the should a thesis hair you still have to fall out, and phd thesis on management accounting, maybe your teeth, too .) Nonetheless, prudence should prevail. There is solid evidence that GLA is contraindicated in patients with seizure disorders, and the driving, it may be wise for the panic disorder patient from phd thesis accounting, a schizophrenic family (or an epileptic one) to avoid GLA-rich supplements. Other dietary measures.

It is beyond the scope of this document to st gallen essay, treat the on management accounting full complement of dietary supplements being used in the treatment of panic disorder or investigated for such use. There are simply too many to what should a thesis introduction, discuss, and phd thesis on management, the results are too individual to each patient. It is clear, however, that while different individuals respond to different supplements, there are beneficial effects that go beyond what can responsibly or scientifically be attributed to a placebo effect. The supplements that prove effective are not the obvious choices #150; for instance, only a very small number of people report significant benefits from the well-known anti-anxiety supplements like Kava kava or Passionflower. Of those supplements, patients typically report no effect whatsoever or a reduction in anxiety without a corresponding reduction in dysautonomia. This poses an interesting conundrum for report, researchers who consider the dysautonomia of panic disorder to be caused by anxiety, and supports those patients (and some clinicians) who claim that it seems the anxiety is on management actually caused by the dysautonomia. Nor does the antidepressant supplement St. John's Wort have very wide support among those who favor dietary supplementation.

One more often hears complaints of exacerbation of anxiety and dysautonomia, or complaints of sleep disturbance with no effect on anxiety or dysautonomia. These are similar to, but much milder than, the complaints one hears from personality, many (by no means all) panic disorder patients treated with antidepressants. Valerian fares somewhat better, but when used in doses sufficient to exert a beneficial effect, it is reported to cause more drowsiness than its pharmacological cousins the benzodiazepines. The currently popular 5-HTP has been variously described as either useful in the control of on management accounting, panic disorder or directly panicogenic. (Of course the same observation applies to 5-HTP's very distant cousins, the essay on why the driving age should SSRI medications.) 5-HTP administered without restriction of vitamin B6 has been linked to heart fibrosis. Very recent double-blind, placebo-controlled research suggests that Gotu Kola is accounting somewhat effective against should a thesis introduction, the variant of panic disorder arising from the genetic aberration in cholecystokinin metabolism. This fits theoretical predictions, because Gotu Kola and a small number of other far eastern herbs have been demonstrated to compete with cholecystokinin at CCK receptors in the body.

So far there is on management little experience or consensus in the panic disorder community. Supplements more commonly reported to be mildly beneficial are those that support parasympathetic nervous system function (B-vitamins, alpha-lipoic acid, precursors or cofactors for the synthesis of acetylcholine and nitric oxide), supplements promoting cardiac stability (Q10, carnitine), supplements soothing the digestive tract (chamomile, bismuth, glutamine, MSM, occasionally peppermint - although the last can also be counterproductive)… It is simply not possible to do more than scratch the surface lightly in this discussion. There is no clear consensus and there are almost no formal studies of the warlords of japan effects of special diets or supplementation on panic disorder. However, clinicians and patients alike report that certain measures have an obvious effect for on management accounting, certain individuals. St Gallen Essay Competition. One might suppose that panic disorder patients would be more susceptible than most to a placebo effect; but in fact, panic disorder is so difficult to control without medication, and phd thesis accounting, panic disorder patients are so reluctant to papers no plagiarism, resign themselves to phd thesis on management accounting, a lifetime of st gallen symposium essay competition 2013, medication, that they often try many dietary supplements in a systematic fashion, generally rejecting the preponderance of them as ineffective.

For a panic disorder patient to report that a supplement is accounting beneficial, even if it is background not sufficient to fully control the condition, is an exceptional event that should usually be taken seriously #150; especially if it makes possible a lighter use of medication. One cannot easily feign control of panic disorder or delude oneself about doing so, and phd thesis accounting, there is essay the driving age should be raised little incentive to try. Panic disorders are a family of disorders the understanding of which is phd thesis on management accounting still in its infancy. Much of what we thought we knew only a few years ago has been proven false. (In some cases the of japan essay 9 earlier understanding directly confused cause and effect.) There is far more that is not known about panic disorder than there is on management accounting that is known; however, a nascent body of research in several new directions is revealing some of the secrets. Panic disorder is not a monolithic condition. Few generalities apply to a majority of the panic population, but many generalities apply to sizable minorities within the population. Some cases of panic disorder fit the classical (since 1981, that is) psychiatric interpretation. Another set, quite possibly larger, does not, although this set has distinct subtypes for which it would be possible to develop a widely applicable diagnostic protocol. Nonetheless, by the time these disorders are diagnosed, they have almost invariably progressed to the driving be raised, psychiatric dimensions. The disorders are polysystemic and usually require multi-modal diagnosis and treatment. Parasympathetic insufficiency, often hereditary, is on management accounting emerging as a new and promising direction of investigation and treatment.

Problems in CCK metabolism have been linked to panic disorder by multiple independent researchers for some time now, but 1999 saw publication of a major study that claims to have identified the genetic defect in question. The biological basis of food is bad for health essay, panic disorder and the long prelude of non-paroxysmal dysautonomia that typically precedes it are only phd thesis accounting, beginning to receive the food is bad essay attention they require. It will be a tremendous step forward when there is phd thesis accounting general recognition that treatment of panic disorder must aim not only at what should a thesis contain, total elimination of panic attacks (or dysautonomic paroxysms) but at elimination of the associated chronic dysautonomia as well. Beyond this, the goal should be much earlier recognition of chronic dysautonomia so that it can be treated well before it reaches a paroxysmal stage and the psychiatric complications that ensue. Phd Thesis. It is possible that focusing on the condition as chronic dysautonomia and its advanced stages as paroxysmal dysautonomia might facilitate such recognition and a shift in perception and attitude. It seems inevitable that subtypes of panic disorder will eventually receive individual recognition, naming, and treatment protocols.

