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Written journals essays

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Written journals essays

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bowl dust essay About The Dust Bowl. Written. For eight years dust blew on the southern plains. It came in a yellowish-brown haze from the South and in chateau de villiers essay, rolling walls of black from the North. The simplest acts of life #151; breathing, eating a meal, taking a walk #151; were no longer simple. Children wore dust masks to and from written, school, women hung wet sheets over windows in a futile attempt to stop the dirt, farmers watched helplessly as their crops blew away. British Scholarship Essay. [source] The Dust Bowl of the 1930s lasted about a decade.

Its primary area of impact was on the southern Plains. The northern Plains were not so badly effected, but nonetheless, the drought, windblown dust and agricultural decline were no strangers to the north. In fact the written agricultural devastation helped to lengthen the Depression whose effects were felt worldwide. The movement of people on the Plains was also profound. As John Steinbeck wrote in and effect problem, his 1939 novel The Grapes of essays, Wrath : And then the dispossessed were drawn west- from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico; from Nevada and Arkansas, families, tribes, dusted out, tractored out. Car-loads, caravans, homeless and hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand and a hundred thousand and two hundred thousand. They streamed over the mountains, hungry and restless - restless as ants, scurrying to find work to do - to lift, to push, to pull, to pick, to cut - anything, any burden to bear, for food. The kids are hungry.

We got no place to of japan background essay live. Like ants scurrying for work, for food, and most of all for land. Poor agricultural practices and years of sustained drought caused the Dust Bowl. Journals Essays. Plains grasslands had been deeply plowed and planted to wheat. During the years when there was adequate rainfall, the land produced bountiful crops.

But as the labor essays droughts of the early 1930s deepened, the farmers kept plowing and planting and journals essays nothing would grow. The ground cover that held the soil in place was gone. The Plains winds whipped across the fields raising billowing clouds of dust to the skys. Labor Essays. The skys could darken for days, and even the most well sealed homes could have a thick layer of dust on furniture. In some places the dust would drift like snow, covering farmsteads. Severe drought hits the written journals midwestern and southern plains.

As the crops die, the 'black blizzards begin. Dust from the over-plowed and over-grazed land begins to blow. Analysis Essay Generator. The number of dust storms is increasing. Fourteen are reported this year; next year there will be 38. March: When Franklin Roosevelt takes office, the country is in desperate straits. He took quick steps to declare a four-day bank holiday, during which time Congress came up with the Emergency Banking Act of 1933, which stabilized the banking industry and restored people's faith in written journals, the banking system by putting the federal government behind it. May: The Emergency Farm Mortgage Act allots $200 million for refinancing mortgages to and effect problem essays help farmers facing foreclosure. The Farm Credit Act of 1933 established a local bank and set up local credit associations. September: Over 6 million young pigs are slaughtered to stabilize prices With most of the meat going to waste, public outcry led to the creation, in October, of the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation. The FSRC diverted agricultural commodities to relief organizations.

Apples, beans, canned beef, flour and journals essays pork products were distributed through local relief channels. Cotton goods were eventually included to clothe the needy as well. October: In California's San Joaquin Valley, where many farmers fleeing the plains have gone, seeking migrant farm work, the largest agricultural strike in marshall, America's history begins. More than 18,000 cotton workers with the written essays Cannery and Agricultural Workers Industrial Union (CAWIU) went on strike for 24 days. During the strike, two men and one woman were killed and process analysis essay generator hundreds injured. Journals. In the settlement, the union was recognized by growers, and workers were given a 25 percent raise. May: Great dust storms spread from the Dust Bowl area.

The drought is the worst ever in U.S. history, covering more than 75 percent of the country and affecting 27 states severely. June: The Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act is approved. This act restricted the warlords of japan background 9 ability of banks to dispossess farmers in times of distress. Originally effective until 1938, the act was renewed four times until 1947, when it expired. Roosevelt signs the written journals Taylor Grazing Act, which allows him to take up to 140 million acres of federally-owned land out of the problem public domain and establish grazing districts that will be carefully monitored. One of many New Deal efforts to reverse the damage done to the land by overuse, the program was able to arrest the deterioration, but couldn't undo the historical damage. December: The Yearbook of Agriculture for 1934 announces, Approximately 35 million acres of formerly cultivated land have essentially been destroyed for crop production. Journals. . De Villiers Essay. . . 100 million acres now in journals, crops have lost all or most of the topsoil; 125 million acres of land now in crops are rapidly losing topsoil. . Employment Law Case Studies Australia. . January 15: The federal government forms a Drought Relief Service to coordinate relief activities. The DRS bought cattle in counties that were designated emergency areas, for $14 to $20 a head. Those unfit for human consumption - more than 50 percent at the beginning of the journals program - were destroyed. The remaining cattle were given to the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation to be used in food distribution to families nationwide.

Although it was difficult for farmers to give up their herds, the cattle slaughter program helped many of and effect problem solution, them avoid bankruptcy. The government cattle buying program was a God-send to many farmers, as they could not afford to keep their cattle, and the government paid a better price than they could obtain in local markets. April 8: FDR approves the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, which provides $525 million for drought relief, and authorizes creation of the Works Progress Administration, which would employ 8.5 million people. April 14: Black Sunday. The worst black blizzard of the journals essays Dust Bowl occurs, causing extensive damage. April 27: Congress declares soil erosion a national menace in an act establishing the Soil Conservation Service in essay, the Department of Agriculture (formerly the Soil Erosion Service in written, the U.S. And Effect Problem Solution. Department of essays, Interior). Under the direction of Hugh H. Bennett, the SCS developed extensive conservation programs that retained topsoil and de villiers essay prevented irreparable damage to the land. Farming techniques such as strip cropping, terracing, crop rotation, contour plowing, and cover crops were advocated. Farmers were paid to practice soil-conserving farming techniques. December: At a meeting in Pueblo, Colorado, experts estimate that 850,000,000 tons of topsoil has blown off the Southern Plains during the course of the year, and that if the written drought continued, the total area affected would increase from 4,350,000 acres to 5,350,000 acres in the spring of 1936.

C.H. Wilson of the Resettlement Administration proposes buying up 2,250,000 acres and retiring it from cultivation. Cause And Effect Solution Essays. February: Los Angeles Police Chief James E. Davis sends 125 policemen to patrol the borders of Arizona and Oregon to keep undesirables out. As a result, the American Civil Liberties Union sues the city. Written Journals. May: The SCS publishes a soil conservation district law, which, if passed by process analysis generator the states, allows farmers to written set up their own districts to enforce soil conservation practices for essay five-year periods. Written Journals Essays. One of the few grassroots organizations set up by the New Deal still in operation, the soil conservation district program recognized that new farming methods needed to be accepted and enforced by the farmers on the land rather than bureaucrats in Washington. March: Roosevelt addresses the nation in his second inaugural address, stating, I see one-third of the nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished . . . the test of our progress is de villiers essay not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little. Journals. FDR's Shelterbelt Project begins.

The project called for large-scale planting of trees across the Great Plains, stretching in employment australia, a 100-mile wide zone from Canada to northern Texas, to protect the land from erosion. Native trees, such as red cedar and green ash, were planted along fence rows separating properties, and farmers were paid to plant and cultivate them. The project was estimated to cost 75 million dollars over a period of 12 years. When disputes arose over funding sources (the project was considered to be a long-term strategy, and essays therefore ineligible for emergency relief funds), FDR transferred the program to the WPA, where the project had limited success. The extensive work re-plowing the land into normandie, furrows, planting trees in shelterbelts, and other conservation methods has resulted in a 65 percent reduction in the amount of soil blowing. However, the drought continued. In the journals fall, the rain comes, finally bringing an end to the drought.

During the next few years, with the coming of World War II, the country is pulled out of the Depression and warlords background the plains once again become golden with wheat.

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Lust am Lesen oder Die Außenwelt wird Innenwelt. Von Lutz Hagestedt. Als Lesezeit muß man wohl jenen Rest der Freizeit betrachten, den das Fernsehen noch nicht verschluckt hat. Jener Rest ist, einer Studie der Bertelsmann Buch AG zufolge, in Deutschland etwas kleiner als in essays anderen europäischen Ländern, aber mit täglich 51 Minuten doch überraschend groß. British Marshall. - Lesen in journals der Freizeit - das ist ohne Zweifel der Deutschen Lieblingssorgenkind Nummer eins. Marshall Scholarship. Über kein anderes Thema der kulturellen Standortbestimmung gibt es so viele Untersuchungen, Erhebungen, Statistiken. Hier verdienen sich die Umfrageinstitute eine goldene Nase. Written Journals Essays. Mit den zum Teil empirisch gewonnenen Daten läßt sich dann alles - und das heißt nichts - belegen und beweisen. Normandie. Statistik wird zur modernen Wahrsagerei. Journals. Das erkenntnisleitende Interesse entscheidet darüber, ob aus den Zahlen genüßlich der Untergang der Kulturnation oder beschwichtigend der gerade noch einmal gerettete Status quo abgeleitet wird. Chateau De Villiers Essay Normandie. 51 Minuten Lesezeit pro Tag und im Schnitt. Journals. Was soll man dieser Ziffer entnehmen? Wird hier denn überhaupt differenziert, wird angegeben, wie und mit welcher Lektüre diese tägliche Lesezeit herumgebracht wird?

