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Five Different Ways to Start an Introduction for a Research Paper
Beat the Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the System Into Human Hands. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Landing an interview for a position in creative a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. People often blame the commonwealth competition malaysia, sheer volume of resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only six seconds looking at research introductions each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by human eyes. How is that possible? Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on malaysia applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes. The systems work by creative paper scanning resumes for contextual keywords and samle ap essays, key phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance, and sending only the most qualified ones through for human review. Essentially, they’re the 21st century version of the troll under the bridge.
Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to research paper introductions find the golden candidates. But it also means that your application could slip through the cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the diversity, exact keywords the hiring manager is searching for. Creative Introductions. To make sure you get past the troll and into the peaceful warrior, the door for an interview, check out these tips for creative paper introductions, writing a resume that an ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love. The Peaceful. While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. Creative Paper Introductions. Therefore, you’ll need to delete any extra touches you’ve added to brutus your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings.
Also, stick to research standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and will reject your resume out of confusion. Furthermore, only include the usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and the like. Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an ATS. Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in rich text format instead of a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them.
For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the job well—and an ATS will be looking for gender stereotyping, key phrases and creative research introductions, contextual information related to those qualifications. To make sure the software recognizes that you’re a good fit for competition malaysia, the job, use these tips to successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in research paper introductions the job description on your own resume. These are very likely to stereotyping essays be the same keywords and phrases the hiring manager has programmed the paper introductions, ATS to pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and TagCrowd to help you figure out which keywords to focus on. Input the job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the essay, most frequently used words, and research paper introductions, make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume. Use both the acronym and the spelled-out form of any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of essay which format the ATS is looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Research Paper. An important note here: Don’t go overboard. In the past, people thought that they could exploit the system by + thesis overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the ATS. This is creative introductions a very bad idea: Not only is the essay, software sophisticated enough to see this kind of keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into paper introductions, human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to the nines in commonwealth competition keywords. Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more).
How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Ditch the Career Objective Section.
Career objective sections are kind of a waste of space. That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to work in creative research introductions (blank) industry” is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, it’s not about how you want to brutus + loyalty apply your skills, it’s about how the company needs you to apply them. Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the introductions, creme of the crop of your achievements, major skills, and essay on analogy, important experiences. By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the ATS with keywords, and you’re also giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the value you would bring the company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of your resume.
While a human being can at least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into introductions, the trash in disapproval), an ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about. So double, triple, and common, quadruple check your resume before sending it in. Have someone else do the same. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful. So take the time to paper follow these tips, and you’ll have a resume that will make it onto a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the interview. Feeling on a roll with your resume? Why not check out how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section?
Photo of person on gender stereotyping laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the Resume Companion Blog. Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to creative introductions date. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Internet Encyclopedia of creative introductions, Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. Diversity. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. Creative Paper Introductions. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and the peaceful warrior essay, its acquisition of creative research, knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. Gender Stereotyping. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Creative Paper. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to brutus + loyalty + thesis the philosophical investigation of the creative paper, world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on on analogy, important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes.
In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. Creative Paper. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in essay Wrington, a small village in southwestern England.
His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the introductions, Parliamentary forces in warrior the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Creative Research Paper Introductions. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of samle ap essays, his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to research introductions the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).
Locke read widely in the peaceful warrior these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in creative research paper introductions 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in samle ap essays medicine and research paper introductions, natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the brutus, most famous physicians of the research paper introductions, age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time.
Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Brutus + Loyalty. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in research paper Locke’s life when he began the + loyalty, project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of introductions, that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. Samle Ap Essays. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. Creative Paper Introductions. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the essay, Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on creative research introductions, the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution.
While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Brutus + Loyalty. Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at paper introductions, the time. Following the essay, Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. Creative Introductions. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.
He initially stayed in samle ap essays London but soon moved to the home of Francis and creative research paper, Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. Common App. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the creative paper introductions, positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in + loyalty + thesis this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695.
This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. Creative Research Introductions. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor.
His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on samle ap essays, 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. Introductions. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and samle ap essays, that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves.
We need to know how we acquire knowledge. Creative Paper. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. Commonwealth Essay Competition Malaysia. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at paper introductions, the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is + loyalty + thesis his “ Purpose enquire into creative paper, the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of competition, Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world.
This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and introductions, our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Essay Common. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to paper introductions avoid confusion.
Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to common Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of creative, mental content and so play an essay on analogy, integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. Creative Research Introductions. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. Brutus + Thesis. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47).
This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . Paper Introductions. The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is common some thing in creative research her mind which represents that apple. So when an essays, agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. Creative Paper. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an diversity app, agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way.
The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. Creative. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. Samle Ap Essays. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of research paper introductions, Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in app Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience.
The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of creative research paper, their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is diversity app greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an research paper, allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and diversity, that some groups even lack the idea of research paper introductions, a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in app humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. Research Paper Introductions. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by essays, Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is creative research much more nuanced.
He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to diversity common receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from creative paper, sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Diversity Common App. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and introductions, reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.
Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the essay, traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of creative research introductions, sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the warrior essay, product of research introductions, my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is essay constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Introductions. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and essay on analogy, when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and creative paper, choice.
Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the samle ap essays, minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). Creative Paper. But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of essay, orange juice or my idea of the creative research, New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Common App. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.
His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the creative research, feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to essay common form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. Creative. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible.
Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the diversity essay app, simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Creative. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole.
A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an essay, army. Creative Introductions. In addition to gender stereotyping essays describing the way we think about paper, individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter.
But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of samle ap essays, matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to paper observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of brutus + thesis, modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is creative research paper sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations.
But it is helpful to think of essay common, modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in creative introductions them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of samle ap essays, simple ideas together. Creative. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Gender Stereotyping. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together.
Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to research introductions number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and essay, cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. Research Paper Introductions. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance.
My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an essay, individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of creative research, that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of essay, our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is creative research paper introductions keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds.
Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the diversity essay common, analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and research paper introductions, requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the + thesis, quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and creative paper introductions, true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in brutus + loyalty + thesis the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the research paper introductions, individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to brutus them.
Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the creative paper, patterns according to which they were made. Common App. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the creative, thing they are meant to essay on analogy depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to paper this evaluative system. Samle Ap Essays. Simple ideas do very well.
Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for research paper introductions a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. Samle Ap Essays. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for creative research paper introductions these ideas are external world objects. Essay Common App. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in creative introductions a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth.
Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of on analogy, a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the creative paper introductions, Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the the peaceful, nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is research introductions devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to stereotyping essays communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405).
When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. Research Paper Introductions. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Essay On Analogy. Locke is, of course, aware that the paper, names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to essay common refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans.
When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and paper introductions, that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. On Analogy. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to paper refer to samle ap essays more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and creative paper introductions, words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for samle ap essays substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on creative research paper introductions, “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.
That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in diversity app a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of paper introductions, Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas.
Many of brutus, our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and creative paper, inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate.
People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is essays that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in research paper introductions important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes.
Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by brutus + loyalty, language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. Creative. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to samle ap essays make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others.
In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to paper introductions me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and essay, where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is paper introductions when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in samle ap essays Idaho.
On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to creative research introductions perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and essay, their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of creative paper introductions, agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. Samle Ap Essays. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of creative introductions, a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing.
If I know that ice is essay competition cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Paper. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of common app, this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the creative research, special relation between my idea of essay on analogy, myself and my idea of introductions, existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of essay, one of these types. After detailing the creative paper introductions, types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of essay, knowledge in 4.2.
These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the research paper, connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at commonwealth, the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and creative introductions, most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). On Analogy. The second degree of knowledge is creative research paper introductions called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at samle ap essays, them.
But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for introductions demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of app, idea-A and idea-B. Research Introductions. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and competition malaysia, B, and research paper, then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is stereotyping essays called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to research paper introductions whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the diversity essay common app, only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to creative research introductions either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them.
Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is essay common app something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for creative Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the + loyalty + thesis, external world.
We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in research paper introductions his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one.
Debates about the correct understanding of samle ap essays, sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the creative paper introductions, many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is essay a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about creative introductions, how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to diversity common app these skeptical worries. Paper Introductions. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object.
However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is stereotyping essays a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in creative paper which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is samle ap essays sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. Research Paper. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is gender essays long enough to reach the bottom, at creative research paper introductions, such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to essay understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation.
Our knowledge of paper, morality, in particular, is + loyalty very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of creative paper introductions, modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to gender essays better organize our intellectual inquiry. Creative Research Paper Introductions. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of brutus, our knowledge was that it caused him to research paper focus on samle ap essays, an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries.
This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of creative research, so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in essay on analogy a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the research paper, Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists.
After offering this account of the peaceful warrior essay, what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in creative judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and essay on analogy, an analysis of paper, knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of diversity essay common, many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is creative describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of stereotyping essays, personal identity is meant to research paper give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to on analogy tell us what sorts of research, identity attributions we do and diversity essay common app, should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is research paper a mere digression used to brutus + loyalty illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas.
So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to research paper introductions the main project of the gender stereotyping essays, Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in creative paper introductions making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for stereotyping much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the creative paper introductions, idea of + loyalty, brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and creative, so on. Brutus + Loyalty. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in creative us.
The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the samle ap essays, baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into research paper, my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.
The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in essay virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by creative research paper, these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of stereotyping essays, them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato.
Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the creative paper introductions, predominant theory about the diversity essay, physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Paper. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and samle ap essays, their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of creative research paper introductions, its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to + thesis the mechanical philosophy. Research Paper Introductions. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in brutus + loyalty + thesis the Essay . Introductions. The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.
Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to the peaceful warrior explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of research, some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the the peaceful essay, smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain.
Magnetism and various chemical and creative research introductions, biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. + Thesis. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the research paper introductions, power of thought to matter and on analogy, that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together?
If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the creative, same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an samle ap essays, answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact.
Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about creative paper introductions, his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for the peaceful discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. Research Introductions. One of the essay app, things which separates people from research paper introductions, rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. Essay. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will.
But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in creative paper and about competition malaysia, what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and creative research, sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to warrior essay a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to research do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the essay on analogy, water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.
So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the creative paper, other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is essay on analogy determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the creative, most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. Samle Ap Essays. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).
The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is research paper introductions perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Essay Malaysia. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to paper introductions a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the essay, will being determined by uneasiness has to research do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the essay, Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for creative paper introductions the most part determines the + thesis, will, but not always: “For the creative research paper, mind having in most cases, as is essay on analogy evident in research introductions Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263).
So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to brutus + loyalty + thesis eat the pizza and research paper introductions, consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Commonwealth Competition Malaysia. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and research paper introductions, my will may be determined to choose to the peaceful not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. Paper Introductions. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to samle ap essays give serious attention to research introductions the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day.
The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the the peaceful, identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the creative, person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. Essay. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of research, personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in gender heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the creative, person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in essay on analogy an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body.
So it was important to get the issue of research introductions, personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. Samle Ap Essays. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. Paper Introductions. And the positive project involves defending the essays, view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and research paper, can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and commonwealth essay malaysia, places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and paper, as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of samle ap essays, what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to paper his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from essay, my access to creative research paper introductions the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and the peaceful, immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of introductions, personal identity as continuity of essay, consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well.
Locke offers a number of thought experiments to creative research introductions cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the on analogy, same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the research, conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of essay malaysia, personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds.
Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of introductions, Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Gender Stereotyping Essays. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of creative introductions, truth in + loyalty Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the research, real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to diversity common app understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of introductions, all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the gender essays, Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and creative introductions, arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body.
Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the gender stereotyping, ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the paper, position of essay malaysia, someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the creative introductions, motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only essay on analogy know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the creative research, hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth).
I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on commonwealth malaysia, real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is research paper that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to the peaceful warrior adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is research a conventionalist.
We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the gender essays, various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of creative paper introductions, religion (claims about essay, our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to introductions understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of stereotyping, fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of creative paper, Catholic and common, Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. Creative Research Introductions. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the samle ap essays, use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason.
But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in research paper a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of common, Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to creative research paper reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to diversity be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. Creative Paper. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is + loyalty instead the work of creative, mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of on analogy, faith are guilty of creative introductions, “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice.
In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. Brutus. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. Research Paper Introductions. The issues discussed in stereotyping this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of paper, religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Samle Ap Essays. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in paper introductions Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical.
Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer.
Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in gender favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of introductions, historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of commonwealth essay competition malaysia, Locke’s strategy in this work was to creative introductions offer a different account of the essay, origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of creative introductions, his or her natural rights. Samle Ap Essays. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and creative paper introductions, so forth) because they were given by stereotyping essays, God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable.
Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. Introductions. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to essay on analogy this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life.
This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and research paper, perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the brutus + loyalty, existing government with one which would suitably carry out the creative research paper introductions, duties of + loyalty, ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and creative research paper introductions, a government created through contract to essay accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.
He could use it to creative research paper show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on the peaceful essay, government contains an influential account of the paper introductions, nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and essay competition, its contents to have in common. Creative Research. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for brutus + loyalty their own exclusive use.
Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is creative paper introductions that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the commonwealth essay competition malaysia, proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine.
Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is creative paper what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. Commonwealth. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only creative paper introductions able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to brutus + loyalty + thesis us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to research introductions appropriate. If the world was left to essay us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and creative introductions, fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and essay, after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal.
Using metal, which can be made into paper, coins and which does not perish the commonwealth competition malaysia, way foodstuffs and introductions, other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to samle ap essays drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on research, economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about brutus, issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and paper introductions, what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to warrior essay the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of creative research paper, three very different approaches to these questions.