Primarily for commercial reasons, funding for panic disorder research has lately been focused far too narrowly on essay the driving age should be raised, the role and phd thesis on management, the promise of SSRI medications in treating panic disorder. This shift in focus to papers no plagiarism, follow the availability of phd thesis accounting, research funding interrupted a number of other fruitful areas of earlier research. Nonetheless, the st gallen symposium 2013 biological understanding of this set of disorders has reached a stage where researchers have claimed for accounting, some time now that this reigning emperor in the pharmaceutical realm is at fast food is bad, best scantily clad. Accounting. Apparently the what contain emperor's successor, in phd thesis on management accounting the form of CCK antagonists, has already been designated and is awaiting coronation, but only time and experience will tell whether the next panacea is papers report more universally effective than the current one. The author is extremely doubtful that any panacea will ever be found for on management accounting, what we know today as panic disorder #150; it is too clear that distinct and distinguishable disorders are being carelessly lumped together as one. There is a wide open field of research investigating panic disorder and what should a thesis introduction, its comorbid conditions.

There is much yet to on management, be discovered, and some of it will revolutionize our understanding of psychosomatic medicine and somatic anxiety in particular. Panic disorder of biological origin (which probably includes all or nearly all hereditary forms of the condition) is lifelong in what a thesis introduction nature. It does not begin when panic attacks begin, but most probably began years or decades before reaching that point. Accounting. Remissions may occur, but relapse should be expected. This is true regardless of the method used in treating the condition #150; it is traits essays a myth that antidepressants provide a cure, except in accounting a limited subset of traits, cases where panic disorder is secondary to another condition. Untreated or under-treated panic disorder should be considered a serious and phd thesis on management accounting, sometimes degenerative condition. It puts significant strain on a number of body systems, and the goal of treatment should be not merely the elimination of panic attacks but the elimination of the underlying or associated autonomic hyperarousal as well. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Panic Control Therapy is an important component of the treatment plan, even for fast is bad, panic disorder of biological origin. However, it should be recognized that such therapy is accounting sufficient in itself only in those cases that are primarily cognitive-behavioral in custom papers nature.

Now that biological bases for phd thesis on management accounting, panic disorder have been identified and tools are emerging for their quantification, more research is needed to determine what proportion of panic disorder cases are in fact of biological vs. Is Bad. psychological origin. Accounting. It may prove to be difficult to draw a clear distinction, since each type spills over into the other, but it is already evident that such a distinction is personality traits essays real and meaningful. It is high time to reopen the non-specialist community's mind about panic disorders and to accounting, move them from the exclusive province of symposium, psychiatry and psychology into the domains of phd thesis on management accounting, neurology, endocrinology, genetic analysis, and probably other disciplines that will become apparent with further research. This is introduction exactly what growing numbers of researchers and practitioners are doing. This document summarizes observations about panic disorders and their treatment gathered during the years 1998 through 2000 from research papers, recent textbooks, mental health clinicians, patients, and support groups. It is not intended to provide medical advice. Nor is it intended to on management, advocate original points of view in the scientific or medical arenas. Rather it is intended to integrate and fast food, disseminate a variety of emerging insights often omitted from the narrow classical view of these disorders. As the 2000's roll in, the understanding and treatment of this family of disorders (and they are multiple) is in phd thesis accounting clear and dramatic transition. Ongoing research about modalities of diagnosis and treatment is beginning to bear fruit that will profoundly influence both the medical and psychological perspectives on these conditions.

The viewpoints advanced in this paper are for the most part not of the author's own invention #150; they represent viewpoints that have arisen and show growing support in the researcher, clinician, and patient communities. In one sense, they represent a consensus; but in another sense, the term consensus is misleading because the field is still in turmoil, with different schools of thought pursuing different avenues of research and fighting to advance different agendas. This paper represents the essay on why the driving age should author's good-faith efforts to gather the on management accounting points of personality traits essays, view that appear, in his lay judgment as a hardheaded observer and a patient himself, to have the phd thesis accounting best foundation and most correspondence to the reality that he and countless other patients live every day. Sources, which are not cited, include published research papers (most available through MedScape or MedLine), published textbooks and trade books, articles in WebMD and what a thesis, the New York Times, the opinions of clinicians specialized or experienced in the treatment of panic disorders, and the experiences of some hundreds of individuals who have shown up in various Internet-based support communities focused on on management accounting, panic disorders or other anxiety disorders. Citing of st gallen symposium competition, sources, which were not recorded during the author's odyssey through what was then unfamiliar territory, and many of which were reviewed long before the phd thesis accounting idea of writing this document was conceived, would have multiplied the complexity of compiling the document, greatly lengthening and delaying it as well. Such a format might also have given the appearance of advocacy in the scientific arena when the author's intent is instead to provide a coherent overview of the points of view advocated by professional scientists and clinicians specialized in panic disorders. Readers wishing to look up further information on one angle or another should not find it too difficult to do so through the resources above and through discriminating use of Internet search engines. Somewhat contrary to established practice, the author has chosen to give considerable weight and exposure to introduction contain, consensus within the patient community. It is this community that lives the day-to-day reality of accounting, panic disorders, this community that feels the effects and the side effects of medications and therapies every day and knows the reality and nuance of our experience. Our doctors and therapists can (and certainly do!) try to tell us what we are and are not experiencing based on symposium competition, the most interesting presentation they attended at a recent conference, or on the glowing reports of on management accounting, a new medication (this one miraculously free of all the side effects that have come to be associated with each of its predecessors), or on the doctrines that have brought recognition and prestige to their alma maters; but we as patients have only one agenda, which is a return to well-being and normality; and we have only one truth, which is the what should experience within our own bodies that most of our doctors and therapists will never (to their great good fortune) be able to accounting, do more than imagine.

(Note: It is true that individuals showing up in Internet support communities represent in some sense a self-selecting sample. However, the same observation could be made with equal or greater validity about the individuals who choose to remain in personality treatment with a particular clinician or about those who choose not to drop out of controlled clinical trials. Indeed even a telephone book represents a self-selecting sample. Internet support communities in the aggregate do represent one of the broadest and most diverse sources of real-world information available and include a wide variety of experiences. In the case of panic disorder, these groups include individuals who are well-controlled and those who are not; those who claim to be cured or in remission without ongoing treatment and those who do not; those who favor one class of treatment and phd thesis accounting, those who favor another; those who agree with their doctors' assessment of successful or unsuccessful treatment and those who make a different assessment.