Sind Klosprüche und Beipackzettel hier inbegriffen? Es ist doch offensichtlich: Immer mehr Freizeitangebote machen dem Buch Konkurrenz. Analysis Generator. Da sind die Nintendo-Computerspiele - und die kann man «SSUN»auch«SSNO» «SSUN»«SSNO»in die Tasche stecken und überall hin mit-nehmen; da sind die alten und neuen Sportarten; da sind die Fitnesszentren und die Erlebnisparks; da sind die Kinos und Discos, Fernsehen und Video, Kaffeefahrten und Pferderennen. Essays. Wie soll sich da das Buch behaupten? Und selbst beim Lesefutter gibt es Konkurrenz fürs Buch: für jede Verrücktheit eine Zeitschrift. Generator. Dazu kommen noch die Werbeblätter, Beilagen und Broschüren, Tageszeitungen und Comics in Hülle und Fülle. Written Journals. Man kann es gut verstehen, daß sich die Kinder von heute am liebsten auf diese Bildsensationen einlassen. Studies. (Resigniert:) Wie auf den ersten Blick trocken, langweilig und unsinnlich wirkt da das Buch. Keiner liest, dies wäre meine These, der nicht schon immer gelesen hat, von früher Kindheit an. Written Essays. Der nicht weiß, was diese spröde schwarz-weiße Oberfläche an employment law case studies australia, Reichtümern bereithält.

Deshalb bilden die Kinder und Jugendlichen auch die natürliche Zielgruppe der Leseförderung. Written. Anstiftung zum Lesen, so könnte man die Arbeit der Stiftung Lesen überschreiben. Warlords Of Japan. Mehr als 50 Millionen Mark geben Bund und Länder jährlich für die Leseförderung aus. Journals Essays. Und rechnet man den Werbeetat der Verlage hinzu, dann sind rasch 200 bis 250 Millionen Mark erreicht. Gleichwohl: Auf dem Freizeitmarkt steht das Buch in Konkurrenz zu einem ständig sich erweiternden Sortiment von Produkten, die auch Erlebnisangebote darstellen. Process. Eine Zeitlang versuchten die Bücher, den laufenden Bildern Konkurrenz zu machen: Sehtexte entstanden, man erinnerte sich an die gute alte Emblematik und erfand die Bildergeschichten.

Bis sich herausstellte, daß die Bildlosigkeit des Buches ein geradezu unschätzbarer Vorteil ist: Denn hier kann man sich die Welt nach seinen eigenen Vorstellungen ausgestalten. Essays. «SSNO»Die eigene Fantasie, der persönliche Erfahrungshorizont jedes einzelnen Lesers wird aktiviert. Jeder Leser baut sich seine eigene Welt: sie ist für ihn und durch ihn da. Labor Essays. Anders beim Comic, beim Film und Fernsehen: Hier werden uns Fremdfantasien aufgenötigt. Somit ist Lesen in written journals ganz anderer Weise prägend als etwa Fernsehen oder ein Rockkonzert. Process Analysis Essay. Lesen ist innenorientierter Konsum. Journals Essays. Wer lesen will, muß Fantasie mitbringen, der muß seinen inneren Bildervorrat mobilisieren. Chateau Essay. Leser sind aktiver, sie setzen die bildlose Schrift in innere Bilder um. Journals Essays. Und sie haben mehr davon.

Denn diese Aktivität, diese besondere Verarbeitungsform, ist es offenbar auch, die Leseeindrücke besser. haften läßt. Hinzu kommt, daß sich unser Bildervorrat laufend erweitert und vertieft: Der erfahrene Leser hat eine ganze Palette sich zugelegt, einen nahezu unerschöpflichen Bildervorrat gespeichert, ihn durchlebt und durchlitten. Cause Problem. Er hat sich vielfach verloren und wiedergefunden. Jedes neue Buch profitiert davon. Essays. Man spricht nicht von ungefähr von Lesefrüch-ten, Leselust.

Lesen ist Erotik pur. Australia. Dadurch, daß der Leser aktiv werden muß, ist er selbst beteiligt. Written Journals. Der Leser als Held - das ist ein alter und stimmiger Topos. In Michael Endes Unendlicher Geschichte wird der Leser selbst Mittelpunkt der Welt und bewahrt das Land Phantásien vor dem drohenden Untergang. And Effect Solution. Der Held dieser Unendlichen Geschichte, Bastian Balthasar Bux, ist ein typischer Freizeitheld unserer Tage: Elf Jahre alt, für sein Alter viel zu dick, unsportlich, ein schlechter Schüler obendrein. Written. Lesen bedeutet bei ihm Eskapismus, Flucht aus dem bedrückenden Alltag. Australia. Er will die reale Welt um sich herum vergessen, sich zurückziehen in written journals essays eine innere Welt, und er wächst an process, seiner Fantasie. Written Journals. Nur weil er lernt, sich in british marshall essay eingebildeten Welten zu bewähren, kann er dies auch in der Realität.

Aber alldies ist Teil des. Romans, und es fragt sich, ob es in written essays der Realität eine Entsprechung hat. Die großen Aufklärer jedenfalls waren der Meinung, daß die Leseleidenschsft im unkontrollierten Übermaß, die sogenannte Lesewuth, die gesellschaftliche Sozialisation des einzelnen bedrohe. Chateau Essay Normandie. In zahlreichen Exempelgeschichten haben die Aufklärer Leserfiguren dargestellt, die im Wahnsinn und im Elend endeten. Written Essays. Allzuvieles Lesen in der Freizeit gab zu echter Sorge und Entrüstung Anlaß. De Villiers Essay Normandie. Schon Platon stellte den Tugendwächtern des Staates die besorgte Frage: Was für einen Gebrauch wollt ihr von den verführerischen Schriften machen, deren es nicht wenige gibt?

Und selbst die Pädagogen der Goethezeit warnten vor den Auswüchsen müßiger oder üppiger Einbildungskraft, vor den Erotica etwa, die selbst schon von unbärtigen Knaben gelesen wurden. Written Essays. Erinnert sei nicht zuletzt an law case studies, den halbwüchsigen Frank McCourt, der Das Leben der Heiligen nur aus einem einzigen Grund studiert: Denn hier wird von jungfräulichen Märtyrerinnen erzählt, die keusch ihren Glauben verteidigen: sie werden entblößt, mißhandelt, in written journals Öl gesotten und verstümmelt. Chateau De Villiers Essay. Daran kann sich die Fantasie eines pubertierenden Jünglings so richtig entzünden! Ins Positive gewendet bedeutet Lesen Erfahrung und Selbsterfahrung. Man kann in andere Häute schlüpfen, fremde Identitäten annehmen, sich exotische Räume erschließen. Echte Büchernarren kennen keine Langeweile. Sie kennen auch keine langweiligen Bücher: Wenn ein Buch sie nicht fesseln kann, dann wissen sie, daß es an essays, ihnen selbst nur liegen kann. British. Echte Bücherfreunde können auch dem widerständigsten Brocken etwas abgewinnen und haben immer zuwenig Freizeit statt zuviel.

Sie müssen nicht im Fenster liegen und Verkehrssünder notieren, um den Tag rumzukriegen. Written Journals. Ihre Freizeit ist im wahrsten Sinne erfüllte Freizeit. British Marshall. Sie nutzen jede Minute, um sich über das geliebte Buch beugen zu können. Journals Essays. Und wenn es gar nicht mehr anders geht, wenn es ihre Zeit nur erlaubt, von hier nach dort zu kommen, im Auto Entfernungen zu überbrücken, von einem Termin zum anderen zu jagen, dann greifen sie wenigstens zu einer bewährten Erfindung, die im Buchhandel gerade eine Renaissance erlebt: zum Hörbuch oder Audiobook, dem Buch auf Kassette oder CD. Da können sie sich auf der Autobahn ihren geliebten Thomas Mann oder Hermann Hesse reinziehen - oder ihre Freizeit in process analysis essay generator anderer Weise horizonterweiternd verbringen. Der sagenhafte Erfolg von Sophies Welt ist ja nur so zu erklären, daß Leser glauben, hier auf spannende Weise Wissen speichern zu können.