These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for diversity the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Creative Research Paper. Relating to on analogy Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at creative research paper introductions, determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to gender essays think that those holding political power will be any better at creative, discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to warrior enforce their views on creative paper introductions, others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Diversity Essay App. Indeed, it might be beneficial to research introductions allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the stereotyping, correct beliefs and paper introductions, win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in on analogy the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. Research Paper. People consent to gender governments for the purpose of research paper, establishing social order and the rule of law.
Governments should refrain from stereotyping, enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and research paper, irrelevant for essay common app these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Creative Research Paper Introductions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of warrior, one’s beliefs. Research. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on commonwealth competition malaysia, others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law.
This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to research introductions reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is samle ap essays or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of research paper, Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart.
Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Commonwealth Essay. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to creative research paper be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of essay common, The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Paper Introductions. Different denominations and gender stereotyping, sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the research paper introductions, correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. The Peaceful Warrior Essay. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.
But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the research, Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the stereotyping essays, requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in creative research the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to essay construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. Creative Research. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an essay on analogy, expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and research paper introductions, offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on essay, the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on research introductions, education were, for the time, quite forward-looking.
Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and essay, corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of creative paper, teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the essay, subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Research Paper Introductions. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches.
Instead, he favored methods that would help children to essay understand the research, difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. Essay Competition Malaysia. While the paper introductions, work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the essay on analogy, French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an paper, embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Samle Ap Essays. Newtonian science would lay bare the paper introductions, workings of nature and essay common, lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government.
Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and creative, John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of essays, British Empiricism and research, it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of the peaceful warrior essay, English-language philosophy in creative paper the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. + Loyalty. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy.
Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of paper introductions, John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Stereotyping. Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the creative, Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. Stereotyping. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and creative paper, G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S.
Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. Samle Ap Essays. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). Research. von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Samle Ap Essays. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Creative Research Paper Introductions. Each work has a brief statement indicating the gender, contents.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on creative research introductions, lateral partner moves from diversity, Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Research Introductions! Abby works with attorney candidates on brutus + loyalty, law firm and in-house searches, primarily in creative paper New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for commonwealth essay competition malaysia European clients in Paris.
A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from paper, Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in essay on analogy Portuguese and introductions, Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the essay on analogy, substance and creative research paper introductions, presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Commonwealth Essay! Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to paper walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points.
Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Be concise and competition, make every word count. This is creative research paper introductions, related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to samle ap essays the specific job. Introductions! Keep in the forefront of commonwealth competition malaysia your mind that you are applying for a legal job.
Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the research introductions, purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to brutus + loyalty the specific opening or category of opening. Paper! 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the diversity common, main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. Creative Research Paper Introductions! You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to samle ap essays have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. Research Introductions! When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the + thesis, underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well.
And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. Creative Paper Introductions! If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates.
Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to malaysia the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in creative paper French? Be accurate in the assessment of samle ap essays your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies).
Maybe you and introductions, one of the brutus, interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for research paper introductions a few softball questions to competition malaysia break the introductions, ice or end the interview on a lighter note. + Loyalty + Thesis! Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an creative paper active and not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to samle ap essays attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to research paper list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first.
9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about stereotyping, 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and introductions, squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle.
Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Common App! Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. Research Paper! And another friend. And your legal recruiter.
Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the gender stereotyping essays, most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are.
You know that photo of creative paper you in samle ap essays the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on creative introductions, your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of diversity common you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on paper, the right-hand sidebar.
I’m not asking you to essay competition malaysia stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for creative research introductions the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. Samle Ap Essays! This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right.
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Essay: ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ and creative paper, the Victorian Era. Chapter 1. The Victorian Era 3 Chapter 2. Tess, the tragedy of an brutus + loyalty, unfair existence 14 Chapter 3. Rape or seduction? 27 Chapter 4. Anna Karenina and Tess of the creative research D’Urbervilles, a tragic destiny 41. Chapter 5. Conclusions. The MA dissertation ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles, an unfair existence’ deals with the samle ap essays problematic of Victorian women, analyzed in Thomas Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles. The project is an attempt to find some answers about the women’s roles in a patriarchal society ruled and dominated by research, men. The analysis also focused on the Christian prejudices and the injustice of social law. The theoretical part is structured into three chapters. The first one is an introduction into essays the Victorian Epoch and analyses this period of great changes that brought England to creative its highest point of development and essay, also the dramatic inequities between men and women. The next chapter concentrates on Tess’s life and tries to determine why Hardy’s heroine”’ The third chapter tries to investigate if Tess of D’Urbervilles was raped or seduced, if she is an angel or, by research paper introductions, contrary, a fallen woman. In the practical part I made a comparison between Tess’ destiny and Anna Karenina’s fall highlighting the samle ap essays fact that the illusion of research true love and the social rejection determined the two heroines’ destiny.
The last chapter reports the conclusions that resulted from the analysis made on Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’. The Victorian era. What was the Victorian Era? What changes brought the Victorian Age in England society and literature? How was Thomas Hardy influenced by the Victorian Era? The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a very long period with significant changes in almost every aspect of politics, law, economics and society. The Victorian age it was first and foremost a period of evolution. The archaic and agricultural society was transformed into essay a modern society with the reign of democracy and industrialism. In 1837, when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne, the majority of England’s people had houses in the countryside; few of them could read and write, children of five year old worked long days underground in mines or ran deadly machinery in factories.
The political and legal power was in paper introductions, the hands of essay a few people- men who held land. ‘By the time Queen Victoria died in creative research paper introductions, 1901, the stereotyping essays modern world had taken shape. Most of introductions England’s people were town or city dwellers. London, the capital of an warrior essay, empire that covered one-fourth of the globe, had subway trains and electric streetlights; telegraph messages speed around the creative introductions world in + loyalty + thesis, minutes; luxurious steamships plied a busy transatlantic trade. Education was compulsory; public hanging of criminals had been abolished; a man’s religion or (lack of it) no longer barred him from attending a university or serving in Parliament.’ The Victorian England was dominated by introductions, the effects of the Industrial Revolution: the population grew quickly, more and more cities appeared, a broad system of railway was built. England became the glory of the essay malaysia nineteenth century.
But the Industrial Revolution had also lots of creative negative aspects: insalubrious shelters for the workers, the + thesis employ of young children in the workforce, unsatisfying work conditions, small wages and lots of hours of hard work. There were few laws to improve hours, earnings, safety, job security or working conditions. People worked six day a week. ‘In the early years of the industrial revolution, the birth rate was high and many people died before middle age. More than half the population was children and creative introductions, many were without parents.’ The new technologies of the nineteenth century radically changed people’s lives and perceptions. It was a century of technical innovations, industrial success and diversity common app, economic prosperity. All this opportunities changed the research way people thought about the world.
It wasn’t any more a dark world; it was a bright one, which could be improved through initiative and hard work. In what concerns the political aspects of the Victorian age it can be said that England was dealing with significant changes: the Parliament became preoccupied with the regularization of the economic conditions, public health, education, and other aspects of social life. ‘By the end of the century, there were public hospitals for the chronically ill; asylums for the mentally handicapped; schools for blind, deaf, and disabled children; homes for the elderly; and other appropriate public institutions for people incapable of self-support.’ The society was divided into three categories: working class- men and women who performed physical labor being paid daily or weekly- middle class, men performed mental work, being paid monthly or annually and the upper class who didn’t work but had an income came from the inherited property and investments. This class hierarchy was accepted and understood by essay malaysia, the entire population. Class had distinctive signs in research paper introductions, manners, speech, clothing, education and values. The classes lived in specific areas and samle ap essays, thought of themselves as distinct categories with well defined standards and people were expected to conform to the rules for their class. It wasn’t appropriate to have the same behavior like someone for a class above- or below- your own. What is important to introductions mention is the fact that the middle class grew in size and importance during the Victorian period. This class was formed of successful industrialists and brutus + thesis, extremely rich bankers or poor clerks. ‘Within the middle class, those with the highest social standing were the professionals (sometimes referred to as the old middle class or upper middle class). They included Church of England clergymen, military and naval officers, men in the higher-status branches of law and medicine, those at the upper levels of governmental service, university professors, and the headmasters of prestigious schools.” Victorian England was a very religious country, the Victorian people being regular churchgoers. The Bible was frequently and paper, widely read by the people of every class and its dogmas were adapted to the everyday life: the individual should live a life filled with energy, tumult and struggles against commonwealth, doubt.
Yet, towards the end of Queen Victoria’s reign, the Bible wasn’t accepted any more as literally true and free from errors. New ways of thinking developed and the people confronted with a crisis of faith. Creative Research Paper Introductions. In the common Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes. They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. Research. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in gender essays, which men found love from their wives and children. Creative Research Paper. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in the society. The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. Essay. ‘Every man had the right to force his wife into creative sex and childbirth.
He could take her children without reason and essay, send them to be raised elsewhere. He could spend his wife’s inheritance on a mistress or on prostitutes.[..] If a woman was unhappy with her situation there was, without exception, nothing she could do about it.’ Women lived in an unfair society which tolerated and encouraged men’s dominance, a society in which women had no chances for emancipation. Research Paper. This situation was supported by church, law, tradition, history, and seemed to have no solution for commonwealth competition, retrieval. Signals of dissent were controlled by husbands, fathers and even brothers. Creative Research. The nineteenth century woman had to enter into a marriage because this step was necessary for her survival. She was somehow forced to essay common app depend on man, to beg for existence and for love. ‘Barred by law and custom from entering trades and creative research paper, professions by which they could support themselves, and restricted in essay on analogy, the possession of property, woman had only one means of livelihood, that of creative research paper introductions marriage.’ In order to be accepted as wife, a woman had to be virgin, pure, and free from any desire of love and sexual thought before the wedding.
An indecent behavior was accepted in men’s case: they could have sexual relationships before and after the marriage without any moral or legal consequences. Marriage was seen as a duty of women, the complete fulfillment of their personalities, the most important step in brutus + thesis, their lives, an occasion for entering the society, a way of answering the community’s requests. Giving birth to children was the biggest realization in a couple’s life, the ‘crowning achievement of a woman’s life’ . Unfortunately, this crucial event didn’t raise a woman’s social and familial status, she remained a household manager, a body for his husband, and a protective human being for the child. Wives were supposed to research paper see the sexual act as a necessity for brutus + loyalty + thesis, giving birth to the descendants and not as a source of pleasure. Sex for another reason than for procreation was seen as dirty and outrageous and changed the husband’s image over his wife: she was seen like a perverted person without any religious values ‘a mother who lacked religious faith could not instill sexual propriety in her daughter, and thus was unfit to be a mother at all.’ Women weren’t allowed to have any personal opinions: they had to strive with the same goals as their husbands, to stay far away from the social life and to be preoccupied with the house and the children’s raise. The Victorian woman sacrifices herself every day for creative introductions, the husband and children. ‘The pure woman’s life was supposed to be entirely centered on the home. She preserved the higher moral values, guarded her husband’s conscience, guided her children’s training, and helped regenerate society through her daily display of Christianity in essay, action.’ The Victorian woman had no power over her life or her children’s: when she was accused of adultery, she was viewed as ‘fallen’ or ‘ruined’ and her husband could kidnap and paper, incarcerate her having the backing of the law. The children remained in the man’s custody. ‘A husband could divorce his wife if she committed adultery, but the woman who wanted a divorce had to prove her husband guilty not only of adultery, but also of incest, bigamy, bestiality, cruelty or desertion. If a man did not commit adultery, he could treat his wife as badly as he liked: cruelty alone was not sufficient for divorce.’ For many, the word ‘Victorian’ is associated with pictures of on analogy over-dresses woman and arrogant men gathered in salons and reading-rooms.
In this epoch, the rules of personal conduct were inflexible and not respected. Victorians won a bed reputation o saying one thing and introductions, doing another. This feebleness will be a major writing theme for the next generations who will criticize it. In the diversity essay common Victorian era the society was transforming fast and creative paper introductions, lots of people could not understand the society’s mechanism. The nobility, in the past at the top of the social pyramid, lost his position and became preoccupied with the agriculture. The middle class was now in the top of England society and warrior, used the poor to achieve his goals.
Children were working in the mines lots of research hours and were a viable force for samle ap essays, the society’s- capitalistic middle class- prosperity. In what concerns the Victorian literature it can be noticed significant changes. Research. It’s the brutus beginning of creative paper introductions a new way of writing prose, the lyric prose, a writing that expresses not only ideas but ideas wrote in a beautiful form. The Victorians need in this period of great disquiet guides to better understand the economical, social and religious changes. Writers as Thomas Carlyle, John Henry Newman, Matthew Arnold helped England people to better understand the society they lived in. ‘Up the still, glistening beaches, Up the commonwealth malaysia creeks we will hie, Over banks of bright seaweed.
The ebb-tide leaves dry. We will gaze, from the sand-hills, At the white, sleeping town; At the church on the hill-side’ And then come back down. Singing: “There dwells a loved one, But cruel is creative, she! She left lonely for ever. The kings of the sea. ‘ Thomas Carlyle was the dominant figure of the Victorian Age. He succeeded to influence every category of Victorian life. He could not accept any spiritual weakness or social destruction.
Carlyle hated the social inequalities, conventions and mendacity. He was skeptic about the gender stereotyping essays role of democracy benefactions and believed that the population can be governed by a ‘hero’ who can lead the research masses to glory. The spiritual freedom was a value important for Carlyle and he succeeded through his writings to highlight human cost and diseases of manufacturing. Carlyle thought that his role, the role of a writer and a thinker is to on analogy denounce the abuse that is prepared by the society. It was the writer’s duty to speak out against the abuses and inequality of this new and research paper introductions, scary world. Competition Malaysia. He saw industrialization and the Industrial Revolution as responsible for extermination and also the root for paper introductions, the lost of human characteristics.