Absent evidence of systematic bias, the author considers Internet support communities to be a valuable source of perspective among others.) Understanding of symposium essay competition, panic disorders is still in its infancy. The whole family of phd thesis accounting, disorders was more or less stumbled upon because of their severe manifestations in the psychiatric domain. But the more researchers investigate panic disorders, the more it becomes apparent that the personality essays psychiatric dimensions are merely the tip of a very complex iceberg. There is much disagreement within the researcher, clinician, and patient communities. The two or three orthodoxies that exist seem on closer examination to be illusory and shifting, and, unfortunately, are sometimes based on phd thesis on management, narrow samples or populations and are sometimes colored by commercial interests or professional vesting in certain doctrines.

Ultimately the viewpoints and conclusions presented here, which are meant to represent some diversity of opinion, are of the papers author's own selection and are not necessarily endorsed by any other individuals or institutions except where specifically attributed. Accounting. So in one sense this essay is merely one person's collection of opinions. But this collection has been reviewed by for health, researchers, clinicians, and phd thesis on management accounting, patients alike; and while no essay could please all readers, and most especially not those who are vested in one particular point of view to the exclusion of others, the author feels reasonably justified in stating that in another sense, this document is not only built largely on published research and teaching materials, but also does meet with general approval and endorsement from at least a substantial segment of the contain researcher, clinician, and patient communities. The online source for this document resides at http://www.panic411.org/ This document may be linked to phd thesis on management accounting, or printed for custom, limited noncommercial distribution by individuals.

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robotech resume An automated guided vehicle (AGV) can be built with as little as two Roboteq components: An MGS1600C magnetic guide sensor, and one of the many dual channel motor controllers available in Roboteq’s catalog. This application note will use a Roboteq MDC2260 dual channel controller, however the techniques described are identical for all other controller models. AGV Photo courtesy of Artisteril SA. Barcelona. Spain. In this application note, the AGV will follow a track made of an adhesive magnetic tape affixed on the floor. On Management Accounting. The MGS1600C will measure the how far from the should a thesis, center of the tape it is and provide the information to the motor controller which will then adjust the steering so that the vehicle remains at the center of the track.

Magnetic markers positioned on on management the left and what should introduction, right side of the track give the AGV location information that will be used to make stop and fork left/right decisions. Benefits of Magnetic Track Guiding. Magnetic tapes are one of several line-following techniques. The other 2 main techniques are induction wire guide, and optical. Phd Thesis Accounting. The table below compare each of these techniques. Magnetic tape is the easiest to lay and modify while providing excellent durability and reliability. When designing the background 9, vehicle, there are four basic ways of providing drive and steering. Phd Thesis Accounting. These are show in the diagrams below.

Some types are easier to build, others have better steering characteristics. Two of these designs are fully symmetrical and may be operated in should a thesis contain both direction. The table gives list the characteristics of each design. Center Drive Casters. Steerable Drive Motor. Rear Drive and Rack Steering. Difficult in on management accounting reverse. The sensor should be placed as shown in the above diagrams for each chassis design. For the first two chassis type, the sensor must be placed near the front edge of the chassis. Should Contain. On long AGVs, this means that little steering will cause a wide swing at the front and will make the phd thesis on management, steering control more difficult.

On the steerable drive wheel design, the sensor can be placed on the chassis. Or it may be made part of the what should introduction contain, wheel assembly and turn with it. For best results, place the sensor at 30mm above the floor and ensure that the height fluctuates within +/-10mm max as the AGV moves along the on management accounting, track. Interfacing the Sensor to the Motor Controller. The MGS1600C has several output types. The list, features and typical uses is essay 2013, shown in the table below. Sensor Data Sent. Position, Tape Detect, Markers. Roboteq motor controllers.

In the MutliPWM mode, the sensor data is output on a single wire in the form of a series of variable widths pulses, containing the Track Detect signal, Track Position and Left Right Marker Detects signals. This pulse can be connected to accounting, any of the Roboteq motor controller’s pulse inputs. Once the symposium essay competition, pulse input is phd thesis accounting, configured as “Magsensor”, the sensor information is warlords, transferred transparently and continuously to the motor controller, from where it can be processed using the MicroBasic scripting language, or accessed by an external computer or PLC via the controller’s serial or USB port. The wiring diagram below shows the magnetic guide sensor and motor controller in a typical 4 wheel drive chassis. This diagram is applicable to all Roboteq dual channel brushed motor controllers. The figure below shows how the detailed connections to the controller’s connector. This wiring is compatible with all Roboteq controllers equipped with a 15-pin DSub connector. Accounting. The sensor and button can be connected to food is bad for health essay, any other pulse and digital inputs. Refer to the product datasheet for on management, the list of available signals and pin out. St Gallen Symposium Competition 2013. The pulse output in on the blue wire of the sensor cable. The sensor and controller must be configured so that they will each function as desired, and that they will communicate with each other.

The sensor is configured by default to output MultiPWM pulse and can therefore be used without further configuration if the track is made of Roboteq-supplied 25mm magnetic tape. Once powered, the Tape Detect LED with flash at phd thesis on management a low rate if no tape is present. When tape is in essay competition 2013 range, the LED will be on phd thesis steady and its color will change from green when the tape is at the right, and green when at the left. For configuration, monitoring and troubleshooting, connect the sensor to the PC via the USB connector located under the a thesis, screw plug. Run the Magsensor PC utility to phd thesis accounting, change the tape width if using a 50mm tape, or use the waveform display view to monitor the shape of the magnetic field. With no tape present, the PC utility must show a nearly flat line.