Ich glaube, daß echten Lesern alles nützt. Und ich halte es da mit dem Schriftsteller Ludwig Harig, der einmal bekannt hat: Mein Vater war der erste Mensch, den ich habe lesen sehen, und das entschied über mein Leben. Es fragt sich, seit wann es denn Freizeitleser - historisch gesehen - überhaupt gibt. Journals. Für breite Bevölkerungsschichten kann man dies wohl um 1750 ansetzen. Employment Studies. Damals war in essays deutschen Landen ein gewisses Bildungsniveau erreicht, so daß breite Schichten lesen konnten. British Essay. In dieser Zeit wurden auch verstärkt Bildungsvereine gegründet, meist von Privatleuten, vermögenden Honoratioren, aber auch von staatlichen und kirchlichen Stellen. Written Journals. Von großer Bedeutung waren die literarischen Salons, wo wichtige Neuerscheinungen vorgelesen und diskutiert wurden. De Villiers. Auch Leihbibliotheken wurden eingerichtet. Written Journals. Ein wichtiger Impuls kam von den Taschenbüchern und Almanachen, die um die Wende zum 19. Labor Essays. Jahrhundert einen enormen Absatz fanden.

Das konnten sich dann auch der kleine Handwerker, das Blumenmädchen oder die Putzmamsell leisten. Journals Essays. Ein solches Blumenmädchen wird übrigens in british marshall scholarship essay einer Erzählung von E. Essays. T. British Marshall. A. Hoffmann ge-schildert: Die junge Frau ist ganz vertieft in journals essays ein Taschenbuch aus der Kralowsky'schen Leihbibliothek zu Berlin. Und das Bemerkenswerte daran ist: das Blumenmädchen liest während der Arbeitszeit! Es ist gerade kein Kunde da, also greift es zum Buch und liest atemlos ein Stückchen weiter. 9. Freie Zeit während der Arbeitszeit, lesend genutzt! Somit wäre Freizeit ein relativ modernes Phänomen, nicht älter als - sagen wir - zweihundert, zweihundertfünfzig Jahre. Doch natürlich gab es auch in journals essays der Antike schon Freizeit - für die Happy few. Die wenigen, die Freizeit hatten, das waren die sogenannten Freien. British Marshall Scholarship Essay. Die übergaben selbst ihre Kinder den Sklaven zur Erziehung und beugten sich über ihren Homer und Herodot, Catull oder Ovid. Essays. Die alten Römer haben vielleicht nicht Freizeit gesagt, dafür aber otium, das heißt: Muße, Ruhe. Essay Normandie. Und negotium war dessen Negation: die Unmuße, die Arbeit also.

Doch im Prinzip muß man Freizeit als modernes Phänomen begreifen. Written Journals Essays. - Unserer Zeit wird nun vielfach attestiert, daß sie den Zenit der Lesekultur überschritten und hinter sich gelassen habe. Scholarship. Ein neuer, ein sekundärer Analphabetismus ist auf dem Vormarsch, soll heißen, daß Leute, die sich einmal rudimentäre Lesefertigkeiten erworben haben, sie nach der Schule oder Lehre wieder verlieren. Written. Für sie ist Lesen kein Anreiz, ihre freien Stunden zu opfern. Normandie. Besteht da nicht Anlaß zur Sorge? Ist da nicht die Frage angebracht und berechtigt, ob Lesen im Land der Dichter und Denker eine Zukunft haben wird, oder ob das Lesen nicht vielmehr als Technik verlorengehen wird?

Gehört nicht auch bald das Buch als Informationsträger der Vergangenheit an? Nun, damit ist wohl nicht zu rechnen. Journals Essays. Es stimmt zwar, daß mehr und mehr Menschen nach der Schule in cause and effect solution eine Arbeitswelt eintreten, die so organisiert ist, daß das Lesen entbehrlich wird. Written Journals. Analphabeten sind aber nicht völlig des Lesens unkundig: Sie können bloß «SSUN»unser«SSNO» Schriftsystem nicht mehr lesen, das will-kürliche Zeichen verwendet. Marshall Scholarship Essay. Andere Zeichen, piktische und emblematische Symbole, Mimik und Gestik verstehen sie sehr wohl. Journals. Diese Kenntnis verlieren sie nicht, weil sie - sehr wahrscheinlich jedenfalls - genetisch festgelegt ist. Analysis Generator. Lesen ist Spurenlesen, wie der Physiologe Otto-Joachim Grüsser überzeugend darlegen konnte. Schon die Urmenschen mußten lernen, Spuren zu lesen. Journals Essays. Das war überlebensnotwendige Arbeit.

Das Entschlüsseln von Tierfährten, der Spuren nützlicher Beutetiere oder gefährlicher Jäger, war die Bedingung der Möglichkeit erfolgreicher Jagd. Process Analysis Essay. Bereits der Homo habilis, der vor circa zweieinhalb Millionen Jahren lebte und bereits fleischliche Nahrung aß, muß die Fähigkeit besessen haben, relevante von irrelevanten Spuren, frische von alten Fährten zu unterscheiden. Journals. Anhand der Spuren konnte er sich bereits das Tier vorstellen, auf dessen Fährte er gestoßen war. Solution. War es ein großes oder kleines, ein junges oder altes Exemplar seiner Gattung, hatte es sich schnell oder langsam bewegt, war seine Fortbewegung regulär oder irregulär undsoweiter. Written. Diese Fähigkeit, die Arbeit war, die dem Überleben diente, wurde, so muß man sich das vorstellen, in employment australia der verbleibenden freien Zeit an written essays, die Nachkommen weitergegeben. Unterricht im Spurenlesen, das hieß vermutlich: Spuren betrachten und in den Sand daneben das entsprechende Tier zeichnen. Problem Solution. Noch heute wird dem Nachwuchs der australischen Ureinwohner, der Aborigines, das Spurenlesen genau in written der Phase beigebracht, in cause and effect problem essays der unsere Kinder lesen lernen. Also war schon unser vorgeschichtlicher Vetter ein Homo legens, ein Lesemensch. Doch wie steht es heute mit dem Buch? Wie kann es sich überhaupt noch gegen die mannigfaltige Konkurrenz der Freizeitindustrie behaupten? Was tun Verlage, damit wir in written journals essays unserer Erlebnisgesellschaft, in unserem Fun-Age, zum Buch greifen?

Fast alles. Background Essay 9. Verlage wissen: Freizeit ist ein hoher Wert, und da gilt es, den hohen Freizeitwert des Buches herauszustellen. Journals. Also muß das Buch mit Urlaub, Reisen, Abenteuer, Liebe und Erotik, Spaß und Spiel in solution essays Verbindung gebracht werden. Essays. Man setzt auf erfolgserprobte Bücher: Was sich viel verkauft hat, gern gelesen wurde, das muß auch für den Freizeitsektor gut sein. De Villiers Essay. Der größte Bucherfolg der letzten Jahre, mit einer international generalstabsmäßig geplanten und durchgeführten, an mehreren Fronten agierenden Madienmaschinerie, war die Vermarktung von Scarlet, der Fortsetzung des internationalen Bestsellers Vom Winde verweht. Essays. Und die Rechnung ging auf.

Bereits nach kurzer Zeit waren von der Fortsetzung des Rührschinkens, der zahllose Leser in british marshall scholarship essay Wasser gesetzt hatte, über eine Million Exemplare verkauft. Wichtig ist, daß die Neuerscheinungen von vornherein marktgerecht und verkaufsträchtig gestaltet werden. Die Verpackung muß stimmen. Journals. Da sieht dann bald jedes zweite Buch wie ein echter Simmel oder wie ein neuer Grisham aus. Process Essay Generator. Ferner werden Bücherpakte zusammengestellt, Verkaufsaktionen geplant: In achtzig Büchern um die Welt - diese Aktion zum Beispiel soll an written journals, Jules Vernes atemlosen Erfolgsroman erinnern.

Oder denken Sie an process analysis essay, Die Schatzinsel: Da hat ein Verlag einige Klassiker der Abenteuerliteratur neu gestaltet und buchhandelsgerecht in journals einer schmucken Kiste angeboten. Diese eigens geschaffenen Verkaufsdisplays sollen dafür sorgen, daß die Bücher in british marshall jeder Buchhandlung sofort ins Auge des Kunden fallen. Leider scheinen die Marketingstrategen der Verlage nicht sehr geschickt und originell zu sein. Journals Essays. Eine Untersuchung der Ruhruniversität Bochum belegt eines ganz deutlich: daß die Werbetexte der Verlage in process generator ihrer Gestelztheit, Dunkelheit und Metaphorik nur diejenigen erreichen, die sich ohnehin durch nichts vom Lesen abhalten lassen. Essays. Am meisten läßt man sich noch bei der Verpackung einfallen. Warlords Essay 9. Unsere Bücher gehören sicherlich zu den schönsten und geschmackvollsten der Welt. Essays. Denn Buchumschläge und Klappentexte sind in labor essays erster Linie Werbeträger und sollen zum Lesen animieren. Da wirkt ein flotter Satz aus der Feder eines bekannten Kritikers oft Wunder.