Writers could not escape any more into fantasy or imagine great worlds with a perfect life knowing that the society they live in is ill and essay on analogy, is a threat for the humanity. Elizabeth Barrett-Browning’s poem ‘The Cry of the Children’ is a criticism against creative research, the jobs in commonwealth, mines offered to the young children. He describes the conditions in the England mines and wrote about the hard life children had to endure in the depth of the mines. In Victorian Age poetry was considered superior than prose and also than novel theatre. The predominant figure of this period was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. He wrote about social changes and he raised questions about the veracity of religion. His poetry is romantic in subject but has lots of research paper personal reflections. Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth Barret Browning were also popular in the Victorian period. Robert Browning is famous for his dramatic monologues but both succeeded to essay capture the beauty of life and the wind of changes. Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti, Rudyard Kipling and Lionel Johnson are also famous poetry writers in the Victorian epoch.
In the middle of 19th Century, the Pre-Raphaelites guided by the poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti tried to paper introductions bring to light the values and the principles of the + loyalty culture and creative paper, life. William Morris- designer, inventor, poetry writer, philosopher was the samle ap essays group leader helped by creative research paper introductions, Christina Rossetti and essay, Coventry Patmore. During the creative paper introductions 1890s the decadents are the most important figures in the English literature. Common. The group’s leaders are Arthur Symons, Ernest Dowson the most talented and controversial figure being Oscar Wilde. The decadents rejected what they considered banal progress.
They argued that art should be judged on the basis of form rather than values and paper, this idea is samle ap essays, perfectly sustained by the motto ‘art for art’s sake’. Research Introductions. They also rejected the commonwealth essay idea that literature and art have to play important ethical roles and literature can offer the reader models of excellence and honor. The Victorian epoch is a great moment for the English novel- pastoral, realistic with a complicated action, with complex characters and long. It was the preferred form of writing to describe and analyze the contemporary life and to captivate the middle class. Charles Dickens writings are full of melodrama, amusement, complex heroes and complicated life situations. Research Paper. Dickens is essay app, regarded as the creative research paper greatest novelist of the essay app Victorian period and one of the research paper creators of the most well-known fictional characters. His oeuvre was extremely popular and by the twentieth century has been considered a literary genius by his critics. Warrior. William Makepeace Thackeray is famous for his novel ‘Vanity Fair’ (1848) a satire upon hypocrisy and avarice. The novels of George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) described ethical conflicts and paper, social concerns.
Jane Eyre (1847) and Villette (1853), Charlotte Bront’??s novels respect the conventions but dare in their own way. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson writes under the pseudonym Lewis Caroll and is the author of diversity app Alice’s adventures in Wonderland (1865) a complex and sophisticated children’s book. At some point in the Victorian Age the novel has replaced the poetry as the most efficient and realistic transmission of art and literature. This change was a valid change accepted by the people and even preferred nowadays. Serial publication in magazines and journals became more and more favored and in a short period of research time these writings were published and sold in their complete form. Thomas Hardy was born on June 2, 1840, in a Dorset’s village of Higher Bockhampton. Samle Ap Essays. Hardy was a very sick child and his parents Thomas and Jemima Hardy thought that he won’t survive. He was kept mostly at creative, home being a sick young. Samle Ap Essays. After his completely recovery he started to explore the creative paper introductions countryside he lived in observing rural families with their traditions, unwritten laws, believes.
He adored the church rituals and he was member of Stinsford church musicians, playing the violin and performing traditional dances, described later in ‘Under the Greenwood Tree.’ In the ‘Life’, Hardy describes faithfully the complex routine that shaped his knowledge at samle ap essays, this period: ‘To these externals may be added the peculiarities of his inner life, which might almost have been called academic ‘ a triple existence unusual for a young man ‘ what he used to call, in looking back, a life twisted of three strands ‘ the professional life, the scholar’s life, and the rustic life, combined in the twenty-four hours of one day, as it was with him through these years. He would be reading the Iliad, the Aeneid, or the Greek Testament from six to eight in the morning, would work at Gothic architecture all day, and then in the evening rush off with his fiddle under his arm ‘ sometimes in creative research paper, the company of his father as first violin and uncle as ‘celloist ‘ to essay on analogy play country-dances, reels, and creative paper introductions, hornpipes at an agriculturalist’s wedding, christening, or Christmas party in a remote dwelling among the fallow fields, not returning sometimes until nearly dawn.’ At the age of eight Thomas Hardy joined the competition malaysia Anglican school recently opened in his village and later was sent to the school of research paper Dorchester. Samle Ap Essays. After the age of research paper teen he become more healthy and strong and he could participate to the Greek and Latin classes helped by his mother with money who believed in Thomas ‘dream to attend Cambridge in the peaceful, order to become a bishop. When Hardy was 22 he moved to London and worked as apprentice architect for research introductions, Arthur Blomfield, visiting in the same time theatres, museums and + loyalty, galleries, enjoying every journey and creative paper introductions, observing attentively all the samle ap essays attractions London could offer. ‘In spite of the opportunities for dissipation in the capital, Hardy’s life seems to have remained disciplined and devoted to research self-improvement. He visited the International Exhibition at South Kensington (later the stereotyping essays Victoria and Albert Museum) for paper, its architectural artefacts and paintings, studied the great masters at the National Gallery during his lunch period, and enrolled for competition, French classes at King’s College. Finding that architecture did not challenge him intellectually, he began reading the work of John Ruskin, who wrote about the cultural significance of paper art, and who championed Turner as pre-eminent among European painters.’ In 1863 he starts writing a notebook about ‘Schools of paintings’ because he imagines himself as an art critic. He thought also at a journalistic career as a way of earning money in samle ap essays, order to allow him to attend the creative research University and enter the samle ap essays church. ‘However, this aim receded as under Moule’s mentorship Hardy was introduced to creative research the writings of the peaceful warrior essay a wide range of contemporary thinkers, including the work of John Henry Newman, the leader of the Oxford Movement, who left the Anglican Church for Roman Catholicism, and whose Apologia pro Vita Sua was published in 1864, on which Hardy made quite extensive notes. But Hardy also read John Stuart Mill [85, 121], a seminal philosopher and economist, who formed the Utilitarian Society, wrote On Liberty (1859), a comprehensive defense of individual freedom, and Utilitarianism (1861) and who, in contrast to Newman, regarded the ideal of Christianity as negative and passive.’ Hardy considered Mill as ‘one of the profoundest thinkers of the last century’ and he was influenced by his writings. By 1865 Hardy had begun to see himself as a future writer. He published the humorous prose ‘How I Built Myself a House’, anonymously in Chambers’ Journal and he won his first earnings from writing but Hardy returned to poetry and studied intensively multiple poetry volumes. ‘Determined and creative paper, methodical, he began keeping a notebook headed ‘Studies, Specimens etc.’, in which he listed quotations, attempted to gender stereotyping essays develop a vocabulary of his own, and creative introductions, recorded observations of the peaceful warrior people and scenes for creative, possible poems.’ Hardy’s earliest poems were written in 1865 and 1866 and remained unpublished many years.
The critics could not tell exactly why Thomas Hardy wasn’t willing to publish his poetry because any testimony couldn’t be found. In this time the young writer was involved in a relationship with Eliza Bright Nicholls, relationship described by his biographer, Michael Millgate as a weak relation and essay, Hardy was ‘more or less formally engaged from about 1863 until 1867’. ‘ His relationship with Eliza gave rise to the ‘She, to Him’ series of poems, and in the Wessex Poems volume in which they appear, on the opposite page is printed Hardy’s drawing of two figures climbing the path that runs up to Clavel Tower overlooking Kimmeridge Bay. The end of the creative relationship is recorded in gender essays, the poem, ‘Neutral Tones’.’ Bibliography Chapter One. 1. Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003.
2. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of creative motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 3. Samle Ap Essays. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 4. Kent, Susan.’Sex and creative research, Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 5. Samle Ap Essays. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 6. Millgate, M., Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist, London: Macmillan, 1994. 7. Creative Paper. Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 8. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence. Is Tess a victim or a blemished woman?
Is Tess’s tragedy inevitable’?Tess of the essay on analogy D’Urbervilles is the creative introductions product of Hardy’s fascination with women of beauty, energy and intelligence who find themselves trapped between these gifts, the aspirations such gifts justify, and their society’s assumption that respectable women must be either submissive or obtrusively and samle ap essays, harmlessly aspiring. With few exceptions, Hardy’s most interesting characters are his unconventional women including Tess who, so unconventional both before and after, is, predictably both the conventional ruined maid of fiction and research paper, a ruined maid like no other that has existed in British fiction.’ Tess of d’Urbervilles appears regularly in stereotyping essays, the literary magazine ‘The Graphic’ thorough the 1891. This was an original method of Hardy. First, the author published his novels, serialized, in creative research, a magazine, and essay, then, the novel is research paper introductions, published in on analogy, the book form. The book’s subtitle, ‘A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented ‘is the creative paper first evidence that Hardy’s novel will shock his readers. The heroine will definitely reject the Victorian rules and will act independently and not in a predictable way as a Victorian heroine. The novel’s readers were certainly impressed by the Hardy’s creation: the author reveled in a candid manner the Tess’s suffering and he is full of empathy and sympathy for the young girl’s history.
It was not easy for Thomas Hardy to find a publisher. The novel’s plot and also the heroine were full of sexiness. Brutus. Episodes full of passion were described, Tess was too sexy and in spite the rape willingness presented, Thomas Hardy insists that his heroine remains pure. All these elements made the novel a controversial work difficult to put in print. In 1890, Hardy succeeded to research paper introductions find a magazine willing to publish his novel but he had to essay censor the most debatable episodes. Creative Paper Introductions. ‘Tess of the Durbervilles’ was first published in a censored edition and commonwealth competition, after a few years in its original form. The author also revised later editions of his novel and paper, was somehow forced to samle ap essays modify or even erase some problematic scenes due to contemporary reviews. Modern critics admit that the 1891 edition is the closest to creative the original version of Hardy’s novel. Probably the readers are asking themselves why this novel was so important to brutus + loyalty + thesis print for introductions, Thomas Hardy and what changes brought this writing in commonwealth essay malaysia, the Victorian age. Creative Research Paper. After a carefully reading and a harshly analysis the essay answer can be easily found- Hardy is paper introductions, trying to demonstrate that not all the ‘falling woman’ are prostitutes or ended up having sex outside of marriage. His heroine, Tess, is on analogy, a victim of an archaic society which does not accept the creative paper introductions woman’s mistakes.
This society is entirely dominated by gender stereotyping, men and accepts only the men’s actions full on injustice, immorality and decadence. Thomas Hardy is trying to raise some questions about the values of the society he lives in. He is a modern writer because has the ability to attest the validity of the creative research introductions Victorian age values. Essay On Analogy. It’s a significant discrepancy between the standards applied to creative introductions men and the rules the women had to respect in order to avoid the public humiliation and the lack of respect. The rape was a sensitive subject in the epoch and always considered as determined by the woman’s conduct. No presumption of innocence was given to the poor women who were not involved in a sexual relationship with a man, who was not protected by any legal or natural law. Thomas Hardy has structured his book in seven phases (novel division) which present the short and samle ap essays, tragic life of his heroine, from her childhood to womanhood. ”Phase’ is an interesting demarcation in itself. Unlike the research introductions customary ‘book’ or ‘part’ or ‘section”each a spatial marker, none temporal”phase’ signi’es a stage of change or development as well as unobtrusively linking Tess’s growth to womanhood with the rhythms of the lunar cycle. ‘Seven’ is, in turn, redolent of universal meanings: it is essay, given as the Age of Reason, the Seven Ages of research Man (Shakespeare), and brutus + thesis, the Seven Pillars of creative Wisdom. And, of course, the gender seventh day is the Christian Sabbath’the sacred day of fulfillment in the Genesis story of Creation; the day of research introductions rest from labor and of thanksgiving.’ The seven phases are also divided cyclically and thematically. The novel begins with ‘The Maiden’ which presents the young Tess in a difficult situation, he feels very culpable and also responsible for the death of Prince. In ‘The Chase’, when she is sexually abused she realizes that she her virginity is lost and she is damned to live a sadly life, with no respect or understanding from the community she lives in.
She knows she is now ‘another girl than the one she had been at home’ A new stage of the peaceful warrior essay Tess’s life starts with The Second Phase, ‘Maiden No More’. Now she is expectant a baby and decides that she can’t stay any more in Trantridge. Tess has tried to help his parents to resolve the financial problems they had at home and struggled to make Alec understand that she is research, not in love with him but she has lost his innocence trying to defend it. The heroine does not want a life full of gender lies and a marriage without love and he decides to leave Alec and the life he can offer her. ‘Of all things, a lie on creative paper introductions, this thing would do the most good for me now; but I have honour enough left, little as ’tis, not to essay tell that lie. If I did love you I may have the best o’causes for letting you know it. But I don’t.’ Tess does not accept the research paper marriage with Alec because she cannot be with someone she is not in love with. She cannot accept this marriage even though it can be the solution for a misery life, it can be the ‘social salvation’. Analyzing the decision Tess makes it can be concluded that Hardy wants to essays sacrifice Tess and to offer to creative research paper introductions his British readers an example of morality, integrity and honor. Hardy transforms his heroine into essay a model of perfection knowing that greatness can be achieved but not perfection. ‘Yet, in breaking the popular stereotype, Hardy was accused by some contemporary critics of misrepresenting womankind.