For best results, always perform a zero calibration when operating the sensor in a new environment. Moving a tape under the sensor will cause a bell curve to appear on the chart. Personality. The curve must be on the positive (up) direction. Phd Thesis. If the curve is going down, change the Tape Polarity setting in st gallen competition 2013 the configuration menu. Makers will also cause a bell curve, but the curve should be going down. The screenshot below shows the phd thesis on management accounting, resulting curve when placing a left marker and a centered track. To received and on why the driving be raised, recognize data from the sensor the controller must first be connected to a PC running the Roborun+ PC utility. In the configuration menu, the pulse input that is connected to the sensor must be enabled and configured as “Magsensor”. Next, the controller must be configured to phd thesis on management accounting, operate in essay on why be raised mixed mode so that the a steering command will apply a different amount of power to the left and right motor for making turns.

In the Run tab of the PC utility, the sensor can be seen to work when the Digital Input 1 LED is randomly flickering. The Pulse 1 box will display the number 128 if no tape is detected and a different value as a tape is moved from phd thesis side to side. Magsensor to Controller Interface. When the sensor and custom report, the motor controller are connecting to phd thesis accounting, each other using the what a thesis contain, single wire and phd thesis accounting, MutiPWM mode, the sensor data are transferred periodically, and in the background, into the motor controller from personality traits which they can then be accessed and used. An additional set of queries is accounting, now available for reading this information from the motor controller. Essay 9. The queries can be sent either from the motor controller’s serial port, or from phd thesis on management within a MicroBasic script running in the motor controller. Read Tape Detect. Read Left or Right Track position. Read Left of Right Marker. Read Sensor Status. Non-zero = sensor present and working.

Once the sensor and motor controllers are verified to work, we can proceed to essay on why age should be raised, the automatic mode. On Management Accounting. In this application note, all the computation is essay the driving, done in the motor controller using the MicroBasic scripting language. The sensor outputs a value that is the tape’s distance from the center of the track. This information is phd thesis on management, then used to correct the st gallen competition 2013, steering. Accounting. If the tape is centered, the value is 0 and no steering correction is needed. The further the track is from the center, in one or the other direction, the stronger the steering change. In this article, a Proportional control is implemented. For best precision and response time, the control algorithm may be improved to a full PID. How the throttle power is controlled (when to personality traits, start, stop, accelerate, slow down) is very application dependent. In this application note, the phd thesis on management accounting, AGV will be made to move when a tape is detected, take left or right forks and stop at precise locations.

The AGV will then resume moving after a set time, or when a user button is is bad for health essay, pressed. The AGV will stop when the track is no longer present. In a practical implementation, the AGV throttle will be controlled by an external device, such as a PLC. The PLC must then be connected to one of the motor controller’s input. The throttle information can be an analog voltage or a variable duty cycle PWM signal. The sensor has an algorithm for detecting and phd thesis accounting, managing up to 2-way forks and merges along the track. Internally, the controller always assumes that 2 tracks are present: a left track and a right track.

When following a single track, the what should a thesis contain, sensor considers that the 2 tracks are superimposed. When entering forks, the track widens, so does the distance between the left and right tracks. When approaching merges, the sensor will report a sudden spread of the left and right tracks, but will otherwise operate the phd thesis on management, same way as at forks. Magnetic markers are a piece of magnetic tape of opposite polarity and that is located left and/or right of the center track. Markers provide a very simple and cost effective method to identify specific locations along the track. In this application, we will use markers on the left or right side to indicate which track to follow at a fork. Markers located both at the left and right side will indicate a stop location. More elaborate marker arrangement can be made to carry more information about a location on fast is bad the track. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting. An example of essay on why the driving age should be raised multi-level markers is provided further in the application note. It is common to require that the phd thesis accounting, AGV be driven manually, to place it in position, or to custom papers no plagiarism, move it along an untracked path.

Buttons, a joystick, a PLC or an RC Radio can be connected directly to the motor controller’s free inputs. The program running inside the accounting, motor controller can easily be made to of japan essay 9, switch from on management automatic to manual command. Manual override is not described in this Application Note. The figure above shows a simple AGV track with several loading station and traits essays, one stop station. For simplicity sake, our AGV will stop 30 seconds at every station, or until the operator presses the push button. The flow chart below shows the structure of the MicroBasic program that will run inside the motor controller to move and steer the AGV along the track. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting. The full source code is what should a thesis contain, provided at the end of this application note. Before the sensor can be used for automatic steering, it is a good idea to test drive the chassis manually, either by attaching a joystick to the PC that is on management accounting, connected to the motor controller, or by using an warlords essay 9 RC radio. If the vehicle is difficult to phd thesis, drive manually, in automatic mode it will be equally challenging. Modify the design so that it drives and steers as smoothly and accurately as possible.

Testing the Automatic Steering Program. When running the program for the first time, it is recommended to lift the custom, AGV's wheels off the on management, ground. Then place a piece of magnetic tape below the sensor. Verify that the left and right wheels start rotating when the tape is detected. Verify that the left and st gallen essay competition, right rotation speed changes as the tape is moved away from the sensor's center, in a manner that would cause the AGV to rotate so that the sensor would move become centered with the phd thesis, tape. If the AGV rotates away, then invert the warlords essay, polarity of the Gain value in the script. With the AGV wheels on the floor, verify that the on management, steering correction is such that the sensor never moves far from the what introduction contain, track.

Increasing the Gain value will cause a stronger correction when the sensor moves away from the tape, but it can make the AGV oscillate if the gain is too high. Find the optimal Gain value for stable and accurate tracking. Markers are best tested with the AGV on the track. Verify that the AGV follows the expected track at a fork. When entering a merge, ensure that the phd thesis on management, AGV is following the essays, correct track and that it will not jump to the opposite track when it enters the phd thesis on management accounting, sensor's range. Verify that the warlords, AGV stops when a left and right marker are detected at the same time. Check that the AGV resumes motion after 30 seconds, or when the button is pressed. Beware that as the on management accounting, AGV moves away from the marker pair, one of the two markers will disappear from the sensor's range before the other.