Natürlich muß auch das Preis-Leistungsverhältnis stimmen. Urlaubslektüren und Strandkorbseller müssen gut kalkuliert sein. Written Journals. Und sie müssen leidenschaftlich beworben werden. Den Verlagen kommt es natürlich in erster Linie auf den Käufer an. Generator. Das Lesen ist eine zweite Frage. Journals. Es geht darum, Freizeitangebote bereitzustellen. Law Case Studies. Die Weihnachtsferien etwa stellen soviel Zeit frei, daß manchen Familien die Decke auf den Kopf fällt. Written Journals. In der Vorweihnachtszeit präsentieren uns die Verlage Charles Dickens' Weihnachtsgeschichte - zum tausendsten Mal neu verpackt und illustriert. Labor Essays. (Ironisch:) Begeisternd, dieser Einfallsreichtum. Essays. Ob jemand tatsächlich die freie Zeit damit unterm Weihnachtsbaum verbringt? - Es muß der Weihnachtsbaum nicht sein. Ein Vorteil des Buches ist ja, daß man es überall mit hinnehmen, überall kaufen kann.

Ein Buch ist wie ein kleines Equipment, wie ein Orchester, das in warlords 9 jeder Tasche Platz findet. Journals. Seit einiger Zeit gibt es neben dem Taschenbuch noch die Mille lire- oder Sixty pence-Books, die kleinen Geschwister der Taschenbücher, die gerade mal für eine Bahnfahrt mittlerer Länge Lesestoff bieten. De Villiers. Lesen ist überall möglich: Im Wartezimmer, auf der Parkbank, im Strandkorb, in written essays der U-Bahn – und selbst auf dem Klo! Dort liest Leopold Bloom zum Beispiel, der Held des Ulysses. Labor Essays. Er liest zwar Zeitung, aber eine in written journals essays der Zeitung abgedruckte Erzählung. Warlords Of Japan Background. Die reißt er. heraus, denn das Papier kann er hinterher gut brauchen. Journals Essays. Eine göttliche Szene. Essay Generator. Zugleich ein schönes Beispiel für das subjektive Zeitempfinden beim Lesen. Written. Während Bloom liest - seinen Drang noch unterdrückend, dann gelassen über seinem eigenen aufsteigenden Geruch sitzend - macht seine Fantasie sich selbständig.

Abendstunden, Mädchen in grauem Flor. Labor Essays. Nachtstunden dann, schwarz, mit Dolchen und Augenmasken. Poetische Idee, rosa, dann golden, dann grau, dann schwarz. Journals. Aber lebenswahr auch. Tag, dann die Nacht.

In Sekundenschnelle zieht hier ein ganzer Tag am geistigen Auge der Leserfigur Leopold Bloom vorüber. Eine Zeitreise im Kopf. Es macht gerade den Zauber des Lesens aus, daß es uns an die Grenze von wirklicher Fantasie und fantastischer Wirklichkeit führt, wo Innen- und Außenwelt ineinandertauchen. Diese Erfahrung gilt natürlich nicht nur für uns Leser, sondern auch für den Autor im Schreibprozeß selbst. Der Schriftsteller und Psychiater Ernst Augustin hat seine Schlüsselerfahrung des Lesens und Schreibens folgendermaßen beschrieben: Für mich ist eben die Außenwelt gleich einer Innenwelt. Employment. Ich projiziere es von Außen nach Innen, daß eigentlich die ganze Welt sich in journals essays mir befindet, wobei ich mich persönlich wiederum in british der Welt befinde. Written. Das ist dieses Hin-und-her-Spiel [. Studies Australia. ], dieses Thema des Beteiligtseins, obwohl es. in mir stattfindet. Ernst Augustin hat in journals seinen Romanen diese Schnittstelle zwischen Innen und Außen auf eindrucksvolle Weise dargestellt.

Deshalb ist er ein Kronzeuge für die Lust, für die schiere Begeisterung, die man beim Lesen empfinden kann. Warlords Of Japan. Die Leseerfahrung unserer Kindheit! Das, was man früher vielleicht als Seligkeit beschrieben hat.Heute nennt man das ein Flow-Erlebnis. Written Journals. Zu den Merkmalen von Flow gehört die Veränderung des Zeitgefühls ebenso wie die Überwindung der Grenzen des Selbst. Am häufigsten haben Vielleser Flow-Gefühle, auch das scheint inzwischen wissenschaftlich erwiesen zu sein. Deshalb gibt es erste Versuche der Medizin, eine neue Therapie zu starten, die Bibliotherapie. Vor anderthalb Jahren wurde an chateau, der Freiburger Klinik für Tumorbiologie ein bibliotherapeutisches Forschungsprojekt ins Leben gerufen. Journals Essays. Hier soll sich der Patient so sehr in process analysis essay generator seine Innenwelt verlieren lernen, daß ihn die Außenwelt gar nichts mehr angeht.

Diese Erfahrung soll ihn sogar schwerstes persönliches Leid ertragen helfen. Der Leser ist dann wie der Heilige, der - Zitat - aus sich heraus in written journals essays sich hineinschaute wie in process essay einen Fremden, der schwere Pein erfuhr, dessen Pein ihn aber nichts anging. Die Bibliotherapie kann sicher helfen, schwere Zeiten zu überbrücken. Written Essays. Interessant ist überhaupt das Phänomen der Zeit beim Lesen. Beim Lesen kann die Zeit stillstehen, sich dehnen oder wie im Fluge vergehen. Employment Law Case. Das Buch ist das einzige Medium, bei dem man das Tempo selbst bestimmen kann. Man befindet sich beim Lesen quasi im Auge des Taifuns. Die Zeit der Rezeption ist absolut individuell. Written. Eine junge Frau bekannte einmal, ein Buch von Peter Handke reiche ihr für ein ganzes Jahr. Und bei den Büchern selbst unterscheidet man auch noch einmal mindestens zwei Zeitebenen, die Erzählzeit, also die Zeit, die benötigt wird, um eine Geschichte zu erzählen, und die erzählte Zeit, die in and effect problem der Geschichte dargestellt wird.

Auch historisch war für viele Leser das Lesen in written journals ganz spezifischer Weise mit Freizeit verknüpft. Warlords Background Essay. Neunzig oder mehr Prozent aller dargestellten Welten, so die These, schilderten - und schildern noch!, muß man sagen - die Personen und Figuren fast ausschließlich in written essays ihrer Freizeit. Warlords 9. Das Gedicht, die Novelle, das Theaterstück schildern nicht etwa die Realität der Arbeitswelt, weit gefehlt! Die wenigen Beispiele, die man vor und nach Brecht anführen könnte, sind an written journals essays, einer Hand abzuzählen. Warlords Background Essay 9. Ebenso in journals der modernen Prosa. Essay Normandie. Die Literatur der Arbeitswelt oder die Bottroper Protokolle, die in written journals essays die Literatur hereingeholte Realität der Werktätigen, der sozialistische Realismus - das alles hat sich nicht durchsetzen können. Labor Essays. Auch der Soziale Roman der Biedermeierzeit ist Episode geblieben in written essays der Literaturgeschichte. Vielleicht war das auch der Irrtum der Literatur der Arbeitswelt: Der Leser will ja gar nicht auf das alltäglich Sorgenbringende zurückgeworfen werden, er will Erweiterung: Erweiterung des Horizonts, Grenzüberschreitung. Das ist der Trend zum Event. Warlords Of Japan Background. Wenn ich Ernst Augustin lese, zum Beispiel, dann ist das für mich das wahre, ungetrübte Glück.

Das ist wie Verliebtsein, da spüre ich geradezu, wie sich mein Geist in written die Falten dieser fantastischen Welten legt. Process Essay Generator. Die moderne Hirnforschung ist zu dem Ergebnis gekommen, daß Lesen die anspruchsvollste Gehirntätigkeit überhaupt ist. Es gilt also: Literarische Figuren werden dominant im Privaten aufgesucht und in written essays ihrer Freizeit dargestellt. Labor Essays. Die Liebeserfahrung, die Bildungsreise, das Abenteuer - das sind die vornehmlich gewählten Sujets. Written Journals. Das läßt sich auch anhand der Theorie zeigen: Hegel schreibt in de villiers essay seiner einflußreichen Ästhetik, daß die Arbeitswelt häßlich sei und für ideale Gestaltungen - also für die Literatur! - nicht infrage komme.

Wird in essays Werthers Leiden etwa gearbeitet? Mitnichten. Warlords Background Essay. So sagt Werther: Wenn ich die Einschränkung ansehe in written essays welcher die thätigen und forschenden Kräfte des Menschen eingesperrt sind. Employment Law Case Studies. Ich kehre in written journals essays mich selbst zurück und finde eine Welt! Nicht einmal Albert, diese Inkarnation der bürgerlich nützlichen Welt wird bei der Arbeit gezeigt. Chateau De Villiers. Hingegen die Literatur! Sie spielt bei Goethe eine große Rolle: das Motiv des lesenden Liebespaars, das durch die Lektüre zueinander findet: Homer, Klopstock, Ossian, Lessing. Journals. Beim Tanzvergnügen lernt man sich kennen, bei der Literatur vergießt man gemeinsame Tränen. Labor Essays. Diese Literatur schildert den jugendlichen Helden, frei von sozialen Zwängen.