The ideal was preferable to the real if only to set a good example for the young British person, but Hardy refused to creative research introductions employ his art to such an end. ‘ On the Phase the Third, ‘The Rally’ readers can meet a new Tess who is willing to forget his past and to start a new life. In this phase Tess is enthusiastic and essay, even though her past is still alive in her soul and her mind she can start over full of confidence and hope for the future. Research Paper. The heroine is prepared to embrace the new and stereotyping, unknown and involves in a relationship with Angel Clare. Is for the first time when Tess feels the true love, loves and is loved. Sometimes she does not know how to react when Angel shows her that he is in love. When Angel tried for the first time to take Tess in his arms to kiss her, the girl is very scared and does not know how to react. She starts crying. ‘Why do you cry, my darling’? he said. ‘O’I don’t know!’ she murmured regretfully. Angel misunderstands his reaction and strongly thinks that he determined this powerful emotion being ‘too quick and unre’ecting’ . Instinctively Tess puts a barrier between her and the man she loves still being traumatized after the experience she had with Alec. Paper Introductions. She is not used to be in the arms of a man she has feelings for, the essays heroine being forced in the past to reject every unwanted embrace offered by her ‘cousin’. After a few minutes of creative introductions distance and defense she realizes that in Angel’s arms she is safe, she does not have to be afraid anymore because Angel will protect her. Definitely she has to confess Angel the gender essays sin that changed her and research introductions, isolated from the + thesis community she lives in creative paper introductions, but the girl knows that isn’t the right moment.
Tess does not know how Angel will react, she knows that is essay competition, a sensitive subject and she can obtain forgiveness only creative research introductions if Angel has true and strong feeling for her. ‘The Consequence’ is the title for the Phase the Fourth. Tess is living a beautiful love story with Angel but her happiness is alloyed because the girl knows that she will have to tell Angel the ugly truth about her past. ‘She makes several attempts but either she is samle ap essays, sidetracked or she sidetracks herself’again, psychologically plausible self-protective behavior. And when she ‘nally writes him an explanatory note, it accidentally slips under the carpet as she pushes it under his door. Paper. The cycle of diversity essay common app intention undermined by accident seems unbreakable. Introductions. Tess’s resolve is challenged; she feels quite overwhelmed.’ The things are easy neither for Angel nor for Tess. Angel has to warrior essay face his parents’ attitude, disapproval and to convince them that Tess is the best choice for him and not the young lady who he is supposed to introductions marry with. Even though Angel does not admit directly that he has his own prejudices in what concern the Tess’s situation her soul struggles with his own doubt and + loyalty, his parent’s opposition. ‘Indeed, his idealization of Tess is introductions, partly the cause of her failure to stereotyping confess. The more he elevates her (she is a goddess, she is a pure daughter of Nature), the more she freezes at having to tell him that she’s none of these things. On the contrary, she is what his Evangelical family at the parsonage might call a fallen woman (and there are even uglier phrases than that).’ Phase the fifth, ‘The woman pays’ presents another chapter in Tess’s life, an episode full of sorrow and pain.
Tess revealed Angel all the truth about her situation, she told the man she loved the truth about the research introductions sexual assault, the child she gave birth to, his short live, the baptize and the burial. The truth freed her but from Angel she did not receive understanding or unconditional love, only misery and pain. In Angel’s eyes Tess is another woman, a woman with Tess’s body but with a different story, with different values, a human being that he cannot forgive for his past and have a happy marriage with. Phase the + loyalty sixth, ‘The convert’, represents the story of Alec who is now a ‘preacher’ and is religious converted. The meeting between Alec and creative research paper, Tess is unwanted by the girl but is seen by the man as a cure for his soul. Alec sees Tess, runs after her and tries to brutus + loyalty + thesis persuade her that he is changed, he succeeded to communicate with the divinity and is now aware of the pain he caused her. He makes Tess promise that she will never tempt him again.
In Phase the seventh, ‘Fulfillment’ Alec becomes the man that took Tess’s virginity replacing the love for God with a sick love for Tess. The sexually desire is stronger than ever and succeeds to transform the man into a sexual exploiter. Angel can now see the truth about the Tess’s personality, he can now distinguish the essences and appearances but is too late. ‘In accordance with the fulfillment of the research paper seventh day of creation, Tess will now rest. Gender Stereotyping Essays. Turning her life around for the very last time, she stands to face her prosecutors with that readiness of will and pure, undaunted spirit from which heroes, not victims, are made. Where Christ’s words were ‘it is introductions, done,’ Tess’s words are ‘I am ready’.’ Was Tess the victim of the essay inevitable fate?
Could the research paper heroine change her destiny or was she damned to self-destruction by samle ap essays, the society in creative research paper, which she lived? Since the beginning of the gender essays novel, Thomas Hardy, the author, describes Tess as a beautiful and innocent girl, cheery, energy with a big smile on her face: ‘She was a fine and handsome girl- not handsomer than some others, possibly- but her mobile peony mouth and large innocent eyes added eloquence to color and shape. She wore a red ribbon in her hair, and was the only one of the white company who could boast of such a pronounced adornment.’ Using the adjectives ‘fine’ and ‘handsome’ the author suggests that Tess is not just a peasant girl who can pass unnoticed, on the contrary, she is a charming girl having all the necessary physique resources for making a man, a rich man maybe, falling in love with her and saving her poor existence. She also seems to be ‘the one’ because is the only one wearing a red ribbon. Tess is the most beautiful heroine Hardy has created. Creative Research Paper Introductions. It is the first novel in which the author describes so deeply the feminine beauty, he is gender, entirely focused on all the femininities the young girl was blessed with and revels all these features step by step. ‘Failures to see Tess rightly are everywhere in the novel, however, for the opportunity to look at her is offered again and again to one pair of eyes after another, as if it were a test, a measure of value. Research Paper. Angel’s two brothers, for example, are both short sighted thought they wear the samle ap essays latest fashion in spectacles (XXV, 134). Blindly, they pass right by creative, Tess, on the day she walked fifteen miles to Emminster Vicarage to ask for gender essays, help from her father in law. To them, she is creative research paper, invisible.’ ‘Tess herself is almost less a personality than a beautiful portion of nature violated by human selfishness and over intellectualizing.
She is the least flawed of Hardy’s protagonists, but also the least human.’ The mixture between red and white (Tess is wearing a red ribbon and a white dress) used by Thomas Hardy isn’t an accidental choice-it has a deep signification and seems to be the author’s way of saying that this girl won’t have a common destiny, she will have a different existence, a scintillating life. The contrast between white-purity- and stereotyping, red-sexual experience- shows that Tess is not like the other girls, is the author’s warning signal and his modality of saying that his heroine will break down the Victorian society rules. At the May Day festivities Tess first meets Angel. He stops to dance with the women in the village garden although his brothers want to keep traveling but he doesn’t choose Tess to introductions be his dance partner observing her too late. This initial event isn’t just an essay competition malaysia, artifice of writing is also the author’s first sign that Tess and Angel aren’t meant to be together. Angel doesn’t observe Tess even though she’s the prettiest girl from the green garden because he can’t notice the essences, only the research paper introductions appearances. And this is probably the reason for which he cannot forgive Tess after he discovers her big secret and condemn her to self-destruction.
Tess’s fate is decided by the men in her life. The first male who has a great word to say about her destiny is Tess’s father. After he discovers that is the brutus + thesis descendant of an creative paper, ancient and noble family he sends his eldest daughter to samle ap essays claim kin. And this is the beginning of a terrible life for Hardy’s heroine who doesn’t manage in meeting Mrs. D’Urbervilles but chances to meet her debauched son, Alec. Creative Research Paper Introductions. ‘Hardy keeps the ‘man against nature’ conflict as central in samle ap essays, his novels, yet, he deals with the Victorian theme of social stratification through ‘man against man’ conflict. With the importance attached to class in the late nineteenth century society, Hardy shows why human altruism cannot be achieved in the Victorian world. In a society in which the concept of class has already been established to form the individual relations of conflict and contract, John Durbeyfield is under the illusion that his ‘aristocratic background’ is creative, significant since this background connects him to the rich d’Urbervilles. Brutus. It is the illusion, the anticipation that causes him to commit the fatal mistake of sending her daughter to the d’Urbervilles.’ About the first meeting between Alec and Tess, Hardy says: ‘She had an attribute which amounted to a disadvantage just now; and it was this that caused Alec D’Urbervilles eyes to rivet themselves upon her.
It was a luxuriance of creative aspect, a fullness of growth, which made her appear more of a woman than she really was. She had inherited the feature from her mother without the quality it denoted. Essay Competition Malaysia. It had troubled her mind occasionally, till her companions had said that it was a fault which time would cure.’ Later, when Alec runs into Tess again he observes her beautiful mouth and describes it with lot of passion: ‘Surely there never was such a maddening mouth since Eve’s!’ Hardy describes all this physiques details because he wants to creative paper introductions demonstrate that Alec’s fascination with Tess is only physical. Alec is fascinated by her ravishing beauty and ‘As the text progresses, Tess is once again described more than once, by her looks. This shows that Tess is being objectified by the author who seems very fascinated by her. He talks about her mouth and her lips as though he wants to kiss her.’ Angel is also fascinated by Tess’ physical features: ‘How very lovable her face was to diversity app him. Yet there was nothing ethereal about it; all was real vitality, real warmth, real incarnation. And it was in her mouth that this culminated.
Eyes almost as deep and speaking he had seen before, and cheeks perhaps as fair; brows as arched, a chin and throat almost as shapely; her mouth he had seen nothing to equal on the face of the earth. To a young man with the least fire in him that little upward life in the middle of her red top lip was distracting, infatuating, maddening.’ For Angel Clare Tess is a very beautiful girl, with angelic features, lovable in spite of her beauty and not because of it. The character sees, in general, the creative research paper metaphysical aspect of the things and values the ideal aspect of brutus + loyalty every action, event, and person. His name, ‘Angel Clare’ is creative research paper introductions, a significant clue of his personality: His last name ‘Clare’ is the English translation for the French word ‘Clair’ and defines a person with a real capability of understanding the world, a person who lives in mind and is preoccupied with the mystical face of the humanity. The adjective ‘clare’ is opposed to ‘heat’ and this opposition is shown in narrator’s confession of Angel’s love for the heroine: “Though not cold-natured, he was rather bright than hot ‘ less Byronic than Shelleyan; could love desperately, but his love more especially inclined to the imaginative and ethereal”. Angel loves Tess, whom he idealizes as a ‘fresh and virginal daughter of Nature’ so deeply that he finally marries Tess without caring about his family’s strong opposition. He particularly appreciates her words: ‘I do know that our souls can be made to samle ap essays go outside our bodies when we are alive’ . When he discusses his marriage with his family, he mentions Tess as ‘ a woman who possessed every qualification to be the helpmate of an creative research, agriculture’ , ‘she was a regular church-goer, of simple faith, honest-hearted, receptive, intelligent, graceful to a degree, chaste as a vestal and in samle ap essays, personal appearance exceptionally beautiful’ . Hardy indicates: ‘It was for her that he loved Tess, her soul, her heart, her substance-not for her skill in creative research paper, the dairy, her aptness as his scholar, and certainly not for her simple, formal faith-professions’. Essay Malaysia. Although Angel has liberal visions and is more open minded than his father and his brothers, he is categorical and research introductions, intransigent.
When Tess confesses her sin, Angel is inflexible and can’t forgive the heroine for her only gender stereotyping essays failing: ‘In the name of our love, forgive me! I have forgiven you for the same! Forgive me as you are forgiven!’ But Angel answered cruelly: ‘Tess, forgiveness does not apply to creative introductions the case! You were one person; now you are another.’ ‘I will obey you, like your wretched slave, even if it is to diversity common lie down and research paper introductions, die.’ ‘You are very good. But it strikes me that there is a want of harmony between your present mood of self-preservation.’ At the beginning of the novel Thomas Hardy presents a Tess Durbeyfield who is not aware of her beauty. She is just a country girl, with little education, living in essay, the domestic sphere with her parents and creative paper, brothers. Tess lives happily on her native heath and suffers a real shock when is forced to abandon her house. When Tess goes to the D’Urbervilles mansion she meets with young Alec who is fascinated by her beauty. And this is, probably, the moment which makes Tess aware of her charm perceived by gender stereotyping, the heroine as a curse and not as a gift from God.
Men in research introductions, Tess’ life have the wrong impression that they own Tess and essay, can change her entirely. Alec reveals his feeling of superiority since the very beginning when he proclaims: ‘what am I, to be repulsed so by creative research introductions, a mere chit like you!’ Alec is the perfect image of the Victorian oppressor dominated by the ordinary custom and the bourgeois view of morals. He is warrior, a sexual predator without an inner life, having a superficial existence and any moral values. Creative Paper Introductions. The character is narcissistic, individualistic and essay, heartless. Because Thomas Hardy doesn’t mention anything about his childhood, the reader cannot say that Alec’s personality is the result of a sad infancy. The reader is, somehow, forced to internalize the idea that society perverts humankind and human beings pervert any society. ‘Alec, the introductions archetypal seducer in Victorian melodrama, after his violation of essay Tess’s virginity, does not realize his sin; what’s more, he blames Tess for tempting him with her beauty. He does the wrong and shifts it onto the victim. The social consensus does not condemn or punish Alec. Creative Research Paper. Instead it disdains and hunts Tess wherever she goes. The innocent pays for the guilty; the sinned suffers for the sinner.’ Tess’s badluck is related to male dominance and the idea of male supriority.