The other marker is remain active for short duration longer and will therefore be considered as a left or right fork marker. Make sure, therefore, that a single marker is present before the next fork or next merge following a stop location. Using a more complex steering algorithm. The sample script uses a simple Proportional control, where the amount of steering correction is simply the custom papers no plagiarism, distance away from the center track, multiplied by a gain factor. For better results, the phd thesis on management accounting, script may need to essay on why, be enhanced so that a Proportional-Integral or full Proportional-Integral-Derivative control is used instead. The amount of correction can also be capped to avoid over steering. In variable speed system, it may also be desirable to have a different correction gain at slow and high speeds. In this application example, we used a simple left and right marker pair to identify a stop location. In typical applications more information is accounting, needed about location so that the AGV will change its behavior.

For example, identifying segments of tracks where the AGV must move at fast food essay a high speed and others at low speed, identifying load stations requiring longer pause time than others, or identifying charging stations where the AGV will only stop when its battery level is low and resume when the battery is charged. One simple and free technique is to count markers in a track segment delimited by phd thesis accounting a marker segment on the opposite side. The figure below shows such a marker configuration. When a left marker first appears, the counter is reset. The counter is fast, then incremented at every appearance of a right marker while the left marker is still present.

When the left marker disappears, the counter is evaluated and the AGV can alter its operation accordingly. The MicroBasic source code for creating this marker is shown below. In applications requiring the phd thesis on management, AGV to stop at a very precise location, a secondary sensor, oriented at 90o from the main sensor, can be added. This sensor can then be used to locate another magnetic guide with a 1mm position accuracy. The figure below shows the warlords of japan essay 9, sensors and guides arrangements. Improving AGV Localization and Safety.

For safety reason, it is on management, typically necessary to fit the AGV with an infrared or a laser range finder so that it will stop if a person or obstacle is detected along the track. St Gallen Symposium Essay 2013. Range finders typically provide a digital signal which can easily be connected to an input on the motor controller, or to a PLC if one is present. If more information is needed by the AGV about its location along the phd thesis on management accounting, track, RFID tags positioned in key locations are a good solution. However, RFID tags typically imply the presence of a microcomputer or a PLC on the AGV in order to process the data and make navigation decisions. The source code below is written in fast is bad for health Roboteq's MicroBasic language and runs inside the motor controller to perform the AGV functionality described in accounting this application note.

' This script provide basic control for an AGV. ' Motor will turn on upon the presence of essay a track and stop when track disappears. ' The track position information is on management, used to provide left/right steering. ' At forks, the AGV will follow the left or right track depending whether the essay competition 2013, last. ' marker detected was on phd thesis on management the left or right side of the track. ' Make sure you precede merges with a marker so that the AGV remains on the main track. ' The presence of a left and right marker simultaneously will cause the AGV to introduction contain, stop for. ' 30 seconds or until the operator presses the button. dim Gain as integer. dim DefaultThrottle as integer. dim TapeDetect as boolean.

dim MarkerLeft as boolean. dim MarkerRight as boolean. dim Throttle as integer. dim Tape_Position as integer. dim LineSelect as integer. dim Steering as integer. dim GoButton as boolean. dim RunState as boolean. dim NotOnStopMarker as boolean. dim PauseTime as integer. Gain = -7 ' Use negative value to invert steering command.

DefaultThrottle = 250 ' Motor power level while the AGV runs. LineSelect = 1 ' Use left track by phd thesis on management default. PauseTime = 30000 ' in miliseconds. ' main loop to repeat every 10ms. ' read sensor data. TapeDetect = getvalue ( _MGD ) MarkerLeft = getvalue ( _MGM , 1) MarkerRight = getvalue ( _MGM , 2) ' Read button state.

GoButton = getvalue (_DI, 2) if (GoButton) then SetTimerCount(1, 0) ' Pressing the button will clear the pause timer. if GetTimerState (1) then RunState = true ' When pause timer is cleared, AGV is fast food essay, allowed to phd thesis on management accounting, run. ' Use TapeDetect and Pause Timer to apply throttle or not. if (TapeDetect and GetTimerState(1)) ' Check Marker presence to select Left or Right track. if (MarkerLeft) then LineSelect = 1. if (MarkerRight) then LineSelect = 2. ' Detect when transitioning onto stop markers.

if (NotOnStopMarker and MarkerLeft and MarkerRight) NotOnStopMarker = false ' Mark stop marker detection so that it is custom papers no plagiarism, not detected again until AGV moved away. SetTimerCount(1, PauseTime) ' Load stop timer timout value. Tape_Position = getvalue( _MGT , LineSelect) ' use tape position multiplied with gain as steering. Steering = Tape_Position * Gain. ' Send throttle and steering to controller Configured in phd thesis on management accounting Mixed mode. setcommand ( _G , 1, Throttle) setcommand ( _G , 2, Steering) ' Log output. Useful for troubleshooting.

Comment out when done. print (r, TapeDetect,t, Tape_Position,t, MarkerLeft,t, MarkerRight,t, Throttle,t, Steering,t,RunState,t,LineSelect)

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A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the phd thesis, preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. Custom Papers Report? What's your opinion?

Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in phd thesis on management accounting, the essay, the no plagiarism, young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit.

And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting? I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work. Personality? It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the phd thesis on management accounting, british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the st gallen competition, most usefull thing that we ever invented. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting? :) I agree with all of essay on why the driving age should, you, but what about learning how to phd thesis on management play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online.

I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in essay competition 2013, Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary.

I love it! I think the phd thesis on management accounting, internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the for health, children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of on management accounting, course, parents love their kids, that is st gallen symposium 2013 why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. Phd Thesis On Management? I totaly agree. It all depends from parents.

If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is essay the driving age should be raised one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of accounting, libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and for health can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in phd thesis on management, one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities.

Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is a thesis introduction that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to phd thesis on management know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for st gallen competition 2013, searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for phd thesis, us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on what should a thesis introduction, this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is accounting included.

Surely it was meant for personality essays, connecting people from phd thesis on management accounting, all continents, but as the food is bad, human mind has no border line we found out how to phd thesis on management accounting use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the a thesis, problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for phd thesis, our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life.

Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users. Custom Papers? I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and phd thesis on management we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for be raised, young people, we have to be responsible, because the accounting, Internet is fast food essay a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for phd thesis on management, everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. St Gallen Essay Competition 2013? Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and a lot of people online. Phd Thesis Accounting? About teenagers who are addicted to is bad games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position.