Weder muß er sich um seinen Lebensunterhalt sorgen, noch muß er auf gesellschaftliche Konventionen groß Rücksicht nehmen. Written. Seine Lebensbahnen sind noch nicht festgelegt, er läßt sich treiben, erotischen Abenteuern nicht abgeneigt. Employment Studies. Und mit ihm läßt sich der Leser treiben. Die eigene Fantasie muß hinzutreten, und - schwupps - ist man selbst der Held. Essays. So erfüllt man sich Wünsche, die sonst vielleicht ewig unerfüllt blieben. Warlords 9. Lesend wird man Held einer virtuellen Welt. Das Engagement der Buchhandlungen ist hier entscheidend. Der Buchhandel hat einerseits kapituliert, sich andererseits auf die wachsende Konkurrenz im Freizeitmarkt eingestellt. Essays. Einerseits: Das Bild der Buchhandlungen in of japan 9 unseren Städten hat sich gewandelt, und zwar nicht zum besseren.

Die Discounter-Buchhandlung macht sich in ihrer ganzen Trostlosigkeit breit: überall dasselbe Programm, nurmehr Bücher mit hoher Umschlagszahl - oder Ramsch- und Remittendentitel in essays großen Stückzahlen. Essay Generator. Nirgendwo mehr etwas zu entdecken. Written Journals Essays. Ein echtes Trauerspiel. Andererseits: In vielen größeren oder Groß-Buchhandlungen sind Ruhe- und Erlebnisräume geschaffen worden, damit der Kunde gleich vor Ort seine Freizeit verbringen kann. Essay Normandie. Die Münchner Großbuchhandelskette Hugendubel beispielsweise hat in written essays ihren Bücherkaufhäusern Inseln der Seeligen geschaffen: bequeme, anheimelnde Sitzgruppen, wo sich der Kunde gemütlich zum Stöbern zurückziehen kann. Labor Essays. Auch der zukünftige Kunde ist hier willkommen: Viele Kinder und Jugendliche verschmökern hier ihre Freizeit oder überbrücken Freistunden in journals der Schule. Gelobt seien auch die Literaturhandlungen und Autorenbuchhandlungen, die seit Anfang / Mitte der 70er Jahre für viele Bücherwürmer zum zweiten Wohnzimmer geworden sind. Labor Essays. Eine Couch, eine Tasse Kaffee oder ein Glas Wein gehören hier quasi zur Grundausstattung. Essays. Und manch ein dankbarer Kunde hat hier schon seine Freizeit investiert, um der kleinen Mannschaft bei der Jahresinventur zu helfen. Und es gibt Buchhandlungen, die leisten sich auch Spielwiesen für die ganz Kleinen, die noch nicht lesen können, aber schon ewige Freundschaft mit dem Bilderbuch geschlossen haben, die sich vor dem Einschlafen eine Gutenachtgeschichte und sonst nichts sehnlicher wünschen, als endlich selber lesen zu können. Cause And Effect Problem Solution. Die Autorenbuchhandlungen haben seit Anfang der siebziger Jahre verstärkt auch die Dichter zu Lesungen eingeladen. Journals Essays. Öffentliche Lesungen erfüllen eine wichtige Funktion: Hier gibt es den Dichter zum Anfassen.

Lesen wird ereignisträchtig und stiftet eine eingeschworene Gemeinschaft der Lesenden. Auch die öffentlichen Bibliotheken entwickeln sich immer mehr zum Freizeitpark, soweit es die öffentlichen Mittel erlauben. De Villiers Essay Normandie. Und wo in written journals essays strukturschwachen Gebieten keine Bibliotheken eingerichtet werden können, da kommt der Bücherbus. Und auch häuslich sollte man sich eine Not- und Hilfsbibliothek einrichten. Studies. Der Münchner Schriftsteller Ernst Augustin hat sich seine private Bibliothek zum Erlebnisraum ausgestaltet. Journals. Das ist nur konsequent: Was sich im Kopf ereignet, darf und soll in chateau de villiers normandie der Realität seine Fortsetzung finden. Written Journals. Es gibt wunderbare Kataloge, die von privaten und öffentlichen Bücherlandschaften Zeugnis ablegen.

Der Rockmusiker Keith Richard bekannte kürzlich, nach seinem Leben on analysis generator the road hätten ihn nun die Bücher geerdet. Written Journals. Und der Engländer Nicolas Barker antwortete auf die Frage, ob er Bücher sammle: Nein die Bücher sammeln mich. Leser wissen: Intensiver als mit Büchern kann man seine Freizeit nicht erleben.

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10 at-home workouts to build muscle in under 20 minutes. Journals Essays. You put in long hours at work, or maybe even work overnight shifts. You’re tight on money. You want to spend downtime with friends. A hurricane or polar vortex has you barricaded in process, your home.

Whatever the reason, there are times when you just can’t make it to the gym. We’ve all been there. And so long as you don’t use that as an excuse to journals, skip workouts, you’re golden. There’s no reason you can’t build muscle, strength, and labor essays size at home. It won’t take all day, either. Training with minimal equipment, or even your bodyweight, is enough to get you in the shape you want. Los Angeles-based personal trainers Ben Bruno and Anthony Yeung designed 10 time-crunch workouts using just your bodyweight and written journals dumbbells. These exercises will shred you to pieces. The best part of warlords background, all? You don’t even need to essays, leave your home. The post-workout smoothie and shower are just steps away.

The first five workouts are courtesy of labor essays, Yeung. The last five workouts are courtesy of Bruno. Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. A1) Feet-Elevated Pike Pushup. Rest: 60 seconds.

Get into a pike position—arms straight and legs straight with your hips high in journals, the air—with your feet on and effect problem solution essays, a sturdy elevates surface like a box. Slowly lower yourself and journals drive back up. A2) Alternating Split Squat Jump. Reps: 10 (each leg) Rest: 60 seconds. Chateau De Villiers Essay. Start in a split stance. Squat down and explode into written the air, switch legs, and land in the opposite employment, stance. Alternate quickly and jump as high as you can each time. B1) Spiderman Crawl. Rest: 30 seconds. Start in a pushup position.

Crawl forward by taking a large step with your right arm and left leg at the same time—get low to the ground and swing your left knee so that it almost touches your right elbow. Essays. Alternate sides and scholarship keep your body low to the ground. To increase the difficulty, crawl backwards. B2) Spiderman Pushups. Rest: 30 seconds. Start in written, a pushup position. As you lower yourself, pull one knee toward that same-side’s elbow. As you rise, bring your leg back. Repeat on essay normandie, the other side and journals essays continue alternating. B3) Single-Leg Box Squats.

Start by facing away from a bench or box. Lift one leg, sit back onto employment studies the bench and come up without putting your other leg down. To make it harder, lower the bench. C1) Alternating Side Plank. Essays. Reps: 5 (each side) Rest: 30 seconds. Lie on your side and place your forearm on the ground, perpendicular to chateau, your body. Keep your body straight, your glutes squeezed, and your shoulders pulled back. Don’t let your hips sag.

Twist your body toward the ground, switch arms, and do a side plank facing the other way. Journals. Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 (siff squat) then A2 (prisoner hold jump squats and then start over employment law case studies, with the siff squat for the second set. Do the same for the “B” and C exercises. Stand shoulder-width apart with your feet slightly turned out. Get onto journals essays the balls of your feet and stay there throughout. Squat down, sitting back and spreading your knees apart. Once you descend below parallel, drive back up. A2) Prisoner Hold Jump Squats, Rest: 60 seconds. Stand shoulder-width apart with your feet slightly turned out.

Places your hands behind your head. Squat down, sitting back and spreading your knees apart. Labor Essays. Keep your weight on your heels. Once you descend below parallel, explode up and jump as high as you can. Journals Essays. B1) Feet-Elevated Pike Pushups. Background Essay 9. Rest: 60 seconds. Get into a pike position — arms straight and written journals essays legs straight with your hips high in the air — with your feet on labor essays, a bench or small box. Slowly lower yourself and drive back up. B2) Alternating Split Squat Jumps. Rest: 60 seconds. Start in a split stance.

Squat down and written journals essays explode into the air, switching legs, and landing in the opposite stance. Alternate quickly and jump as high as you can each time. C1) Salute Planks. Reps: 5 (each arm) Rest: 30 seconds.

Get into a plank position. Bring one hand to your forehead in a salute position and hold for 3 seconds before switching arms. Prevent your hips from twisting as you salute. Rest: 30 seconds. Get into a plank position with only your feet on Valslides. Squeeze your glutes and tighten your core.

Then, push your body backward with your forearms as far as you can. Pull yourself back to the starting position and repeat. The farther back you push, the harder you hit your core. Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. Rest: 60 seconds. Grab a pullup bar and law case studies lift your legs in front of you so your body forms an written journals essays, L. Hold this position and perform your pullups. Essay Generator. A2) Feet-Elevated Pushups. Rest: 60 seconds.

Perform a regular pushup with your feet on a small box or bench. Journals Essays. B1) Skater Squat. Rest: 60 seconds. Start from process analysis a stand and bend one foot behind you. Journals. Then, squat down while trying to touch the knee of the bent leg onto the ground behind you. Let your lean your torso and reach your arms forward as you descent. Warlords Of Japan Background Essay 9. B2) Single-Leg Box Squats. Rest: 60 seconds.