The heroine is just an innocent girl who is traped in a male-centered society. She doesn’t now anything about the world she lives in. She has the pure belief that human beings are kind and can’t hurt honest people. She knows little about love because she has never been in love. For her love is: ‘patient, love is kind.
It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud.’ Tess has a real respect for her family and + thesis, respects his father’s will and not her own senses when leaves to claim kin. Research Paper. She accepts any job Alec offers to her because knows very well that her family needs a new horse to survive. It can be said that the essay malaysia heroine is like an research, angel for diversity, her family, a spotless soul which is creative research paper, damned to live among monsters with human faces. Alec is the first master of disguises Tess meets. Since the very beginning Tess dislikes Alec but endures his permanent undesirable attention because the girl has a clear purpose: to earn money. Gender Stereotyping Essays. Alec calls Tess ‘coz’ (cousin), wanting to creative paper introductions worm girl’s confidence but there’s nothing real in this appellative because the the peaceful warrior essay libertine young man has dark plans for Hardy’s heroine. Research Paper. Tess is barely answerable for her actions: even though he does not like Alec and does not want a relation with him the obsession the man gets for gender stereotyping, the young girl will destroy her life.
Her ‘dumb and vacant fidelity’ to Angel would rather characterize a poor animal than a thoughtful human being. Tess’s sensitivity is obviously the research result of emotions and not of judging. Hardy reveals that the adoration the girl has for Angel is intense maybe extreme, but the essay on analogy author sees in creative research paper, her feelings something pure, emotions that translate generosity, self-sacrifice, forgiveness. The Hardy’s protagonist has a great capacity of loving and understanding the human beings. With Alec she discovers that physical beauty can be a weight and essay on analogy, not a blessing gave by God. She is a beautiful ‘object’ that Alec wants to creative research paper introductions add to his collection.
He is essay malaysia, not in love with the poor girl, he is attracted by her appearance and is the object of his powerful sexually desire. ‘The wicked inhabitant of the d’Urbervilles hall, the permanently smoking Alec, offers Tess the red roses and the fresh strawberries. Creative Research. He does this, actually, in a very bizarre way; he puts the strawberries directly into common the Tess’s mouth and presses the roses onto her breasts. The reader recognises that Alec is research, haunting Tess physically as well as mentally, he acts as her persecutor, who is gifted by the supreme power of reducing her not only into tears, but, more importantly, into the unconscious state.’ Alec personifies the unjust moralities on women and is the reflexion of a society which encourages injustice toward marriage and sexuality. Tess is a pure woman but becomes ‘fallen’ because the Victorian age has a certain opinion about chastity and virginity. The girl becomes Alec’s obliged mistress and THE murderess who has to brutus + loyalty + thesis die. Even though she was moral oppressed and research, psysical assaulted, the heroine is the only culpable and has to pay for her mistakes. She can’t live any more in a patriarchal society which only accepts man’s mistakes and condamns women to have a pure conduct and a martyr life. Tess is doomed to tragedy.
She is trapped in a strange society where social prejudice meets male-dominance. Commonwealth Essay Competition Malaysia. ‘Tess’s story, to some extent, reflects the creative research introductions rigidity of convention, the harshness of the peaceful warrior essay social law and paper, the prejudice of morality in maledominated patriarchal society. Tess deserves the reputation of ‘the best tragedy’ the essay common highest tragedy’, which is creative, defined by the author. In the worldly view, Tess is a ‘fallen’ woman; however, she is essentially pure and naturally unstained. Tess is a pure woman as Hardy’s subtitle describes. Tess is tragic but pure.’ ‘You ask why Tess should have gone with Clare and ‘live happily ever after.’ Do you not see under any circumstance that they were doomed to essay on analogy unhappiness? A sensitive man like Angel Clare could never have been happy with her. Research. After the first few months he would inevitably have thrown her failings in her face.
He did not recoil from her after the murder is true. He was in + thesis, love with her failings then I suppose; he had not seen her for a long time; with the inconsistency of human nature he forgave the greater sin when he could not pardon the lesser.’ Tess had a tragic fate. All she ever wanted was little happiness, to love and to be loved. Thomas Hardy describes her as a romantic character, with no social aspirations but with a great desire of spiritual fulfillment. She is to a great extent an paper introductions, ignorant human being who will learn that life means injustice, sufferance, male dominance centered on the ‘double moral standard’ of sexuality applied to man and woman in the Victorian age. The heroine’s indecisiveness, her frequent failures to mantain her resolve, condemn her to death. For example, when Tess is warrior, watching the peasants of creative research introductions Tantridge dance, she is offered a walk home from Alec but refuses, a decision she will review later.
Because she is raped by Alec, Tess swears she may never marry, confessing the dairymaids she won’t accept Angel’s proposal ‘as I should refuse any man’ , but she marries Angel. When Alec offers to make her his wife she refuse the proposal, before consenting to become his mistress. Tess’ final uncertain decision is related to Angel Clare: when he comes to take her home with him the girl immediately refuse and advice him to ‘keep away’ because is ‘Too late! Too late!’ but, in the end, she murders Alec and runs to embrace her husband. Commonwealth Essay. Tess can’t keep her promises and every time she does not truly mean what she says.
Bibliography Chapter Two. 1. Creative Research Paper. Blathway, Taymond, A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 4. The Peaceful Warrior Essay. Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the research D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 5. Freeman, J., Studies in Philology, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3.
6. Hardy, T., Tess of the samle ap essays D’Urbervilles, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 7. Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 9. Rogers, Katharine, The Centennial Review, Vol 19, No. Research Introductions. 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 10. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of samle ap essays social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDF. RAPE OR SEDUCTION? Was Tess raped or lied and seduced?
Is Angel an ‘angel”?Hardy’s odyssey with Tess had involved five different namings: Love, Cis, Sue, Rose-Mary, and Tess. Creative Introductions. The various overwritings and textual layerings in the manuscript testify to the indecision and lack of single-minded vision in + loyalty, the author. Equally, the overlaid bowdlerizations testify to media or editorial censorship not only of Tess’s sexuality but also of the controversial issues of illegitimacy and paper, private baptism.’ Tess is a complex character who has an essay on analogy, evolutional destiny from her growth to womanhood. She develops over time and according to chance, events, fate, intelligence, risk taking and becomes an example of adaptation. Tess is the object of paper introductions Alec d’Uberville’s shameful purposes.
He uses all the methods to seduce the innocent and commonwealth malaysia, naive girl: he compliments her excessively, he helps her family in order to win her appreciation, and the man is annoyed when Tess nonetheless continues to creative research introductions reject him. And because Alec knows very well how to brutus + loyalty + thesis manipulate people around him he succeds to make the poor and ignorant Tess feel unsure about what’s wrong and what’s right. Creative. The heroine has deep rooted moral precepts in her poor education. + Loyalty. Even though she has little school instruction, she knows that is very important to remain poor and chaste in order to be accepted in a society ruled by males. And the girl succeeds to achieve this objective until one fatal night when, through Alec’s stratagem, they are lost together in a forest and the man rapes Tess changing her life forever. About this episode of a significant meaning for the entire novel Hardy does not go into creative research paper introductions detail but rather, he reflects: ‘why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the diversity app woman, the research paper wrong woman the man, many thousand years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to on analogy our sense of order.’ Tess becomes pregnant by Alec in that fatal night and creative research paper, her life will be different from now on. ‘Eventually, since Hardy is not one for halfway measures, sorrow turns to violence, and the loss of her virginity leads to Alec’s murder and Tess’s death on the gallows.
Even without knowledge of the dire consequences Alec’s pursuit of Tess had, however, we can judge Alex’s character to samle ap essays be frivolous, insensitive, and selfish. The question here, however, is creative, whether he is also a rapist.’ We do not know what exactly happened under the tree. It is very probably that Alec, while Tess slept, took the opportunity to essay abuse her. And the fragile girl was unable to defend herself because a girl can’t measure her force with a man’s force. But is also possible that, given Tess’ tiredness and disorientation, he could persuade the poor girl to agree to have sex with him. Alec, possibly, used once more his tricky words he had been using for the past months and succeded to creative research paper introductions convince Tess that she loved him and the scene under the tree was just the expression of brutus + loyalty + thesis that love. ‘This is a question of fact’ insofar as fictional narratives have facts’to which we cannot know the answer. The issue here, however, is whether it makes any difference. […] If physical force or the threat of physical force is used to get a woman to agree to have sex, that is rape. If psychological force is used, can that also be rape”?We define verbal sexual coercion as a woman’s consenting to unwanted sexual activity because of creative research paper a man’s verbal arguments, not including verbal threats of physical force. Men use many types of verbal coercion to obtain sex: threatening to end the relationship or to find someone else to diversity essay common app satisfy their sexual needs; telling a woman that her refusal to have sex was changing the way they felt about her; asserting that ‘everybody does it’ or questioning the woman’s sexuality . Creative Research Paper Introductions. . . making the woman feel guilty; . Malaysia. . . Creative Research Paper Introductions. calling a woman a name angrily and pushing her away when she would not have sex; and threatening to do bodily self-harm.’ Although the on analogy young Tess is dependent economically on Alec and has another social position- she is a country girl without money and with little education- she has resisted his flirting. The girl was honest with Alec telling him she disliked his way of creative research introductions watching her, his advances, the gifts offered to her family, the attention she didn’t require. She has real moral values and cannot be bought with words or with money.
She wants to fall in love with a real gentleman who is able to be patient, to the peaceful warrior essay conquer her, in time, with nice gestures and to appreciate and value her. But sometimes she is indecisive in giving an answer to his proposal to treat her as a lover. She says: ‘ I don’t know- I wish-how can I say yes or no when-” . Is that a flirt, an unconsciously encouraging? It tranlates fear caused by research paper introductions, his economic and social power or young Tess has feeling for Alec but she is not aware of them? The writer gives few clues about this situation causing the reader a great confusion. He doesn’t know what to believe about the poor girl, he can’t find her guily for the situation but has doubt about her moral integrity. Is she an angel or a seductive and indecisive woman? Is she in love with the ‘bastardly’ womanizer, the man with his crude, full lips, his bold eye and his dark moustache?
The weather conditions work against Tess. The fatal night is the peaceful warrior essay, a foggy one. Alec loses his way in creative paper introductions, such circumstances and the moonlights appear only when he returns to Tess who is sleeping, there, in the wood. Is Tess less rational because she is sleepy and she cannot defend her physical integrity? The reader knows very well Alec’s personality and can drop the sad conclusion that the man took sexual advantage of her. Warrior Essay. ‘Hardy takes for granted that Tess becomes the target of the victimization simply because she is introductions, ‘still alive’ and ‘of the competition female sex.’ Alec puts himself into the position of the wild hunter, who waits till everybody stops dancing to catch Tess and seize his power over her. The following atmosphere resembles the tranquillize state caused by taking some sleeping pills. Alec with Tess on research paper introductions, the same horse passes through the Chase. Tess, feeling tired after the day’s work, quickly disappears in the state of the unconsciousness in the moment when she falls asleep.’ Rather than describe the sexual scene, Thomas Hardy talks about its inevitability, brutality and irrationality : ‘Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissues, sensitive as gossamer and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousands years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to our sense of order.’ The meaning of brutus + loyalty this paragraph is crystal clear: sometimes people cannot control the fate. Some people are born to suffer, the universe has strange plans for them. They can fight against the destiny but that is a short battle, with no victory. Hardy uses a fatalistic expression to state the way destiny functions: ‘ It was to be!’ but he rejects the idea that children are punished for the mistakes of their ancestors ‘ is research paper introductions, scorned by gender essays, average human nature’.
When Tess’s mother presents her daughter the idea about getting Alec to marry her, the heroine is offended: ‘She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to creative research introductions adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile, had suddenly despised and gender stereotyping essays, disliked him, and had run away. That was all.’ The Victorian society is cruel with the girl who can’t do nothing to change her fate and has to face the social rejection. She is seen now as an immoral woman, a sinner who must be punished. She seems to be culpable for creative research paper introductions, breaking society’s rules and essay on analogy, religion’s conventions. But Hardy doesn’t agree and says: ‘ It was they that were out of harmony with the actual world, not she. Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. But all the while, she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism, she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an creative research introductions, accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ Throughout the entire book Hardy speaks about the two types of law: natural versus social/religious. Samle Ap Essays. Natural laws are known as ‘a system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law.’ ‘Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the creative research paper skipping rabbits on essay competition, a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. But all the while she was making a distinction where there was no difference.
Feeling herself in antagonism she was quite in accord. Creative. She had been made to break an gender essays, accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ According to the natural laws, what happened to Tess is ‘natural’, in synchronism with the nature and shouldn’t be regarded as a mistake which leads to the total social rejection. Creative Paper Introductions. Hardy associates the social law with convention and essay common, focuses on the riguros Victorian sexual convention which he describes as unnatural and oppressive. Paper. According to the natural laws, Tess is a pure woman. She remain pure because although her body is blotched, her soul continues to gender essays be pure. But, is Hardy’s claim valid? If his argument is valid then Alec cannot be accused of rape because, according to these natural laws, the man, as an alpha male, made everything possible to preserve his species. In conclusion, Hardy’s argument can’t be valid. Besides the social rejection, Tess’ loss of virginity ‘changed her from creative research, simple girl to complex woman. Symbols of reflectiveness passed into her face and a note of on analogy tragedy at times into introductions her voice.
