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Glossary of Sales and Selling Terms. account – a customer, usually in a B2B or business-to-business organization; a major account is usually a large corporation (Top 1000) capable of significant purchases; or a national account is a customer or prospect with branches, offices or plants covering a wide territory – usually multiple states or regions. These type of accounts require special handling (and some pricing adjustments) and a senior sales person or team. Active Listening – Term used to philosophy, describe higher levels of listening activities, involves actively seeking to understand how the customer or prospect feels and what are their personal and business issues to be addressed during the sales process. Involves things such as stance or leaning into the customer, observing all movements and changes of position and body language tips. And, key is asking questions for clarity and understanding. Added Value – the element(s) of service or product that a sales person or selling organization provides, that a customer is plan writing a research prepared to pay for because of the benefit(s) obtained.
Added values are real or perceived; tangible or intangible. A good, reliable, honest, expert, informed sales person becomes a very significant part of the selling organization’s added value, as perceived by the customer, if not by the selling organization. advantage – the aspect of a product or service that makes it better than another, especially the one in-situ or that of planning philosophy, a competitor. advertising/advertising and promotion/AP – the methods used by a company to publicize and position its products and services to its chosen market sectors, including product launches, image and brand building, press and public relations activities, merchandising (supporting and promoting the product in retail and an essay on mothers wholesale outlets), special offers, generating leads and inquiries, and incentivizing distributors, and agents, and arguably sales people. Planning? AP methods are sometimes described as above-the-line (media advertising such as radio, TV, cinema, newspapers, magazines) or below-the-line (non-‘media’ methods or materials such as brochures, direct-mail, exhibitions, telemarketing, and PR); advertising agencies generally receive a commission (discount ‘kick-back’) from above-the-line media services, but not from phd thesis accounting, below the philosophy essay, line services, in which case if asked to arrange any will seek to phd thesis accounting, add a mark-up. appointment – a personal sales visit to a prospect, usually arranged by phone. benefit – the gain (usually a tangible cost, but can be intangible) that accrues to essay, the customer from the product or service. buyer – most commonly means a professional purchasing person in a business; can also mean a private consumer. Buyers are not usually major decision-makers, that is to phd thesis on management accounting, say, what they buy, when and how they buy it, and how much they pay are prescribed for them by the business they work for. If you are selling a routine repeating predictable product, especially a consumable, then you may well be able to restrict your dealings to essay, buyers; if you are selling a new product or service of narrative essay, any significance, buyers will tend to act as influencers at most. See decision-makers, and the buying techniques page.
buying signal – a buying signal is a comment from planning philosophy essay, a prospect which indicates that he is visualizing to whatever extent buying your product or service. The most common buying signal is the essay prompts, question: “How much is it?” Others are questions or comments like: “What colors does it come in?”, “What’s the lead-time?”, “Who else do you supply?”, “Is delivery free?” “Do you use it yourself?”, and surprisingly, “It’s too expensive.” call/calling – a personal face-to-face visit or telephone call by essay a sales person to essay i got lost, a prospect or customer. Planning? Also referred to phd thesis accounting, a sales call (for any sales visit or phone contact), or cold call (in the case of planning philosophy, a first contact without introduction or notice in writing). call center – a department or company for research, outgoing and/or incoming (outbound/inbound) telephone calls to/from customers, commonly now extending to email communications also if useful for customer service, but not extending to email marketing. Call centers can be primarily reactive (inbound) or proactive (outbound – covering telemarketing, telesales, and research), or both. Call centers can be in-house, part of the employed organization, or external, effectively a contractor or an planning, agency. Most modern in-house or long-term out-sourced call centers are effectively customer service centers or departments, containing staff dedicated to telesales and plan teaching writing customer services activities.
Other types of call center activities and operations can be concerned more with short-term telesales, telemarketing or market research campaigns. Run well a call/contact center is a wonderful function. Poorly run call centers are a nightmare for staff and customers alike. Since the 1990s when the call center function became de-humanized and philosophy obsessively cost-driven by many large corporations the on management, nightmare scenario largely applies. Some call/contact centers are now such vast business units that they warrant being ‘off-shored’ (outsourced to countries with lower costs), which generally equates to corporate own-foot-shooting on a truly huge scale. A call center which is inherently liable to philosophy essay, upset customers due to inadequate levels of literature research rubric, customer empathy and service is quite obviously utterly self-defeating. Staff turnover is unsurprisingly a major challenge in planning, call centers. canvass/canvassing – cold-calling personally at the prospect’s office or more commonly now by telephone, in essay lost, an attempt to arrange an planning philosophy, appointment or present a product, or to unit a research paper, gather information.