And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to phd thesis live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for young and what a thesis introduction old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet.

We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. Phd Thesis? To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet.

In my opinion, I dont think Internet is competition 2013 bad for people. Without the accounting, Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to personality use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and phd thesis on management accounting relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the personality essays, most wonderful tool that human had created.

In my own perspective, the on management, Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the what should introduction contain, world are using the phd thesis on management accounting, Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not?

The internet is the warlords background essay, best connection between an on management individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is what a thesis contain very usefull for us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and phd thesis on management doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for essay the driving age should be raised, teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on on management, the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel?

Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in essay on why age should be raised, 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for phd thesis on management, cultural relations and educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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essay girls Get Our Overly Personal. A television show about my twenties would follow the life of a girl who is lost, literally and figuratively. There wouldn’t be a laugh track. The show would open deep in my lost year —the year I drop out of college and phd thesis, disappear. With no ability to essay competition 2013 cope, and no way to on management accounting ask for help, the main character—my character, me—is completely crazy.

She makes a spectacular mess. A lot happens in the pilot. About ten days before the start of junior year, my character gets on a plane and abandons everything. Symposium Essay 2013! She runs away to Arizona by on management accounting way of a trip to San Francisco with a much older man she has only corresponded with via the warlords background essay, Internet. We’re talking about the old-fashioned Internet, in 1994—a 2400-baud modem or some such. It is a small miracle she isn’t killed. She cuts off all contact with her family, her friends, or anyone who thought they knew her.

She has no money, no plan, a suitcase, and a complete lack of self-regard. It is real drama. The rest of that first season is phd thesis on management, equally dramatic. Before long, she finds a seedy job doing about the on why the driving age should, only thing she’s qualified to do, working from on management midnight to eight in a nondescript office building. She sits in a little, windowless booth and talks to strangers on the phone. She drinks diet soda from a plastic cup, sometimes with vodka, and does crossword puzzles. Essay On Why Age Should! It is so easy to talk to strangers.

She loves the accounting, job until she doesn’t. There is an interesting cast. Her coworkers are girls who are also messy. They are different races, from different places, but all lost together. They give themselves names like China and Bubbles and Misty and at the end of the driving be raised, a long shift they hardly remember who belongs to which name. My character has many different names. She wakes up and says, “Tonight, I’m Delilah, Morgan, Becky.” She wants to be anyone else. This is accounting, late-night television. Cable. China does heroin in the bathroom at work.

Sometimes, she leaves a burnt strip of tinfoil on the counter. The manager calls them all into st gallen symposium essay competition 2013, her office and yells. The girls will never rat China out. Bubbles has baby daddy problems. Sometimes, her man drops her off at work and the girls smoking in on management, the parking lot watch as Bubbles and her man yell at each other, terrible things.

In another episode, the baby daddy drops Bubbles off and they practically fuck in the front seat. Misty has been on personality, her own since she was sixteen. She is very skinny and phd thesis accounting, has scabs all over her arms and never seems to wash her hair. After most shifts, the girls go to Jack in the Box and then lay out by the pool of the house where my character is staying. The girls tell my character how lucky she is to live in a house with air conditioning. They have swamp coolers and live in papers no plagiarism report, crappy apartments. Phd Thesis Accounting! My character stares up at the sun from the diving board where she loves to stretch out and think, bitterly, “Yes, I am so fucking lucky.” She is too young to realize that, compared to them, she is lucky. She ran away but still has something to run back to when she is essay on why the driving age should, ready. My character doesn’t come to this realization until the season finale. Every woman has a series of phd thesis on management, episodes about her twenties, her girlhood, and how she came out of it. Essay On Why Age Should Be Raised! Rarely are those episodes so neatly encapsulated as an episode of, say, Friends or a romantic comedy about boy meeting girl.

Girls have been written and represented in popular culture in many different ways. Most of these representations have been largely unsatisfying because they never get girlhood quite right. It is not possible for girlhood to be represented wholly—girlhood is too vast and too individual an experience. We can only try to accounting represent girlhood in ways that are varied and recognizable. All too often, however, this doesn’t happen. We put a lot of responsibility on popular culture, particularly when some pop artifact somehow distinguishes itself as not terrible. In the months and weeks leading up to the release of Bridesmaids, for essay be raised, example, there was a great deal of breathless talk about the phd thesis, new ground the movie was breaking, how yes, indeed, women are funny. Can you believe it? There was a lot of pressure on that movie. What Introduction! Bridesmaids had to be good if any other women-driven comedies had any hope of being produced. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting! This is the state of affairs for women in entertainment—everything hangs in the balance all the time.

Bridesmaids could not afford to fail, and didn’t. The movie received a positive critical reception (the New York Times referred to the movie as “unexpectedly funny”) and did well at the box office. Critics lauded the should, cast for on management, their fresh performances. Some people even used the word “revolution” for the change the movie would bring for women in comedy. A revolution is a sudden, radical, or complete change—a fundamental change in traits, the way of thinking about or visualizing something. On Management Accounting! Could one movie really be responsible for a revolution ? Bridesmaids was a good movie, one I really enjoyed—smart humor, good acting, a relatable plot, a somewhat realistic portrayal of personality traits, women in a cinematic wasteland where representations of women are generally appalling. Bridesmaids wasn’t perfect, but given the unfair responsibility placed on the movie, the burden was shouldered well. At the phd thesis on management accounting, same time, the essay the driving be raised, movie did not bring about radical change, particularly when, as Michelle Dean noted in her review of the movie, many of the familiar tropes we see in comedies and in the portrayals of women were present in phd thesis, Bridesmaids . She notes that the portrayal of Melissa McCarthy’s character Megan, in what should contain, particular, treads familiar ground. “Almost every joke was designed to rest on her presumed hideousness, and her ribald but unmistakably ‘butch’ sexuality was grounded primarily in her body type and an aversion to makeup.” Within this context, considering Bridesmaids revolutionary is a bit much. Why do we put so much responsibility on movies like Bridesmaids? How do we get to a place where a movie, one movie, can be considered revolutionary for women?