Her eyes grew larger and more eloquent. She became what would have been called a fine creature; her aspect was fair and arresting; her souls that of a woman whom the turbulent experiences of the last year or two had quite failed to demoralize. But for the world’s opinion those experiences would have been simply a liberal education.’ The inevitable meeting between Tess and Alec is predicted from the earliest chapters of Phase the First. Hardy gives clues about the imminent encounter using symbols and symbolic events: the colors red and white, the virgins’dance, Alec’s giving Tess strawberries and the death of Prince. This is the author’s way of diversity essay common preparing the reader for the terrible event which will change Tess’ life forver. Hardy describes the moment very carrefully: ‘Tess!’ said d’Urberville. Creative Paper. There was no answer. The obscurity was now so great that he could see absolutely nothing but a pale nebulousness at his feet, which represented the white muslin figure he had left upon the dead leaves. Everything else was blackness alike.
D’Urberville stooped; and heard a gentle regular breathing. Commonwealth Essay. He knelt, and bent lower, till her breath warmed his face, and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hers. She was sleeping soundly, and upon her eyelashes there lingered tears.’ Analysing the description, William A. Davis, Jr. observes that the agression upon Tess begins without any verbal communication between Alec and Tess. The heroine is research, asleep and doesn’t give an answer to Alec’s accost. Diversity Common App. ‘The silence ruled everywhere around’ says Hardy. Creative Paper. The physical contact is at first kind and caressing ‘her breath warmed his face , and in a moment his cheek was in samle ap essays, contact with hers’ and paper, this affirmation is followed with the statement that the heroine ‘was sleeping soundly’ . ‘Subsequent descriptive details- the essay on analogy narrator mentions Tess’ absent ‘guardian angel’ , the ‘coarse pattern’ about to be traced upon Tess, ‘the possibility of research paper a retribution lurking in the present catastrophe’ , and the certainty that Tess’ ‘mailed ancestors rollicking home from a fray had dealt the same measure even more ruthlessly towards peasant girls of her time’ – all suggest the violent nature of Alec assault. To an alert Victorian reader, however, these details would have confirmed rather than introduced the idea of rape. The rape of Tess actually begins with the passage that describe Tess’ sleep and her lack of verbal response- the passage, in short, that establishes her lack of consent to gender stereotyping Alec’s advances.’ ‘Rape is the offence of having unlawful and research paper, carnal knowledge of a woman by force, and against her will.’ Mews’ Digest of English Case Law further explains that: ‘to constitute rape, it is not necessary that the connection with the woman should be had against her will; it is sufficient if it is without her consent.’ And also the brutus law specifies that: ‘If the woman is asleep, when the connection takes place, she is incapable of consent, and although no violence is research introductions, used, the pisoner may be convicted of rape, if he knew that she was asleep.’ Because Alec does not receive any answer to his address, the reader can say that Tess is not a conscious woman in gender essays, that crucial moment under the tree. She doesn’t communicate with Alec because she is creative research paper introductions, asleep and the reader can assume that Alec knows that the heroine is sleeping because he hears her breathing and receives no answer to his accost. Hardy intentionally introduces that episode full of signification at the beginning of the woods scene: he tries, in a subtle manner, to inoculate to his readers the brutus idea that Tess is raped and paper introductions, not seduced. The girl isn’t awake, her consciousness is completely or partially lost.
This sleep is crucial for the poor girl because does not allow her to return to essay her former condition and creative research, brings her to a new stage- the girl is essay, obliged to start a new chapter in her poor existence. With the beginning of Phase the Second Hardy gives another signification to the scene under the tree: he seems to replace the idea of rape with the idea of seduction: Tess isn’t any more a victim of Alec’s desire, she is an accomplice in a romantic relationship of several months’ duration. ‘In his personal comments on creative research paper introductions, the novel, Hardy tended to emphasize the seduction rather than the essay sexual assault that prededes it. For example, in a letter written in 1891 to thank Thomas Macquoid for his praise of the serial Tess, Hardy refers to the seduction (but not the paper rape) of Tess in the forthcoming volume edition: ?? Clare’s character [in the serial] suffers owing to a mock mariage having been substituted for the seduction pure #038; simple of the original MS.- which I did for the sake of the Young Girl. The true reading will be restored in the volumes. Thus, Hardy saw seduction as a major part of the diversity essay common app true reading of Tess.’ Why does Thomas Hardy offer few details about the scene under the creative research introductions tree? The reader cannot tell for sure the reason why , but he can draw the conclusion that this is an artifice of writing used by the author to maintain his readers’ curiosity about Tess’ sexuality and samle ap essays, purity.
In his readers’ mind will be a fight between two thoughts: Tess is an innocent young girl raped by a beast; Tess is not a pure girl, she fell in love with Alec, had a sexual relationship with the man and deserves everything that happened to creative paper introductions her. ‘As I have suggested, Hardy’s writing (and rewriting) of the first of these events- the assault upon essay Tess in research paper, Phase the First- grew out of his knowledge of English rape law. The legal premise that a sleeping woman is incapable of consenting to sexual intercourse was routinely upheld in Victorian courts. Commonwealth Essay Competition Malaysia. A sleeping woman’s purity- purity in the sense that she cannot consent to a sexual relationship and her will cannot be known- is beyond question in the eyes of the law; therefore Hardy turns his attention from rape to seduction and to the more complicated question of Tess’ purity as an apparently consenting woman.’ Alec is a dishonest character, he knows how to manipulate Tess, to play with her mind. When the girl discover that they are lost in introductions, the forest she says: ‘ How can you be so treacherous?….just when I’ve been putting such trust in you’ . Before Alec goes to try to find a way of leaving the the peaceful essay wood, he makes ‘a sort of couch or nest for her’ with dead leaves, checking that they are dry. Introductions. He also tells the girl that he has bought a new horse for her father and her siblings have now toys to play with. Alec covers her ‘tenderly’ with his coat and goes to commonwealth essay malaysia find the way. What can the reader notice now is the introductions fact that the entire forest is wrapped in fog. The fog has a deep signification in this episode and essays, translate the creative research paper fact that Tess is essay, absorbed into the natural environment. Paper. Fog symbolizes confusion, danger, and the unseen. But here, in the phase two, Maiden no more, the reader can find important clues about the seduction and diversity common, not the rape of Tess. The heroine admits that ‘her eyes were a little dazed’ by creative paper introductions, Alec and that the tragic event was a moment of samle ap essays vulnerability.
And this is the first sign that Tess agreed to be involved in a sexual relationship. Creative Paper Introductions. She accuses Alec for seducing her and essays, not for an sexual assault. Writing about creative, Tess’s drama, Ellen Rooney says that if the reader has no declaration about truth from the peaceful warrior, Tess herself, he cannot precisely say whether or not she is sexual assaulted or seduced. But even though Tess never tells her story entirely, the reader has her thoughts on paper, what she lived with Alec: ‘She had never wholly cared for him, she did not care for diversity essay, him now. She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile: had suddenly despised and creative research, disliked him, and + loyalty, had run away. That was all.
Hate him she did not quite; but he was dust and ashes to her, and creative, even for malaysia, her name’s sake she scarcely wished to marry him.’ ‘Temporarily blinded by his ardent manners’ the heroine’had been stirred to confused surrender awhile.’ From Tess’ declaration the introductions reader can draw the conclusion that for a little period of time the girl was superficially attracted to Alec and sexually stirred by him. She never ‘wholly’ loved the man and this is a strong reason to believe that the the peaceful warrior essay heroine could not have consented to have sexual relations with him. When leaving Alec’s house Tess confesses that she now ‘loathe (s) and hate (s) herself for (her) weakness’. But why the girl hates herself and blames her for her weakness if she was raped and not seduced? Why doesn’t she hate Alec for his cruelty? When Tess says that she ‘succumbed to adroit advantages Alec took of her helplessness’ , William Davis argues that she refers to the sexual assault of her while she slept. Because a sleeping woman cannot consent to sexual relation, under the Victorian Law this was rape. And surely Thomas Hardy knew about this law and wrote this scene under the influence of such law.
To conform Hardy’s intentions to creative research Victorian law on rape, Davis argues that what the the peaceful warrior essay author calls ‘seduction pure #038; simple’ was rape followed by seduction. Thomas Hardy does not offer much information about the tragic event from that night but he argues that his heroine was very tired that night: ‘She was inexpressibly weary. She had risen at five o’clock every morning of that week, had been on research introductions, foot the whole of each day, and on this evening had, in addition, walked the three miles to Chaseborough, waited three hours for her neighbours without eating or drinking, her impatience to start them preventing either; she had then walked a mile of the warrior way home, and had undergone the excitement of the quarrel, till, with the slow progress of their steed, it was now nearly one o’clock. Introductions. Only once, however, was she overcome by actual drowsiness. In that moment of brutus oblivion her head sank gently against him.’ Tess of D’Urberville felt offended when Alec tried to take her in his arms. The girl knows that she is not safe, alone, with this man in creative paper, the woods but she can do nothing to change this situation: ‘D’Urberville stopped the malaysia horse, withdrew his feet from the research stirrups, turned sideways on the saddle, and essay on analogy, enclosed her waist with his arm to support her. This immediately put her on the defensive, and with one of those sudden impulses of reprisal to paper which she was liable she gave him a little push from the peaceful warrior, her. In his ticklish position he nearly lost his balance and only just avoided rolling over into the road, the horse, though a powerful one, being fortunately the quietest he rode.’ Alec D’Urbervilles, the master of tricks, embraces Tess although he knows very well that the girl has no feeling for him. He isn’t dissapointed that Tess doesn’t love him because Alec doesn’t look for creative research introductions, love, he wants to take Tess’ virginity. Diversity Essay. ‘He settled the matter by clasping his arm round her as he desired’ and Tess expressed no further negative.
Thus they sidled slowly onward till it struck her they had been advancing for an unconscionable time’ far longer than was usually occupied by the short journey from Chaseborough, even at this walking pace, and creative, that they were no longer on hard road, but in a mere trackway.’ After Tess’s fall Hardy asks himself: ‘But, might some say, where was Tess’s guardian angel? where was the Providence of her simple faith? Perhaps, like that other god of whom the ironical Tishbite spoke, he was talking, or he was pursuing, or he was in a journey, or he was sleeping and not to essay be awaked. Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the creative research introductions finer thus, the wrong man the essay common woman, the wrong woman the man […]’ Due to Tess’s first fall, her sexual experience with Alec, the girl is seen as a fallen woman who must be despised and discredited wherever she goes. When she comes back to Marlott she is gossiped and indirect attacked. In the church ‘the people who had turned their heads turned them again as the service proceeded; and at last observing her they whispered to creative each other.’ She knows what the people were talking about and feels so hurt that she takes the decision she won’t go to church anymore.
Working in her village, on a field, to earn her living Tess still cannot escape from the rumor about her sexual relation with Alec and gender stereotyping, her child is the real proof of paper that sin. She is really unhappy in her village and common app, thinks ‘she might be happy in some nook which had no memories. To escape the past and creative paper introductions, all that appertained thereto was to brutus annihilate it; and to introductions do that she would have to get away.’ Under the great social pressure Tess is forced to leave her house and to try to start a new life somewhere else. She resembles with the on analogy rabbits, hares, rats, mice and snakes ‘retreating inwards as into a fastness, unaware of the ephemeral nature of their refuge and of the doom that awaited them later.’ ‘She cannot escape the censure and creative research paper, condemnation, which company her like her own shadow. Essay Malaysia. She is hunted everywhere. Hardy’s poem, Tess’s Lament vividly portrays the dilemma Tess is plunged in. I would that folk forgot me quite,
Forgot me quite! I would that I could shrink from creative research, sight, And no more see the sun. Would it were time to say farewell, To claim my nook, to need my knell, Time for them all to competition stand and tell.
When Tess meets Angel Clare the creative paper introductions heroine has a certain sexual experience. The love story lived with Angel, the brutus + thesis love confessions they make to each other, the certainty in Angel’s confessions, all these good things in her life determine Tess to accept Angel’s proposal without a better prudence and understanding of the facts. The heroine proved that she is capable of sustaining herself, she is fearless and self-determined. Creative Research Introductions. She can live without being married, she can feed herself just with love and he can live respectiong only the essays natural laws. ‘Culture alone insists on marriage just as society insists on virginity and the church insists on creative research paper, the subordination of the woman in matrimony.’ In the samle ap essays bridal night, when Angel confesses his sins Tess has an innocent belief that she will be forgiven. She also has a dishonorable past but she is willing to forgive the man she loves and to live free in a happily marriage. Her mother does not agree with her decision of confessing Angel his past because she is a woman with experience and knows that in a society dominated by men, in a patriarchal society she will be found guilty. ‘Despite her obsessive fear of Angel’s learning her history, Tess is unrealistically unable to predict his response when he does’improbably na??ve in her jubilation that her transgression is research, ‘just the same’ as his’. She will not use sex to win Angel over brutus + loyalty, during their honeymoon, although the narrator tells us that it might have worked.’ Garson tries to determine if Tess is characterized by lack of competence or honesty taken to extreme. She decides that Tess could act completely different this action having another end but Hardy does not want a happy end for his heroine, he wants to creative research paper prove that Tess acts having in mind her own moral values and not the society’s. Angel confesses to Tess his sin, his ‘dissipation with a stranger’ and after listening with great attention the girl concludes that her fall is not bigger than Angel’s mistake and he can obtain forgiveness. ‘It can hardly be more serious, dearest,’ says Angel, condescendingly, smilingly. ‘It cannot’O no, it cannot!’ She jumped up joyfully at the hope. ‘No, it cannot be more serious, certainly,’ she cried. ‘I will tell you now.’ She sat down again. Their hands were still joined. The ashes under the grate were lit by the ‘ re vertically, like a torrid waste.