Start by facing away from a bench or box. Lift one leg, sit back onto the bench and come up without putting your other leg down. Written. To make it harder, lower the bench. Warlords. B3) Valslide Lateral Squat. Essays. Reps: (10 each leg) Rest: 60 seconds. Place one foot on de villiers essay normandie, a Valslide.

Squat and push your sliding leg directly out to the side while squatting down on written journals, your stationary leg. Essay. On your stationary leg, focus on sitting backward with your weight on written journals, your heel, keeping your chest tall, and keeping a neutral arch in your lower back. Rest: 30 seconds. Start in essay generator, a pushup position. Do one pushup and as you rise, explosively pull your knees toward your chest and place your feet underneath your chest. Then, jump as high as you can. Once you’re land, put your hands on journals essays, the ground and kick your legs behind to return into a pushup position. Repeat as fast as you can. Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. A1) Wide-Grip Pullups. Reps: Until Failure.

Rest: 90 seconds. Labor Essays. Hang from a pull bar with an overhand grip, hands wider than shoulder-width apart. Squeeze your shoulder blades together and pull yourself up until your chin is over the bar. B1) Single-Leg Box Squats. Rest: 60 seconds. Start by facing away from a bench or box. Lift one leg, sit back onto the bench and come up without putting your other leg down.

To make it harder, lower the bench. B2) Hip/Thigh Extension. Rest: 60 seconds. Lie on your back and bend one knee so that it makes a 90-degree angle and stick the other leg straight out. With your bent leg, squeeze your glute, push through your heel, push your hips up, and keep your hips level as you rise. Keep your straight leg extended throughout the journals essays, exercise and keep it inline with your torso. Marshall Scholarship. B3) Pushup + Overhead Reach. Reps: 6 (each side) Place one palm on a slideboard or Valslide.

From the pushup position, descend into essays a pushup while simultaneously reaching forward with the hand on the sliding surface. When you’re at cause solution, the bottom of the pushup, your sliding arm should be locked out. C1) Forward Crawl. Duration: 30 seconds crawling. Rest: 30 seconds. Start on all fours, with your shoulders directly above your hands, your hips above your knees, and written journals your knees an inch above the ground. Crawl forward by taking a tiny step with your right arm and left leg at the same time, and warlords then another step with your left arm and right leg. Alternate while keeping your hips low and your head up. To increase the difficulty, crawl backwards or laterally.

Workout 5: Chinup and valslide Workout. Perform all A exercises, then all B exercises, then all C exercises. Journals Essays. A1) Valslide Leg Curl. Rest: 60 seconds. Lie on your back with your feet on Valslides. Start by squeezing your glutes and extending your hips.

Then, curl your feet underneath your knees while keeping your hips extended and employment law case studies maintaining a straight line from your shoulders to your knees. Remember: every inch you curl your feet is another inch your hips need to written journals essays, rise. B1) Feet-Elevated Pushups. Rest: 60 seconds. Warlords Of Japan Essay. Perform a regular pushup with your feet on a small box or bench. Essays. Rest: 60 seconds. Grab a pullup bar shoulder-width apart with a supinated grip. Squeeze your shoulder blades together and pull your chest to the bar. C1) Alligator Drags. Rest: 30 seconds. Place both feet on essay, a slideboard or on journals essays, separate Valslides.

Get into pushup position with your glutes squeezed and core tight. While keeping your arms straight, march forward with your arms while dragging your legs behind you. Keep your legs straight. Workout 6: Full-body bodyweight workout (with warmup) The Warmup (Will make total workout time greater than 20 minutes) Do all three exercises in cause and effect problem solution essays, a row and then repeat the circuit again for a total of written essays, six sets. 2. De Villiers Normandie. Alternating Lunges (with hands behind head) Reps: 10 (each leg) 3. Lateral Lunges (hands in front) Reps: 10 (each leg) Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 (glute bridge march) then A2 (pushups), then A3 (split squats) and then start over with glute bridge marches for journals, the second set. Do the same for the “B” exercises. Reps: 10 (each leg) Reps: As many as possible (AMRAP) A3.

Bulgarian Split Squat (foot on labor essays, chair, box, or bench) Reps: 12 (Per Leg) B3. Straight Leg Situp (reach for written, ceiling) Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 then A2, then A3 and then start over employment law case studies, with A1 for the second set. Do the same for the “B” exercises. A1. Bulgarian Split Squat.

Reps: 6 (each leg) A2. Journals. Single Arm Dumbbell Floor Press. Reps: 8 (each arm) Use a neutral grip and touch the dumbbell to your armpit on each rep. A3. Chest Supported Dumbbell Row. Set bench to approximately 35 degree angle, stand with toes on floor and body facing bench.

Row dumbbells to de villiers essay normandie, touch shirt, pause, then lower back down until arms are extended. Written Journals. If you don’t have a bench, do standing bentover dumbbell rows. B1. Chateau Essay Normandie. Goblet Squat. B2. Pushups with hands on dumbbells. B3. Bent Over Reverse Fly. Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises. For example, you’ll do A1 then A2, then A3 and then start over with A1 for the second set. Do the same for the “B” exercises.

B3. Sliding Mountain Climbers. Reps: 15 (each leg) Repeat this circuit as many times as possible in 20 minutes. Written. A2. Straight Leg Situps. Duration: 30 seconds.

Do all “A” exercises then all “B” exercises, then all C exercises. A1. Bulgarian Split Squat Jumps. Process Essay Generator. Reps: 6 (each leg) B1. Bulgarian Split Squat Countdowns. B2. Straight Leg Situps. Written Journals Essays. C2. Straight Leg Reverse Crunch. *Do 6 reps, then do a 6-second iso hold with your rear knee just off the floor.

Go straight into 5 reps followed by a 5-second iso hold, then 4, etc, all the way down to 1 rep. 21 reps and background essay 9 21 seconds of holds. Copyright © 2017 Weider Publications, LLC, a subsidiary of American Media, Inc. All rights reserved.

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essay down sydrome Down Syndrome Research Paper. Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition in which an individual possesses extra genetic material, specifically an extra complete or partial duplicate of chromosome 21 in some or all of an individuals cells. This results in several hallmark characteristics and acute cognitive affects. Some of the physical traits associated with the syndrome are a small body, especially head and ears, hypotonia, hands that are broad and short, epicanthal folds, abnormalities of the ear, and nasal bridges that are flat in shape. There are also several orofacial characteristics such as a protruding tongue that occurs as a secondary characteristic to journals essays having a small and narrow palate (Saenz). Studies. These are just some of the written essays, physical characteristics commonly seen in the chromosomal condition, but the actual presentation of physical characteristics is highly individualized. Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal condition, affecting one in every 691 babies born in the United States and over 400,000 individuals live with the chromosomal condition in the United States (“Ear, Nose and Throat and Down Syndrome”, Fogle 281). Problem Solution Essays. There is a slightly higher incidence of Down Syndrome in boys than girls. Infants are often diagnosed at birth by the occurrence of physical characteristics, but the actual expression of Down Syndrome varies considerably, and the diagnosis may be delayed if too much importance is put on only the typical physical characteristics. The diagnosis will be later confirmed through the use of “genetic karyotyping”, which determines the number of chromosomes present in the body's eukaryotic cells (Saenz 381).

The first physical characteristic of the chromosomal condition that is journals noticeable is often the presentation of hypotonia, the prescence of which should inspire concern and essay, spur subsequent and swift assessment. Down Syndrome is, in most cases, not an inherited condition. Down Syndrome may be caused by Trisomy 21, which refers to journals essays the condition of having a an chateau de villiers essay normandie, extra copy of chromosone 21, meaning three copies, instead of two, in journals, each cell. Labor Essays. In these cases, the “chromosomal abnormality occurs as a random event during the formation of reproductive cells” (Down Syndrome”). This occurrence is possible in written journals essays, either egg cells or sperm cells, but it is most likely to occur in egg cells, and it is the occurrence of nondisjunction, a mistake in the division of a cell, that causes a reproductive cell to contain an odd number of chromosomes (“Down Syndrome”). Likewise, Mosaic Down Syndrome is not an employment studies australia, inherited condition. It happens in the early development stages of a fetus as a random occurrence in cell division, resulting in some cells having the normal duo of chromosome 21 copies, while some cells have three copies. In the third case, Translocation Down Syndrome, the condition may be inherited. Written Journals. A balanced translocation refers to the genetic material in between chromosome 21 and a different chromosome being in a different arrangement than normal that is of japan background essay 9 called a “balanced translocation because there is no extra material from chromosome 21” (“Down Syndrome”).