challenger selling – based upon the study of sales people during and after the great global recession of 2008-2011. The consulting group who engaged this study discovered five types of sales profiles during the planning essay, study and ranked each of the five profiles based upon their performance levels. At the top of results list were a set of sales people labeled the on mothers, challengers. These sales people did three primary items not done by the other four profile groups. They 1. Maintained control of the sales process; 2. they introduced innovative ideas into the sales process to philosophy essay, entice the when, customer/prospect; and 3. they educated the customer/prospects on new better methods of improving their results. close/closin g – the penultimate step of the ‘Seven Steps of the philosophy, Sale’ selling process, when essentially the sales-person encourages the prospect to kindred prompts, say yes and sign the order. In days gone by a Sales person’s expertise was measured almost exclusively by planning philosophy how many closes he knew. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting? Thank God for evolution. Essay? But don’t expect to kid any buyer worth his salt today, and using certain ones might even get you thrown out of his office.
Use with great care. closed question – a question which generally prompts a yes or no answer, or a different short answer of unit plan teaching, just two possible options, compared to open questions, which typically begin with who, what, where, when, etc., and philosophy essay which tend to invite much longer answers. cold calling – typically refers to the first telephone call made to a prospective customer. More unusually these days, cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for kindred essay prompts, the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households. Cold calling is also known as canvassing, telephone canvassing, prospecting, telephone prospecting, and more traditionally in the case of consumer door-to-door selling as ‘door-knocking’. collaboration selling – very modern and sophisticated, in which seller truly collaborates with buyer and buying organization to help the buyer buy. A logical extension to planning essay, ‘strategic’ or ‘open plan’ selling. commodities/commoditized (products and services) – typically a term applied to i got, describe products which are mature in philosophy, development, produced and sold in vast scale, involving little or no uniqueness between variations of different suppliers; high volume, low price, low profit margin, de-skilled (‘ease of use’ in consumption, application, installation, etc).
Traditionally the ‘commodities’ term applies to the ‘commodities markets’ which trade and set prices for fundamental commodities such as coffee, grain, oil, etc., however in a more generic sales and selling sense the essay prompts, term ‘commoditized’ refers to a product (and arguably a service) which has become mass-produced, widely available, easy to make, de-mystified, and simplified; all of which is almost invariably associated with a reduction in costs, prices and essay profit margins, and which also has massive implications for the sales distribution model and methods for taking the product or service to market. American Literature Research Paper Rubric? Commoditized products are amenable to mass-market and large-scale sales distribution methods and models, as opposed to planning, specialized or high-complexity products, which tend to require closer customer support and greater expertise and advice at the point of selling and installation, and commissioning and application, if appropriate. Harvard Series? An electric battery torch is a commoditized product that is freely available, at competitively low price, ‘off-the-shelf’ at any supermarket (or via the internet); whereas a holographic projector is only available via a specialized supplier, at relatively high cost and profit margin, potentially without a similar competing product, and requires a significant degree of technical advice and support, and possibly user-training. Similarly, a microwave oven is a commoditized product, widely available, inexpensively, off-the-self from a retail store (or via the philosophy essay, internet); whereas an on mothers, integrated commercial kitchen is a specialized system, requiring a high level of planning, sales and selling expertise, support and installation. Commoditized products sell by the millions; specialized products might only sell in hundreds or less. All consumer products and services become commoditized over time. Virtually all B2B products and services become commoditized over time. Color TV’s are cheaper than they were thirty years ago because they’ve become commoditized. Same can be said for mobile phones, home security systems, computers; even motor cars are becoming genuinely commoditized.
In our lifetimes perhaps so too will houses and buildings. concession – used in the context of literature research paper, negotiating, when it refers to an aspect of the sale which has a real or perceived value, that is given away or conceded by seller (more usually) or the buyer. Philosophy Essay? One of the plan a research paper, fundamental principles of sales negotiating is never giving away a concession without getting something in return – even a small increase in commitment is better than nothing. consultative selling – developed by various sales gurus through the 1980s by Mark Hanan among others, and practiced widely today, consultative selling was a move towards more collaboration with, and involvement from, the planning, buyer in the selling process. Strongly based on questioning aimed at essay when i got lost gaining useful information. consumer – in the context of selling a consumer typically refers to a private or personal customer or user, as distinct from a business or organizational, or trade customer. Notably we see this term in the acronym B2C, which means ‘business-to-consumer’, which describes the philosophy, type of business in which the transaction and relationship is unit plan teaching a research between a business and a private ‘domestic’ customer. A household insurer, or an planning, estate agent, are examples of B2C sales organizations.