Her imagination beheld a Last Day luridness in this red- coaled glow, which fell on his face and hand, and on hers, peering into essay the loose hair about her brow, and creative paper introductions, ‘ ring the delicate skin underneath. According to Rosemarie Morgan (Student Companion to Thomas Hardy, p.93) in a later version for the 1912 Wessex Edition Hardy writes out Tess’s words. Essay Competition Malaysia. After the statement ‘No, it cannot be more serious,’ he adds, ‘because ’tis just the same!’ Saying these words she tries to convince herself and the man she is in love with that she ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’ be condemned by him because their situation is ‘just the same’. Research Paper Introductions. The repetitions prove that Tess is making a considerable effort to convince Angel and to convince herself that her mistake is not bigger than his. Malaysia. Tess’ belief that Angel will love her and will forgive her sin is expressed in some words of a great innocence: ‘I thought, Angel, that you loved me’me, my very self! If it is research paper introductions, I you do love, O how can it be that you look and speak so? It frightens me! Having begun to love you, I love you forever’in all changes, in all disgraces, because you are yourself. The Peaceful Warrior. I ask no more. Then how can you, O my own husband, stop loving me’?
Angel has annihilated the image of woman he was in love with- ”the woman I have been loving is not you’ . Tess is scared and terrified; ‘Terror was upon her white face’ and her full and beautiful mouth that once charmed Angel and introductions, reminded him of ‘roses filled with snow’ is cursed ‘a round little hole’ ‘Angel, to a far greater extent than Tess, is formed and shaped by his past. She, with her rebounding spirits, vibrant sexuality and self-determination, had created herself anew, had risen above her past where Angel is still victim of his. Stereotyping Essays. Significantly, the fallen woman is rendered dumb, mute, and prone, not by research paper introductions, the seducer but by the lawful husband.’ Thomas Hardy’s heroine is not killed by her past but by the man she is married to. Even though her sin is still alive in her soul, Tess succeeded to forgive herself and to start a new life far away from the + loyalty + thesis man who raped her and away from the family that did not succeed to understand her sorrow and to cure her wounds. In a men’s world, Tess is just a victim who cannot live in a lie and research, decides to tell all the truth to essay the man who convinced her to marry him and who will kill her soul slowly and gently. The heroine is punished because she is a woman in creative, a men’s society and samle ap essays, is married to a man caught in creative research introductions, Victorian conventions. How can she be a real human being if the men’s world decides to reduce her to an object”?Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in samle ap essays, herself but as relative to him; she is not regarded as an creative research paper, autonomous being’.she is simply what man decrees’.she is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her. She is the commonwealth competition incidental, the unessential as opposed to the essential. Paper Introductions. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute- she is the essay common app Other.’ Bibliography Chapter Three. 1. Creative Paper. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of commonwealth Chicago Press.
2. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of research paper purity in app, Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of creative research paper introductions Education, Brno, December 2010. 3. Davis, W., Thomas Hardy and the law, Legal Presences in diversity essay app, Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 4. Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text, Oxford University Press, 1991. 5. Creative Introductions. Hardy, T., Tess of the + thesis D’Urbervilles, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 6. Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246).
7. Morgan, R., Women and Sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy, Routledge London and creative, New York, 2006. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2007. 9. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Acquaintance rape, the hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 10. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans. H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953, p. xiv. 11. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in common, Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’. Anna Karenina and paper, Tess of diversity essay common app D’Urberville- a tragic destiny. Anna Karenina is a novel wrote by the russian writer Lev Tolstoy, published in serial installments from creative research, 1873 to 1877. Since the novel’s publication, Anna Karenina has been seen as ‘every man’s tragedy’ or considered as a Bovarian banality by any masculinist critical view.
Iuri Lotman, said: ‘ The plot of Anna Karenina reflects, on the one hand a certain narrow object- the life of the heroine…..We can regard the life of the heroine as a reflection of the life of any woman belonging to a certain epoch and a certain social milieu, any woman, any person. Otherwise, the tragic vicissitudes of her life would only be of local interest.’ Lotman’s affirmation translates once again the idea that men’s problems are more important than the women’s problems. It’s not quite important that a woman is not happy in her marriage, that she does not feel love and affection for diversity essay common, the men she lives with, because the research paper most important problems in any society are men’s problems: war, government, etc Once again, also in Anna Karenina as in Tess of D’Urbervilles it can be seen the preoccupation for a society which is the peaceful warrior, dominated by men, is a patriarchal epoch concerned exclusively with men’s situations. Research Introductions. The question regarding the women’s position in society was initially formulated in the Victorian England and later this preoccupation could be also found among the Russian elite after the translation of Mill’s oeuvre, ‘The subjection of women’ in samle ap essays, 1869. The beginning of the nineteenth century did not come with major ideas about women’s condition and life, but it can be seen as a start of reconsidering the role of women in a society governed by creative paper, men and competition malaysia, which needs a change. Paper. Russian woman’s emancipation had been initially treated in literature- the novels of Ivan Turgenev, the oeuvres of Alexander Druzhinin’s ‘Polinka Saks’ (1847), or the Nikolai Nekrasov’s play, ‘Sasha’. Early Russian writings concerning the on analogy idea of oppressed women were influenced by the novels of George Sand, whose feminine characters suffer because cannot be free in choosing the man they want to love and to paper be happy with.
Anna Karenina is warrior, a very beautiful, noble, married woman from St. Petersburg who lives a life full of bitterness because she is married with a man she does not love and she is in love with a young officer. This passion, these strong feelings will be the creative paper introductions reason for his exile from the society she belongs to and will bring her death. Even though Tess of D’Urbervilles is not a rich woman, on the contrary, is a very poor girl with a family that will sign her death conviction- she is warrior essay, sent to claim kin and she is not advised that out there is a big world and she has to be very careful because men might want to harm her and to take advantages of her- the both heroines are guided by research paper introductions, the same noble feeling and have the essays genuine belief that a woman can be happy only through love, loving and be loved. The both characters are very beautiful women- Tess is poor but beautiful, she does not have an elitist education but she cannot be seen as a simple peasant girl; Anna Arkadyevna Karenina is a model of creative beauty and perfection. He has a selective education, she is very intelligent, a big reader of English novels and she also writes books for children. Anna is very elegant and is considered a perfect woman who can make any man fall in samle ap essays, love with her. Her life with a cold and creative research paper introductions, passionless government official taught her to play the role of cultivated, noble, perfect wife. She is also a good hostess and plays all these roles with style and refinement.
The tragedy of beautiful women comes from the fact that they are considered as a trophy every respectable man must obtain. Brutus + Loyalty + Thesis. And if the woman is married then the battle will be more powerful: the competitor will try to conquer someone’s ‘good’ in order to prove to himself that he has the real qualities to research introductions win, he is diversity common app, better than the husband and creative paper introductions, he can really understand the heroine’s needs for love and support. Anna is not a simple aristocratic woman who plays the gender essays role of the perfect and happy wife who is still in love with her husband, is research paper introductions, only preoccupied with the raise of her children and obeys entirely her husband because he is common, always right. Anna has an ardent spirit and is determinate to live her life on her own terms. ‘All the girls in creative paper introductions, the world were divided into two classes: one class included all the girls in the world except her, and they had all the usual human feelings and were very ordinary girls; while the other class ‘ herself alone- had no weaknesses and was superior to all humanity.’ Tolstoy writes ‘Anna Karenina’ in the peaceful essay, order to explain the great changes occurring in the Russian society during the late nineteenth century. Research Paper Introductions. The novel presents a battle between the old patriarchal values which characterize the old society, the aristocracy and samle ap essays, the new, modern values, the West values. The landowning aristocracy believe in traditions like servitude, and autocratic government, while the West brings values like technology, democracy, rationalism. This major theme can be seen in the difficulty Levin has with his workers when he tries to introduce a new way of farming.
His peasants refuse to implement the creative new technology having the strong belief that the traditional Russian way of farming should not be changed. ‘Tess of on analogy D’Urbervilles’ presents the changes brought in the nineteenth century in the Victorian Age, also the importance of social class in England and in research paper, the same time the complication of gender stereotyping essays defining class in the Victorian England. A proof for this affirmation is offered by the fact that Durbeyfields are no longer considered in the Victorian Age as a dominant symbol as it would have been in the Middle Ages. Alec’s father, Simon Stokes was able to use his money and to buy a very important, aristocratic name, being another proof that in the Victorian period money are more important than the creative paper introductions origin and family history. In the both novels, ‘Anna Karenina’ and ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles the changes brought in the society are presented by brutus + thesis, the main heroines. Alexei Karenin, the research government official with a weak personality is playing the role of an educated and sophisticated man who is capable to forgive his wife for her infidelity and to offer her the chance at a respectful life despite her adventure with the young officer.
What Karenin does not understand is the power of love that can make people to choose the complicated way and not the simple and known path. Anna Karenina, like Tess, is not just a simple woman, who can leave in conventionalism, she has another perception of samle ap essays live and creative paper introductions, she wants to love, to be appreciated as a special woman and not just as wife and mother. She craves for a life of diversity common app ardent emotion and noble passions. Karenin’s entire life is creative paper, characterized by formalism, he knows which his duties are and he respects the professional obligations of his function. Alexei is a very good government official because this role defines him and in fact is the ratio of his life- a life without grand passion and excitement. Anna and Karenin have a marriage of essay common convenience. There’s a big age gap between the two characters and also different ways of living and seeing the life and life’s values.
Anna craves for sentimental devotion and sincerity while Alexei is happy with the creative paper introductions monotonous work and family life. ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way’ is the first line of the warrior Tolstoy’s novel and reveals the fact that the novel is concerned with the introductions happiness, is a declaration for the need of commonwealth competition happiness. Creative Paper Introductions. Is it Anna Karenina happy? Why did the heroine immediately fall in diversity app, love with Vronsky and renounced to her comfortable and respectful life? Why is a mother ready to sacrifice her child for a man? These are the questions Tolstoy tries to answer and his explanation is that women are capable of great and powerful feelings. They can live in misery but a domestic one, not a sentimental failure; they can have a conventional marriage but will always crave for the real love and for fervent feelings and creative paper, when they will meet the love they will be capable of leaving everything for that noble feeling. Anna Karenina has an essay app, unhappy marriage, her husband does not appreciate her as a woman, he can only see the mother Anna and the wife Anna but not the woman Anna who needs love, appreciation, adventure and emotion. Anna is ready to defend her love for Vronsky, she can accept the social rejection, the fact that she will never be respected and she will be seen as a sinful women. But that’s the essence: a woman, who has the courage to love and to creative paper openly live with a man that is + loyalty, not her husband, is not captive in a formal arrangement that could have offered her protection and could have been the institutionalization of a lie is what defines a heroine.
Tess of research paper introductions D’Urberville is not an unfaithful married woman, she is essay, just an innocent peasant girl who is convinced that two people that are meant to be together will meet and creative, will live a beautiful love story like in the novels she used to read. She is not a sinful woman because is not her choice to be raped but is considered by the Victorian society as a decadent human being and convicted to the social rejection. Essay Common App. ‘Anna, Eustacia, [Vye], Tess [Durbeyfield] or Sue [Bridehead] – what was there in their position that was necessarily tragic? Necessarily painful it was, but they were not at war with God, only with Society. Yet they were all cowed by the mere judgement of man upon them and all the while by their own souls they were right. And the judgement of paper introductions men killed them, not the judgement of their own souls or the essay judgement of Ethernal God. Lev Tolstoy chose to paper analyze the “woman question” enclosed in essay common, a comparison: He puts in opposition Anna’s search for sense in life with that of Levin, the Tolstoy’s other main character. And Tolstoy chose to do something scandalous for creative research paper, his epoch: He converted Anna in an unfaithful woman- a sensitive character. Anna wasn’t miserable because she disobeyed her unbearable, suffocating husband and had to be punished; she was unhappy because she didn’t find, in Tolstoy’s opinion, meaningful love and the life’s signification. Essay. Tolstoy’s belief that true love and happiness could be accomplished only through a love marriage means represents the heroine’s drama. Anna finds for a short period of time happiness outside marriage, in Vronsky’s arms but her lack of autonomy and social rejection brought by a forbidden relationship causes her sorrow.
Tolstoy puts in opposition Anna’s story with the story of Levin, an open-minded man who succeeded in his search for research paper, meaning in life by choosing a marriage partner he considered his equal rather than his inferior. Tolstoy also presents the hypocrisy that characterizes the gender stereotyping nineteenth society, the research paper fact that men could cheat his partners without punishment whereas women could not. He also highlights the idea that lots of essay malaysia woman had relationships outside the marriage including discreet women who blames Anna for her actions similar to research introductions their own. The Victorian controversy of grand importance in diversity common app, ‘Tess of D’Urberville’ is also ‘the Woman question’ or how woman should be seen and what roles they should play in creative introductions, society. Many writers thought that woman should stay at home and work in the house, being unable to + thesis learn and to work for the society. The Victorian women were meant to be ‘an angel in the house’ and also for their husbands and creative, nothing more. If the diversity common woman lost her virginity and honour, before marriage, she was convicted to creative research paper introductions live a life full of shame and sorrow. If the husband was unfaithful, the diversity essay society won’t blame him for creative research paper, the sexual behaviour. R.G. Christian says: ‘It was people not God who threw Anna under the train’ highlighting the power of the common society which can determine the creative paper destiny of a human being. Vladimir Nabokov, in his work on Russian literature, characterized Anna as ‘a young, handsome, and fundamentally good woman, and a fundamentally doomed woman.’ Nabokov also protects her role as a foreigner of the society she lives in: ‘[Anna] is a woman with a full, compact, important moral nature: everything about her character is significant and striking, and this applied as well to her love.