The carriers of essays this balanced translocation do not display signs of Down Syndrome, but they have a higher risk of employment law case giving birth to essays children with the chromosomal condition. The syndrome's severity ranges from the mild to moderate ranges; however, the one consistently present trait in children with Down Syndrome is mental retardation, and cause problem solution, the syndrome is responsible for one percent of all cognitive mental retardation (Fogle 281). Despite these impairments many individuals are characterized as being generally pleasant, affectionate and written journals essays, happy people. Of Japan Background Essay 9. While Down Syndrome individuals had a life expectancy of about 25 years in 1883, the life expectancy today is about 60 (“Down Syndrome Fact Sheet – National Down Syndrome Society”). In respect to their receptive language, children diagnosed with Down Syndrome often have language comprehension that is about the same as their mental age. Note, that this is journals often different from analysis essay their chronological age. As a general rule, their aptitude for language comprehension is greater than their aptitude for expressive language, specifically speech.

It is important to note that these children frequently exhibit comparatively good development of written journals essays language in their infancy and toddler stages, this is particularly true when the children are enrolled in early-intervention After this period of time, however, in the first school years the rate of 9 language development noticeably slows down. In terms of general diagnostic testing, it is recommended by The American Academy of essays Pediatrics and the Down Syndrome Medical Interest Group that babies diagnosed with Down Syndrome should have audiologic testing directly after the are born and then again every six months until the child is three, or until they can sit for an audiogram with ear specific testing. After this point, there should be an annual hearing test, and even if there is only a mild hearing loss, hearing aids should be considered. This is analysis generator because a mild hearing loss in a child is more severe that it would be in an adult because of the development of the child's intellectual, emotional and language based skills (“Ear, Nose, and Throat and Down Syndrome – National Down Syndrome Society”). The tests should change with their development. Newborns who have been diagnosed with the syndrome receive the mandatory hearing screening and receive objective tests like otoacoustic emissions or auditory brainstem response like other babies. Those who fail the screening should be tested with visual reinforcement audiometry at the devlopmental age (not chronological age) of written essays ten months and employment, conditional play audiometry when they reach the developmental age of two years. Adults should have a hearing assessment conducted every five years, ideally with pure tone audiometry testing and an additional word test (Snashall, Susan). Due to differing craniofacial and orofacial anatomy, tymapnometry will always be a useful test for middle ear fluid.

Likewise, an otoscopic exam should be conducted annually to check the written essays, accumulation of wax. The buildup of cerumen is so common that pathologies of the middle ear may go unnoticed unless searched for by otoscope. A study by Hassman E., Skotnicka B., Midro A.T., and chateau essay, Musiatowicz M. Written Journals. was conducted in 1998 to examine features of hearing loss in individuals with Down Syndrome through otorhinolaryngological examinations and audiological assessments. The study involved forty seven children and fourteen adults with Down Syndrome. Tests were decided upon by warlords of japan 9, the chronological age of the subjects, their intellectual abilities and the function of their middle ear; “pure tone play audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex, auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions” (Hassman E et. Al 199) were the examinations included in the study. The resulting data were compared to control groups of the essays, appropriate age. The results showed that the children with Down Syndrome often exhibited impaired “conductive function of the middle ear. expressed by pathological tympanometry”(Hassman E et al.

199). More specifically, B and C type tympanometry was found in 56% of the chateau de villiers, individual ears that were tested. It was also found that distortion product otoacoustic emissions had lower amplitudes in the children diagnosed with Down Syndrome than those found in the control groups. In light of the written essays, time component in the development of language in children with Down Syndrome, hearing impairment is a significant problem, especially since hearing impairment is “one of the most common disabilities in children with Down Syndrome” (Kattan et al. 931). Essay. The ability to hear is essential to written essays a child's ability to marshall scholarship develop language and speech and because many children with Down Syndrome have hearing problems early in their lives, hearing loss is a great concern for these individuals.

Consequently, children with Down Syndrome who are diagnosed with a hearing impairment are in danger of having learning impairments subsequent to their hearing loss. Written. Therefore the diagnosis and of japan background essay 9, treatment of otological disorders in children is an important topic for the education of speech and language students as well as clinical research. A study by essays, Kattan, Jarrar, and Mahasinin 2000 found that 50% of the 26 children they tested had a conductive hearing loss, 4% had sensoirneural hearing loss, 4% exhibited a sensorineural hearing loss, while 35% had normal hearing (Kattan et al. 931). Though a small study, it supports the general consensus that children with Down Syndrome have a high incidence of labor essays persistent conductive hearing loss. Journals. This must be aggressively diagnosed and managed because this hearing loss may turn out to be one of the major factors that may cause the spoken communication abilities of Down syndrome children to of japan essay 9 rate significantly lower than their actual cognitive abilities. The conductive loss often seen in individuals with Down Syndrome can result from several otologic pathologies such as stenotic ear canals, otitis media, glue ear, cerumen impaction, and cholesteatoma (Satwant S. Journals. et al.). Stenotic ear canals refer to an external ear canal, the labor essays, canal that connects the external ear to the middle ear, that has become unusually narrow. If the ear canal is journals narrow enough it may cause a hearing loss. The stenotic ear canals can present several practical problems, the employment law case, canals may become easily clogged, and it may be difficult to correctly diagnose middle ear disease in stenotic ear canals.

To be sure of appropriate examination and diagnosis, the canals may require an otolaryngologist to clean the canals before examinations, which should occur every three months to prevent ear infections that may otherwise go undiagnosed and untreated. Written Journals Essays. It should be noted that since ear canals grow with age, the child's canals may widen, and may no longer be a problem after about age three (“Ear, Nose, and Throat and of japan background, Down syndrome – National Down Syndrome Society”). The diagnosis for this is aided by a simple macroscopic examination of the journals, canal or a standard otoscopic examination. In terms of treatment, a surgeon may remove extra tissue to widen the canal. Another concern is the actual craniofacial and orofacial anatomy of Down syndrome children which may also lead to chronic ear problems. Certain anatomical characteristics may impede the aeration of the middle ear which can lead to otitis media. Labor Essays. The outer ear canal normally cleans itself, moving cerumen away from the essays, tympanic membrane towards the external auditory meatus, but in studies, children with Down syndrome, the canal is abnormally narrow making these processes less efficient and leading to a build up of ear wax. This accumulation of cerumen is made worse by the fact that it may be more copious and harder than normal, and written essays, the impacted ear wax may then block the law case australia, external auditory meatus. There may also be problems with the Eustachian tube which connects the middle ear space to the nasopharynx. Eustachian tube dysfunction may result in otitis media with effusion (glue ear), which can result in a conductive hearing loss.

Otitis media with effusion does not resolve on written, it's own in Down syndrome individuals as it does in others due to the shape of the Eustachian tube. In general, the tube may be narrower and more horizontal than normal and the nasopharynx may be small (Snashall, Susan). Also, children with Down syndrome may have hypotonia, also known as low muscle tone, which may cause difficulties in process, opening and closing the tube. This can cause an accumulation of negative air pressure in the middle ear space which may result in retention of fluids and infection (“Ear, Nose, and Throat and Down Syndrome”). Journals Essays. Another concern about Eustachian tube dysfunction is that it will last longer in children with Down syndrome that other children, so an important part of prevention is frequent examinations and labor essays, consistent monitoring. Otitis Media is a basic term for the infection or inflammation of the spaces in the middle ear (Peterson, Bell 77). Though otitis media is a very common childhood illness, children with Down syndrome are particularly susceptible to ear infection including serous otitis media (thin, watery fluid is present with infection). There are several causes for this; for one, individuals often produce large amounts of mucous. When this is coupled with immunodeficiency in the individual, infection may easily occur.

Also due to immunodeficiency, children with Down syndrome have a higher incidence of upper respiratory infections which can predispose chronic (lasting at least six weeks) otitis media. Upper respiratory infections or allergies may result in a swollen Eustachian tube which may entrap bacteria and may result in otitis media. Symptoms of written journals otitis media include ear otalgia, which refers to ear pain, fever, and otorrhea, which refers to discharge of the ear. To diagnose otitis media, an otoscopic examination will often be effective. Normandie. The doctor will be looking to written see a tympanic membrane that is employment studies normal in color, pink to gray, and it should be slightly translucent. Written Journals. An inflammed, red or engorged eardrum will point towards infection, as well as a tympanic membrane that bulges outward, retracts inward, or shows signs of perforation. Law Case Studies Australia. Other options are tympanometry to test the middle ear function and test for fluid.

If a child experiences chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction, treatment may include pressure equalization tubes which can eliminate the chronic episodes. These tubes are placed in written journals, the eardrum and allow air to enter the middle ear. The downside of the tubes is that they may need to be replaced. Analysis. For chronic ear infections, anti-biotic medication may also be considered. Glue ear is also called secretory otitis media or otitis media with effusion. Written Essays. Like regular otitis media, it has a high incidence in chateau normandie, Down syndrome children.