There’s another woman-oriented pop artifact being asked to shoulder a great deal of responsibility these days—Lena Dunham’s Girls , a new television series on HBO. In the past several weeks, we’ve seen a lot of hype about this show. Critics have almost universally embraced Dunham’s vision and the way she chronicles the lives of four twenty-something girls navigating that interstitial time between graduating from college and growing up. I am not the target audience for Girls . I was not particularly enthralled by the first three episodes but the on management accounting, show gave me a great deal to think about which counts for something. The writing is often smart and clever. Warlords Of Japan Background 9! I loved the moment when Hannah (Dunham) is in her parents’ hotel room, and they’re reading her memoir manuscript.

Her father says, “You’re a very funny girl,” and she says, “Thank you, Papa.” I thought, “I see what you did, there, Dunham.” I laughed a few times during each episode and recognize the ways in which this show is breaking new ground. I admire how Hannah Horvath doesn’t have the typical body we normally see on television. There is some solidity to her. We see her eat, enthusiastically. We see her fuck.

We see her endure the petty humiliations so many young women have to accounting endure. We see the life of papers no plagiarism report, one kind of real girl and that is important. It’s awesome that a twenty-five year old woman gets to accounting write, direct, and fast is bad for health, star in her own show for a network like HBO. It’s just as sad that this is so revolutionary it deserves mention. At times, I find Girls and the overall premise to be forced. Amid all the phd thesis, cleverness, I want the show to essay on why the driving have a stronger emotional tone. Phd Thesis! I want to feel something genuine and of japan essay 9, rarely has the on management accounting, show given me that opportunity. Too many of the characters seem like caricatures, where more nuance would better serve both the characters and their storylines.

Hannah’s not-boyfriend, Adam, for example, is a depressing, disgusting composite of every asshole every woman in her twenties has ever dated. We would get the point if he were even half the asshole. The pedophile fantasy Adam shares at the beginning of the symposium essay 2013, second episode is cringe worthy. Phd Thesis On Management! The ironic rape joke Hannah makes during her job interview in that same episode is cringe worthy. It all feels very, “Look at me! I am edgy!” Maybe that’s the point. I cannot be sure. More often than not, the show is trying too hard to do too much but that’s okay. This show should not have to be perfect. Everything should not have to hang in on why age should be raised, the balance.

Girls reminds me of on management accounting, how terrible my twenties were—being lost and awkward, the terrible sex with terrible people, being perpetually broke. I am not nostalgic for that time. Personality Traits Essays! I ate a lot of ramen during my twenties. I had no money and no hope. Like the girls in Girls, I was never really on the verge of destitution but I lived a generally crappy life. There was nothing romantic about the experience. I understand why many young women find the show so relatable, but watching each episode makes me slightly nauseous and exceptionally grateful to be in my thirties. Every girl or once-was-girl has a show that would be best for her.

I’m more interested in a show called Grown Women about a group of friends who finally have great jobs and pay all their bills in a timely manner but don’t have any savings and still deal with messy love lives and hangovers on Monday morning at phd thesis on management, work. Until that show comes along or I decide to write it, we have to deal with what we have. As you might expect, the discourse surrounding Girls has been remarkably extensive and vigorous—nepotism, privilege, race. Dunham has given us a veritable trifecta of reasons to dissect her show. Lena Dunham is, indeed, the daughter of a well-known artist and the principal cast is comprised of the daughters of traits, other well-known figures like Brian Williams and phd thesis on management accounting, David Mamet. People resent nepotism because it reminds us that sometimes success really is who you know. This nepotism is mildly annoying but it is not new or remarkable. Many people in what should a thesis introduction, Hollywood make entire careers out of hiring their friends for every single project.

Adam Sandler has done it for years. Judd Apatow does it with such regularity you don’t need to consult IMDB to phd thesis on management know who he will cast in his projects. The cast’s parentage is largely beside the point. Girls also represents a very privileged existence—one where young women’s New York lifestyles can be subsidized by their parents, where these young women can think about art and internships and finding themselves and writing memoirs at twenty-four. Is Bad For Health! Many people are privileged and, again, it’s easy to accounting resent that because the level of privilege expressed in the show reminds us that sometimes, success really starts with where you come from.

Girls is a fine example of should introduction contain, someone writing what they know and the painful limitations of doing so. One of the most significant critiques of Girls is the relative absence of race. The New York where Girls takes place is much like the New York where Sex and the City took place—one completely void of the rich diversity of the city. On Management Accounting! The critique is legitimate and people across many publications have written deeply felt essays about why it is what should introduction contain, problematic for phd thesis, a show like Girls to completely negate certain experiences and realities. I say again: Every girl or once-was-girl has a show that would be best for what should a thesis contain, her. In Girls we finally have a television show about girls who are awkward and say terribly inappropriate things, are ill-equipped to set boundaries for themselves and have no idea who they’re going to be in a few years. We have so many expectations for this show because Girls is a significant shift in what we normally see about girls and women. While critics, in on management, their lavish attention, have said Dunham’s show is papers no plagiarism, speaking to an entire generation of girls, there are many of us who would say the show is only speaking to a narrow demographic within an entire generation. Maybe the narrowness of Girls is fine.

Maybe it’s also fine that Dunham’s vision of coming of age is limited to the kinds of girls she knows. Maybe, though, Dunham is a product of the artistic culture that created her—one that is largely myopic and unwilling to think about diversity critically. We all have ideas about the accounting, way the world should be and sometimes, we forget how the essay, world is. The absence of race in Girls is an uncomfortable reminder of how many people lead lives segregated by race and class. The stark whiteness of the cast, their upper middle class milieu, and the New York where they live, forces us to interrogate our own lives and the diversity, or lack thereof, in phd thesis, our social, artistic, and professional circles.

Don’t get me wrong. The stark whiteness of personality traits essays, Girls disturbs and disappoints me. I wonder why Hannah and accounting, her friends don’t have at least one blipster friend or why Hannah’s boss at the publishing house or one or more of the girls’ love interests couldn’t be an actor of essays, color. The show is so damn literal. On Management Accounting! Still, Girls is not the first show to commit this transgression, and it certainly won’t be the last.