Retail is by its nature consumer business. A holiday company is on management accounting a B2C business. B2B describes ‘business-to-business’ – which is trade and selling between businesses. customer – usually meaning the purchaser, organization, or consumer after the sale. Planning Philosophy? Prior to an essay on mothers, the sale is usually referred to planning, as a prospect. customer relationship management:CRM – CRM is now a commonly used term to describe the process of an essay, managing the entire selling process within a department or organization. Computerized CRM systems enable management of prospect and customer details, contacts, sales history and account development. Well known examples of CRM computerized systems are Sage’s ACT!, which claims to be the world’s most popular CRM system, and Front Range’s Goldmine. SalesForce.com is making a big push in the CRM market with its web-based system. Chief elements of philosophy, a CRM system (or strategy, since the term is used to phd thesis on management, describe the philosophy essay, process and methodology as well as the system) are: • compilation and organization of data (prospects, customers, product, sales, history, etc) • planning, scheduling and integrating customer development activities and communications. • analysis and reporting of all sales related activities and data.
Good CRM strategy and systems are generally considered necessary for modern organizations of an essay on mothers, any scale to enable effective planning and implementation of sales (and to an extent marketing) activities. deal – common business parlance for planning, the sale or purchase (agreement or arrangement). It is rather a colloquial term so avoid using it in serious company as it can sound flippant and an essay on mothers unprofessional. decision-maker – a person in the prospect organization who has the planning philosophy essay, power and budgetary authority to agree to phd thesis accounting, a sales proposal. On of the philosophy essay, most common mistakes by sales people is to attempt to sell to someone other than a genuine decision-maker. For anything other than a routine repeating order, the only two people in any organization of any size that are real decision-makers for significant sales values are the CEO/Managing Director/President, and the Finance Director.
Everyone else in the organization is generally working within stipulated budgets and supply contracts, and will almost always need to refer major purchasing decisions to on mothers, one or both of the above people. In very large organizations, functional directors may well be decision-makers for significant sales that relate only to philosophy, their own function’s activities. Kindred? See influencer. deliverable(s) – an aspect of a proposal that the provider commits to planning philosophy, do or supply, usually and preferably clearly measurable. demonstration/demo/ – the physical presentation by essay when i got the sales person to the prospect of how a product works. Generally free of charge to the prospect, and planning essay normally conducted at the prospect’s premises, but can be at another suitable venue, eg., an exhibition, or at the supplier’s premises. demographics – the study of, or information about, people’s lifestyles, habits, population movements, spending, age, social grade, employment, etc., in terms of the consuming and buying public; anyone selling to the consumer sector will do better through understanding relevant demographic information. discipline – within the american literature, context of an organization this is similar to function, i.e., job role, although a discipline can refer more generally to a capability or responsibility, for example ‘financial disciplines’, or ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’.
Discipline can of course mean separately ‘control’, others or oneself, which is philosophy essay certainly relevant to sales and selling, but not the reason for its inclusion in this glossary. In business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to literature research paper rubric, explore the philosophy essay, different ways that people are affected by a change or proposition, which generally accompanies the sale of a product or service. distribution/sales distribution – the methods or routes by which products and services are taken to writing paper, market. Planning Philosophy Essay? Sales distribution models are many and various, and essay i got lost are constantly changing and new ones developing. Understanding and establishing best sales distribution methods – routes to market – are crucial aspects of running any sales organization, and any business organization too. Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service, and the end-user market, and the model will normally be defined by planning essay these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditized mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electronics, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the internet. A lesson in changing sales distribution models, and unit teaching a research the need for manufacturers and sellers to anticipate changes is found in the switching of book sales and CD sales from retail store distribution to websites, with the resulting demise of many retailers in those sectors.
Future changes in philosophy, sales distribution will see for example music transferring increasingly via online downloads, thus threatening those involved with or dependent upon physical shipping of products. B2B (business-to-business) sales distribution models have their own shape, again dependent on products and an essay services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. Examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centers, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufacturers and ‘principals’), and channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecoms and IT sectors). empathy – understanding how another person feels, and typically reflecting this back to the other person. The ability to feel and show empathy is central to modern selling methods.
Critical success factor that is totally misunderstood by planning essay many sales managers and sales people. ethics/ethical selling/ethical business – this would not have appeared in a selling glossary a few years ago, because the line between right and wrong was a mile wide. To certain leaders and companies it still is, although gradually, slowly business and selling is becoming more civilized. Honesty, morality and social responsibility are now crucial elements in any effective selling method, and for any sustainable business. In Spring 2008 someone left a message on my answerphone. The person said he was from ‘central government’, working on a ‘policy piece’ about e-learning, and could I give him a call back. I duly called back. Kindred Prompts? After several sidesteps, the planning philosophy essay, ‘seller’ eventually clarified that the purpose of the contact was to sell me some advertising in a directory, supposedly endorsed or approved by a ‘government department’.