She cannot limit herself as another character in samle ap essays, the book, Princess Betsy, does, to an undercover affair. Her truthful and passionate nature makes disguise and secrecy impossible.’ Tolstoy makes Anna almost completely a human being of passion and then allows that passion to kill her. Paper. After the heroine meets Vronsky, all of her actions are concerned with keeping a loving relationship with him. Anna is brutus + loyalty, also ready to renounce to her existence in order to feel and to enjoy the research paper introductions full love. Her passion for Vronsky causes a separation between herself and Kitty and also between herself and the peaceful essay, the domestic sphere. After the social rejection also the position of mother is soon denied her, and later she is not enough concerned in creative introductions, developing a relationship with her daughter and make this relationship essential part of gender her life.
Even her outfits limit the creative research introductions character. She wears only black clothing expressing the fact that she is in a profound grief and she seems convicted to die for the fact that she was capable to renounce to her family for living the love story of her life. Tess of D’Urberville is not a rich, aristocratic girl, on the contrary, she is put under immense pressure by her family to improve their economic position and reputation. She grows in a small village being protected from the essay influence of an aristocratic society with decadent values. Creative Research Introductions. She is a genuine young girl who wants to have a happy marriage, to love and to be loved. She is not interested in + loyalty, having a certain social position because she believes in introductions, love as a way of being happy. But the brutus + loyalty + thesis society is research, cruel with the Thomas Hardy’s heroine and signs her conviction to dead.
Even though she cannot be found guilty because she did not consciously commit a mistake she is blamed by malaysia, a superficial society which cannot see under the appearances. Anna Karenina is found guilty because she had the courage to admit that her marriage is creative paper introductions, a formal one and she is not happy. She discovers another Anna when she is with Vronsky and she is very happy. Her guilty is that she refuses to commonwealth essay competition live a love story outside her marriage in a society in which the relationships outside a marriage are accepted and creative introductions, formal alliances are protected. Tess of D’Urberville was found guilty because her family couldn’t protect and defend herself against a world dominated by men and she had the courage to tell Angel that she was raped and stereotyping, he had a little baby. She did not want to creative paper introductions marry with Alec, to have a formal marriage because the essay competition malaysia hypocrisy dominated in creative, the Victorian society did not affect her perception about does a marriage mean. Vronsky is a good looking character, rich, and also a charming man who is as willing as Anna is to on analogy renounce to his social status and professional position for finding the real love. His involvement in creative research, his hospital-building project shows a carrying person who wants to protect the weak people. But the Tolstoy’s work also shows a Vronsky with defects and blames.
His strange hair, his mistake in calculating the horse race, his ambitions of military fame these entire characteristics make a Vronsky human and not a romantic character. Anna finds Alexei an gender, exceptional man who could make her very happy and could offer her a completely rescue and a burial into a seductive passion. The heroine is research paper, very disappointed when she discovers that Vronsky’s passion is limited and he is just another man and not THE man. The Tolstoy’s choice to give Vronsky the same name as his husband’s suggests that Anna is doomed to repeat the failure of samle ap essays her first relationship. ‘Anna had been preparing herself for this meeting, had thought what she would say to him, but she did not succeed in saying anything of it; his passion mastered her. She tried to calm him, to introductions calm herself, but it was too late. His feeling infected her. Her lips trembled so that for a long while she could say nothing.’ Vronsky’s commitment to app Anna seems to creative research paper introductions decrease in later chapters of Tolstoy’s novel but the reader cannot be convinced that this is the true situation because he finds out about this wane of devotion from Anna’s confessions which betrays the fear that the man she loves and for competition malaysia, whom she has sacrificed her marriage and her social position, becoming a mistress, is not any more in creative introductions, love with the gender heroine. The events related to this episode seem to indicate that Vronsky’s love hasn’t faded: he takes Anna to his country home which is luxurious, elegant, he stays with the heroine and refuses to visit his old friends and even mother, he is still fascinated by her beauty and personality. He occasionally misses the old fame and military glory especially when he meets his old comrades but he does not blame Anna for this situation. Vronsky accepts Anna’s paranoia and her whims but for research paper, Tolstoy’s main character these proves are not enough, are just signs of duty and not actions indicating true love.
The reader cannot decide is right in this situation because Vronsky’s thoughts are not exposed. Angel Clare is Tess’ Vronsky, the man full of passion who can kidnap the heroine’s present and can project a whole new world outside the mediocrity of an irrational and hypocritical society. When Tess first meets Angel she realizes that she definitely has seen him before, at the May-dance and he did not choose Tess to be his dance partner. But because the destiny wants to bring together Tess and Angel and also to determine, Tess’ dead conviction, they meet again at the dairy. The love the both characters feel for each other is + loyalty, genuine, pure, without being jealous or proud. ‘It was then, as has been said, that she impressed him most deeply.
She was no longer the milkmaid, but a visionary essence of woman- a whole sex condensed into creative research paper introductions one physical form. He called her Artemis, Demeter, and other fanciful names half teasingly, which she did not like because she did not understand them. ‘Call me Tess’, she would say askance; and he did. In this quote from the novel the reader can clearly see that Angel is in essays, love with the paper image of a perfect woman and not exclusively with Tess herself. She is samle ap essays, compared with the Greek goddesses and that means that she has to be the ideal of feminine beauty and perfection in order to be loved by Angel. And Tess is not a goddess, she’s a simply peasant young girl who just wants to creative research love and to brutus + loyalty + thesis be loved. In the critical essay ‘Why women are oppressed’ Anna Jonasdottir says: ‘Man is willing to accept woman as an equal, as a man in skirt, as an angel, a devil, a baby-face, a machine, an research paper, instrument, a bosom, a womb, a pair of legs, a servant, an essay common, encyclopaedia, an ideal or an obscenity; the only thing he won’t accept her as is a human being, a real human being of the real sex.’ Angel seems to be a character that wants to be surrounded by angels and can’t accept that human beings have a past, made mistakes, he cannot forgive and forget even though he asks for forgiveness. He is an example of a fallen angel who couldn’t remain pure and research introductions, also failed in being a good Christian by confessing Tess his sin. His mistake is also Tess’s mistake but the influence of the Victorian society does not allow him to see clearly and to diversity essay app only after the creative research introductions longue journey he realizes that ‘the beauty or ugliness of a character lay not only in its achievements, but in the peaceful essay, its aims and research introductions, impulses; its true story lay, not among things done, but among thinks willed.’ Tess of essay on analogy D’Urbervilles and Anna share also another pattern-fog, haziness, mystery. When Tess of paper D’Urbervilles is raped, the samle ap essays scene is surrounded by mist and the reader does not exactly knows what to research think about this situation: ‘She was silent, and the horse ambled along for a consider- able distance, till a faint luminous fog, which had hung in the hollows all the evening, became general and on analogy, enveloped them.
It seemed to hold the moonlight in suspension, rendering it more pervasive than in clear air. Whether on this account, or from absent-mindedness, or from creative, sleepiness, she did not perceive that they had long ago passed the point at which the lane to samle ap essays Trantridge branched from the creative highway, and that her conductor had not taken the Trantridge track.’ Anna herself speaks of a certain haze which in associating it with the purity of first love: “I remember that blue haze, like the haze on the mountains in stereotyping essays, Switzerland. That haze which envelops everything at that blissful time when childhood is creative research, just coming to an end and its huge merry circle narrows to a path which one treads gaily yet with dread into life’s corridor” . . . Kitty smiled … “How did she go through it? How I should like to brutus + loyalty + thesis know the whole romance of her life!” she thought, recalling the unromantic exterior of Anna’s husband.’ The patter appears again when Kitty realizes the visible sympathy between Anna and Vronsky at the ball and “a mist spread(s) over her soul” Anna and Tess are two heroines who have lots o resemblances but also dissimilarities. Tess of D’Urbervilles is an creative research, innocent peasant girl who takes care of her family being fascinated with the novels she reads. She is not selfish, she does not to marry with an aristocratic men and to be part of the aristocratic society. Anna is also intelligent, cultivated, simple, honest, and a devoted mother. But the relationship with Vronsky changes her completely.
Tess’s downfall is caused by her lack of education in what concern such a complicated subject for the society she lives in- sexual relationships and it can be said that her trust in the peaceful warrior essay, men is creative research, determined by reading romantic novels and identifying with their heroines in a specifically sensual and innocent way. Anna, on contrary, is unable to read her novel on her train ride home after flirting with Vronsky. “She was too eager to essay competition live herself. If she read how the heroine of the novel nursed a sick man, she wanted to creative be moving about a sickroom with noiseless tread herself”. When she discovers, it is to make an instinctual moral perception: ‘The hero of the novel had nearly attained his Englishman’s idea of happiness … and Anna was wishing she could go to the estate with him, when she suddenly felt that he must be feeling ashamed and essay on analogy, that she was ashamed for the same reason.’ Anna Karenina and Tess D’Urbervilles are honorable women. Even though Anna has a sexual relationship outside her marriage she does not accept Karenin’s proposal when he decides that they can stay into a formal marriage and forget Anna’s infidelity. The heroine is not ashamed that she has a relationship with Vronsky because this relationship represents her entire life-love, fantasy, eternity, nobles. ‘Alexey Alexandrovitch! What is it you want of me”?I want you not to meet that man here, and to conduct yourself so that neither the world nor the creative research paper servants can reproach you…not to see him. That’s not much, I think. And in samle ap essays, return you will enjoy all the privileges of a faithful wife without fulfilling her duties. That’s all I have to say to you.
Now it’s time for introductions, me to go. I’m not dining at home.’ He got up and moved towards the door. Diversity Essay Common App. Anna got up too. Bowing in silence, he let her pass before him.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles also refuses Alec’s proposal to research paper be his mistress because she cannot have a relationship with a man she is not in brutus + thesis, love with, a man who harmed her. ‘Very well,’ he said, laughing; ‘I am sorry to wound you. I did wrong’I admit it.’ He dropped into some little bitterness as he continued: ‘Only you needn’t be so everlastingly flinging it in my face.
I am ready to pay to the uttermost farthing. Creative. You know you need not work in the fields or the dairies again. You know you may clothe yourself with the best, instead of in the bald plain way you have lately affected, as if you couldn’t get a ribbon more than you earn.’ ‘I have said I will not take anything more from you, and I will not’I cannot! I SHOULD be your creature to go on doing that, and I won’t.’ Bibliography Chapter four. 1. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 2. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994.
3. Samle Ap Essays. Lotman, Iuri, ‘The structure of the paper introductions artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 4. Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question, and the Victorian novel’, The theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio State University Press, 1993. 5. Nabocov, V. ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 6. R.G. Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge 1969. 7. The Peaceful Warrior. Tolstoy, L. ‘Anna Karenina’, translated by research introductions, Louise Shanks #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes.
They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from samle ap essays, their wives and creative, children. The Peaceful Warrior Essay. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. Creative Research Introductions. They had to gender stereotyping obey their husbands because men were the creative introductions main characters in the society.
The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the samle ap essays wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. 1. Blathway, Taymond, ‘A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and creative, White, IV’. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of brutus + loyalty Chicago Press.
4. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Faculty of creative research introductions Education, Brno, December 2010. 5. Davis, W., ‘Thomas Hardy and the law’, Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 6. On Analogy. Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of research a Godless human existence’, Journals of Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 7. Essay. Freeman, J., ‘Studies in Philology’, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 8. Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text’, Oxford University Press, 1991. 9. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 10.
Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 11. Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 12. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 13.
Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in creative research, Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of essay app Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 14. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 15. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994. 16. Kent, Susan.’Sex and Suffrage in creative research paper, Britain 1860-1914?.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 17. Lotman, I. ‘The structure of the artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 18. Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question and the Victorian novel’The theory and gender essays, interpretation of narrative series, Ohio, State University Press, 1993.
19. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 20. Millgate, M., ‘Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist’, London: Macmillan, 1994. 21. Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 22. Morgan, R., ‘Women and Sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy,’ Routledge London and creative introductions, New York, 2006. 23.
Morgan, R., ‘Student companion to Thomas Hardy’, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 24. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Acquaintance rape, the hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 25. Brutus + Loyalty + Thesis. Nabokov, V. ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 26.
R. Creative Paper. G. Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge, 1969. 27. Rogers, Katharine, ‘The Centennial Review’, Vol 19, No. 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 28. Simone de Beauvoir, ‘The Second Sex,’ trans. H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953. 29. Tolstoy, L. ‘Anna Karenina’, translation by Louise Shanks Maude #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. 30. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in gender stereotyping essays, Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the research paper D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDf.
31. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
Essay UK, Essay: ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ and the Victorian Era . + Loyalty + Thesis. Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/english-literature/essay-tess-of-durbervilles-and-the-victorian-era/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of paper this content and no longer wish to samle ap essays have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 28-05-17 - Things Fall Apart Novel Analysis 15-05-17 - Every Trip Is A Quest 21-12-16 - Identity in Modern American Literature 13-11-16 - Abdul-Rahman Munif 05-11-16 - The Period of Maturity - The formation of an introductions, imagined community in Cities of Salt. - The Other Side of Silence 04-11-16 - “The False Moon” by Shirley Golden - Barker, Waters and Morrison – history in their writing - ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIC NOVEL. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and malaysia, coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on creative, time. Essay UK is a trading name of + thesis Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in introductions, England and on analogy, Wales under Company Number 08866484 .