It is unreasonable to expect that Lena Dunham would have somehow solved the race and essays, representation problem on television while crafting her twenty-something witticisms and appalling us with sex scenes so uncomfortable they defy imagination. In recent years, I have enjoyed looking at pictures from phd thesis on management accounting literary events, across the country, wondering if I will see a person of color. It’s a game I play and I generally win. Whether the event takes place in on why the driving be raised, Los Angeles or New York or Austin or Portland, more often than not, the audiences at these events are completely white. Sometimes, there will be one or two black people, perhaps an Asian. At the events I attend, I am generally the accounting, only spot of color, even at introduction contain, a large writer’s conference like AWP. It’s not that people of color are deliberately excluded but that they are not included because most communities, literary or otherwise, are largely insular and populated by phd thesis on management accounting people who know the people they know. Fast Essay! This is the uncomfortable truth of our community and it is disingenuous to be pointing the finger at phd thesis on management, Girls when the show is a pretty accurate reflection of what, many artistic communities. Do we have any right to critique Girls when there’s so little diversity in a community that should know better and claims to do better?

There’s more, though, to this intense focus on phd thesis, privilege and race and Girls. Why is this show being held to traits the higher standard when there are so many television shows that have long ignored race and on management, class or have flagrantly transgressed in introduction contain, these areas? A generation is a group of individuals born and phd thesis accounting, living contemporaneously. In the pilot, Dunham’s character, Hannah Horvath, is what should a thesis introduction, explaining to her parents why she needs them to keep supporting her financially. She says, “I think I might be the voice of my generation.

Or at least a voice. Of a generation.” We have so many expectations; we’re so thirsty for authentic representations of girls that we only hear the first half of phd thesis, that statement. We hear that Girls is supposed to speak for all of us. There are so many terrible shows on symposium competition, television, representing women in sexist, stupid, silly ways. Movies are even worse. Movies take one or two anemic ideas about women, caricature them, and shove those caricatures down our throats. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting! The moment we see a pop artifact offering even a sliver of something different, say, a woman who isn’t a size zero or who doesn’t treat a man as the on why the driving age should, center of the universe, we cling to accounting it desperately because that representation is all we have. St Gallen Essay Competition 2013! There are all kinds of television shows and phd thesis on management accounting, movies about women, but how many of them make women recognizable? There are few opportunities for fast food is bad, people of color to recognize themselves in literature, in theater, on television, and in movies. On Management! It’s depressingly easy for women of color to feel entirely left out when watching a show like Girls . Custom No Plagiarism! It is rare that we ever see ourselves as anything but the sassy black friend or the nanny or the secretary or the on management, district attorney or the Magical Negro—roles relegated to the background and completely lacking in authenticity, depth or complexity.

One of the st gallen symposium essay 2013, few equivalents to Girls we’ve ever had was Girlfriends, created by phd thesis on management Mara Brock Akil. Girlfriends debuted in 2000, and ran for personality traits, 172 episodes. On Management Accounting! It followed the lives and close friendships of the driving be raised, four black women in Los Angeles—Joan (Tracy Ellis Ross), Maya (Golden Brooks), Lynn (Persia White), and Toni (Jill Marie Jones). I particularly admire how the phd thesis on management accounting, show rarely made race its focal point. Joan, Maya, Lynn and Toni simply lived their lives.

They were all professionals (a lawyer, a writer and secretary, a real estate agent, and an artist/actress/whimsy of the week), who dealt with job stresses, romantic troubles, romantic successes, new adventures, and tried to become better women. Personality Traits! It took me years to appreciate Girlfriends and I’m not sure why, but once I fell in phd thesis accounting, love with the show, I fell hard. Finally, I was able to recognize something about should contain myself in popular culture. The writing was smart, funny, and the show did a good job of depicting the lives of women of color in their late twenties and thirties. The show wasn’t perfect but the women were human and they were portrayed humanely. Girlfriends is a show that never received the critical attention or audience it deserved but it lasted for eight seasons and still has a very dedicated fanbase of women who remain so relieved to see themselves in some small way.

What I understand about Girls is that there is a community of on management accounting, girls and women who are just as relieved to see themselves in what should introduction, some small way. Unfortunately, that community doesn’t include everyone who needs that relief. Realistically, it can’t but the fact remains that for many of us who watched Girls , who had high expectations, no matter how unfair those expectations were, it was disappointing to see yet another “smart” television show where our experiences were completely ignored. Women of color come of age and have the on management, same experiences Dunham depicts in traits essays, her shows but we rarely see those stories because they don’t fit the popular imagination’s rendering of Other girlhood, which is generally nonexistent in popular culture. At least there have been a few shows for black women to recognize themselves—the aforementioned Girlfriends , Living Single, A Different World, The Cosby Show. What about other women of color? For Hispanic and phd thesis, Latina women, Indian women, Middle Eastern women, Asian women, their absence in popular culture is even more pronounced, their need for relief, just as palpable and desperate. The incredible problem Girls faces is that all we want is everything from each movie or television show or book that promises to offer a new voice, a relatable voice, an important voice. We want, and rightly so, to believe our lives deserve to be new, relatable, and should a thesis introduction, important. We want to see more complex, nuanced depictions of accounting, what it really means to be whoever we are or were or hope to be.

We just want so much. Essay On Why The Driving Age Should Be Raised! We just need so much. The desire for authentic representations of girlhood is like searching for water in a desert. It is a matter of survival, and also faith. We’ll die without water, but we know it’s there, even if we are surrounded by a billion grains of dry sand that all look the phd thesis on management accounting, same.

We know we’ll find a cactus plant or an oasis or that the skies will open with rain or that you can dig deep enough to essays find a small pool of on management accounting, water to age should be raised quench an unbearable thirst. For some women, Girls is that pool of water in a dry desert of flawed representations of phd thesis accounting, girlhood. For the rest of us, we’re still stumbling through the desert beneath the burning sun. We’re waiting. We don’t have much faith left.

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