A mucous like fluid secretes and gathers in the middle ear, which should only be filled with air, and covers the essays, ossicles, preventing them from moving normally, which results in reduced hearing levels. While glue ear is common, Down syndrome provides extra complications to labor essays this condition. For one, the glue-like substance is stickier which makes it more difficult to wash and essays, prone to infection. Chateau Normandie. Again, anatomy may affect the condition because if the Eustachian tubes are narrower and written, more horizontal, it will be difficult for the Eustachian tube to process essay let the middle ear drain. Treatment of glue ear is essential because, if left untreated, glue ear may result in irreversible damage to the middle ear, this may be due to the lack of motility of the ossicles.

Fortunately, there are three main approaches to treating glue ear: pressure equalization tubes, microsuction, and tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy or both, so there are several options to accommodate individual needs. The procedure to inset pressure equalization tubes is called a myringotomy operation and refers to written essays the small cut made in the tympanic membrane which may also be done as a separate procedure. It is generally performed with the patient under a general anesthetic. De Villiers Essay Normandie. If the essays, fluid is very viscous a cut will be made to let air into employment law case studies, the middle ear space while the other cut drains the fluid. Written Essays. Pressure equalization tubes go through the tympanic membrane, relieving the often painful pressure of the fluid against the eardrum, and labor essays, allow for written, the fluid in employment law case, the middle ear to drain into the external auditory canal. The tube is held in place by the tension in written journals, the tympanic membrane.

The pressure equalization tubes will be pushed out of the tympanic membrane after a few months to a year of having them in place, but if they are placed correctly they are extremely effective, allowing the fluid to employment australia leave the middle ear space. If an adenoidectomy is to be performed as well, it will probably be during the same surgery. Adenoidectomy removes the adenoids if they are enlarged. Removal may be beneficial because it is written behind the adenoids that glue ear may reoccur after pressure equalization tube placement. Another option is microsuction, which involves inserting a needle through the tympanic membrane and using it to draw out the fluid. The upside to this procedure is labor essays that the fluid does not end up in the external auditory canal and have to written essays be cleaned, which is warlords essay 9 especially helpful in children with Down syndrome with narrow canals. The downside of microsuction is that it often requires several procedures. Like glue ear, cerumen impaction is a very common otologic pathology, and it has a high incidence in individuals with Down syndrome. It is a common cause of conductive hearing loss. Ear wax is meant to protect the written journals essays, skin of the canal, especially when it is filled with water. Chateau Essay. Normally, the wax should move towards the opening of the ear it is easily washed away.

As mentioned before, individuals with Down syndrome often have cerumen that is written abnormally hard or thick and accumulates quickly in a narrow ear canal and labor essays, may quickly block the canal with partial or full occlusion. Journals. This may result in a reversible conductive hearing loss. I n “a study of 107 children with Down syndrome who were referred to otolaryngologists showed that 39% had stenosis of the external auditory canal frequently complicated by cerumen impaction” (Roland et al. Essay Normandie. 52). The combination of the accumulation of thick cerumen and auditory canal stenosis can quickly lead to a conductive hearing loss. The symptoms of impacted cerumen are earaches, the sensation of journals plugged ears, tinnitus, and some hearing loss. To remove the cause problem, ear wax, oil can be used to written soften the cerumen. This may also be done as a preventative measure. Many cases of cerumen impaction may be treated at home, but in cases of auditory canal stenosis, the labor essays, family may have an written journals essays, otolaryingologist remove the process essay generator, wax. Irrigation of the journals essays, ear canal may also be effective, but irrigation should never be performed if the tympanic membrane may be perforated as this could lead to acoustic trauma or otitis media.

Cholesteatoma are benign ear cysts, and, specifically, they are accumulations of squamous epithelium and karatin material that usually accumulate around the middle ear and mastoid and form a “progressively enlarging and destructive cystic lesion” (Issacson 604). The cholesteatoma may continue to enlarge to the point where it will destroy bone. If untreated, lesions may break through the temporal bone and apply pressure to the brain, which may result in infection that may, in turn, lead to process generator intercranial abscesses. Individuals with Down syndrome are more at risk for developing cholesteatoma because they may have some of the conditions that put individuals at risk for developing the cysts such as “middle ear diseases, eustachian tube dysfunction, prior otological surgery, traumatic blast injury to ear, and congenital anomalies” (“Cholesteatoma”). Written Journals. If an individual complains of otorrhea (discharge from the ear) or hearing loss, an cause solution essays, otolaryngologist should realize that cholesteatoma might be present (Bacciu et al.). Cholesteatomas may cause irreversible hearing loss but fortunately, most incidences may be cured through surgery. The surgery's outcome depends on the size of the cholesteaoma when it is diagnosed. For children, it is important that lesions in the tympanic membrane are diagnosed by written journals, a pediatrician and that the child is then referred to an otolaryngologist.

The cholesteatoma will be first noticeable as a round cyst, white in british scholarship essay, color, that can be seen behind the tympanic membrane, which is still in tact. If the cholesteatoma goes unnoticed, it will grow and the middle ear space will have a large white mass that bulges outward. A cholestatoma may be congenital or acquired. As they enlarge, the written journals essays, normal variegated appearance of the middle-ear space disappears, replaced by a bulging white mass. In the early stages of the cholesteatoma, it is unusual for the tympanic membrane to be perforated and for drainage to occur. These incidents most often come months or years after the onset of hearing loss which helps emphasize the importance of early detection (Issacson 607). A 2005 study by Bacciu, Pasanisi, Vincent, et al., was conducted to “document the surgical treatment of cholesteatoma in subjects with Down syndrome” (Bacciu et al.

1007). This study exemplified some of the methods used to analysis essay generator treat cholesteatoma as well as the challenges inherent in the treatment of journals essays this otologic pathology for Down syndrome individuals. They followed nine pediatric patients that were being surgically treated, and two of the patients had cholesteatoma in both ears (bilateral), which brought the total of ears being treated to 11. Two of the ears underwent a canal-wall-up mastoidectomy, while eight ears underwent a canal-wall-down mastoidectomy. Mastoidectomy refers to the removal of an infected section of the mastoid bone. Analysis. One ear underwent a modified Bondy procedure, a modification of the mastoidectomy which entails exteriorizing the mastoid cavity leaving the pars tensa and ossicles intact. The outcome of this study was that one of the ears that underwent the written essays, canal-wall-up mastoidectomy was found to have reamaining cholesteatoma present. Another ear, after the same procedure, developed recurrent cholesteatoma which necessitates a change to a canal-wall-down mastoidectomy. Another patient's neotympanic membrane became perforated and had to be repaired.

This study demonstrated that cholesteatoma can be difficult to completely eradicate in de villiers essay normandie, a patient with Down syndrome, and an emphasis should always be put on early diagnosis and prevention especially in written, light of the labor essays, challenges presented by the orofacial and essays, craniofacial anatomy of children with Down syndrome. Des pite the fact that conductive hearing loss is warlords essay 9 more prevalent than sensorineural hearing loss in indi viduals with Down syndrome, they are more likely to written essays more likely to “have congenital permanent inner ear hearing loss than the general population (which has an incidence of 1:1000)” (Snashall, Susan). One of the reasons this happens is because the Cochlear hair cells may be absent. And Effect Solution. If the hair cells are present, they may still be subject to written journals essays early degeneration. Employment Australia. Once they reach their teenage years and after, they have a good chance of cochlear degeneration occurring. Hearing aids are often looked at essays as a viable option for even mild loses and process analysis generator, amplification plays an important role in journals essays, treating hearing loss in children with Down syndrome because it is probable that even a mild loss will have a strong impact on employment, the development of their language. This is a severe concern, so hearing aids are also often recommended for conductive hearing loses that may last for over a few months.

Hearing aids are also used with Down syndrome adult individuals who are living with early onset dementia because the written essays, loss may significantly affect their cognition skills. There are special considerations to take into account when Down syndrome individuals are to receive hearing aids because their ears tend to be smaller. It may also be that hearing aids are not appropriate for law case studies, a child and a classroom FM system may be implemented instead. For cases of sensorineural hearing loss, recruitment is nearly always concomitant with the written journals, loss. Warlords. Recruitment refers to the perception that the level of sound drastically increases for written, specific frequencies and becomes too loud too quickly and causes pain. It follows, then, that recruitment may lead to cause solution sound intolerance. This concern will be reflected in the prescription for the amplification devices. Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition, and research into improving the quality of written journals life for people with Down syndrome is, of course, incredibly important. It may be easy to underestimate the impact that a hearing loss may have on de villiers normandie, an individual's quality of life, especially in journals, children when even a mild loss can be devastating to their speech and language development, but hearing is a critical skill for communication which is an cause solution essays, integral part of a good quality of life. Thus, the treatment of otologic pathologies and hearing loss in Down syndrome is of the greatest concern to giving individuals with Down syndrome the quality of life they deserve.

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Peterson, Miles E., and Theodore Scott Bell. Foundations of Audiology: A Practical Approach . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall, 2008. Print. Roland, Peter S., Timothy L. Smith, Seth R. Schwartz, and Richard M. Rosenfield. Clinical Practice Guideline: Cerumen Impaction. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery , (2008): 1-21. Print. Sacks, Ben, and journals essays, Amanda Wood. Hearing Disorders in Children with Down Syndrome.

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