This is a fine example of unethical selling, and unethical business too, since the seller was clearly following a company script and set of tactics designed to deceive. Unethical business and selling have always been wrong, but nowadays they carry far greater risks for those who behave badly. Consumers are wiser and better informed. The courts are less tolerant and more sensitive to transgressions. In all respects today poor ethics guarantee personal and business failure. FAB – features advantages benefits – the links between a product description, its advantage over others, and the gain derived by the customer from on management accounting, using it. Essay? One of the central, if now rather predictable, techniques used in the presentation stage of the selling process. feature – an aspect of a product or service, eg., color, speed, size, weight, type of harvard institute, technology, buttons and planning philosophy essay knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc. Also referred to a product or service detail. field – means anywhere out of the sales office. Field sales people or managers are those who travel around meeting people personally in the course of managing a sales territory.
To be field-based is to work on unit plan teaching writing the sales territory, as opposed to being office-based. forecast/sales forecast – a prediction of what sales will be achieved over a given period, anything from a week to a year. Sales managers require sales people to philosophy essay, forecast, in order to provide data to production, purchasing, and other functions whose activities need to be planned to meet sales demand. An Essay? Sales forecasts are also an essential performance quantifier which feeds into the overall business plan for essay, any organization. Due to the traditionally unreliable and optimistic nature of sales-department forecasts it is kindred essay prompts entirely normal for the sum of all individual sales persons’ sales annual forecast to grossly exceed what the business genuinely plans to sell. See targets. function/functional – in the context of an planning philosophy, organization, this means the job role or discipline, eg., sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc.
Understanding the functions of unit plan teaching a research, people within organizations, and critically their interests and planning philosophy needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations. influencer – a person in the prospect organization who has the power to influence and persuade a decision-maker. Kindred Essay Prompts? Influencers will be generally be decision-makers for relatively low value sales. There is usually more than one influencer in any prospect organization relevant to a particular sale, and large organizations will have definitely have several influencers. It is planning philosophy usually important to sell to influencers as well as decision-makers in the same organization. Selling to large organizations almost certainly demands that the sales person does this. The role and power of influencers in any organization largely depends on the culture and politics of the organization, and particularly the american, management style of the two main decision-makers. See decision-makers.
intangible – in a selling context this describes, or is, an aspect of the planning, product or service offering that has a value but is difficult to see or quantify (for instance, peace-of-mind, reliability, consistency). introduction – the word introduction has two different main meanings in selling: Introduction refers either to first stage of the face-to-face or telephone sales call (see the Opening stage in the Seven Steps of the Sale), or the term means a personal introduction – also called a referral – of the sales person to kindred prompts, someone in the buying organization by a mutual friend or contact. Personal introductions of this sort tend to imply endorsement or recommendation of the seller, and since they are made by an existing contact they help greatly in establishing initial trust. The value and philosophy essay potency of a personal introduction generally reflects the importance of the phd thesis accounting, introducing person and the strength of their relationship with the buying contact. Networking is essentially based on using (sometimes several quite informal) introductions, to connect a seller with a buyer. introductory letter – a very effective way to improve appointment-making success, and to open initial dialogue, especially for selling to large organizations. LAMP® – Large Account Management Process – sales acronym and methodology for planning, major accounts management developed by Robert Miller, Stephen Heiman and Tad Tuleja in their 1991 book Successful Large Account Management (see the books at the foot of this page). Note that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman, Inc. Also note that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of essay prompts, training and planning essay development products and accounting services without a licence. lead-time – time between order and delivery, installation or commencement of a product or service. listening – a key selling skill, in philosophy, that without good listening skills the process of questioning is rendered totally pointless.
major account – a large and narrative essay when i got complex prospect or customer, often having several branches or sites, and generally requiring contacts and relationships between various functions in the supplier and customer organization. Often major accounts are the responsibility of designated experienced and senior sales people, which might be formed into a major accounts team. Major accounts often enjoy better discounts and terms than other customers because of purchasing power leveraged by bigger volumes, and lower selling costs from planning philosophy, economies of narrative i got, scale. marketing – perceived by lots of planning essay, business people to mean simply promotion and advertising, the institute of economic research research series, term marketing actually covers everything from planning philosophy, company culture and on mothers positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. It’s the planning, process by which a company decides what it will sell, to essay, whom, when and how, and then does it. margin/profit margin – the difference between cost (including or excluding operating overheads) and selling price of a product or service.
Percentage margin is planning philosophy essay generally deemed to be the on mothers, difference between cost and selling price, divided by the selling price ex tax (ex.- something that costs $100 and is sold for $200 plus tax produces a 50% margin – gross margin that is – net margin is after overheads are deducted). mark-up – this is the essay, money that a selling company adds to the cost of a product or service in order to produce a required level of profit. An Essay On Mothers? Strictly speaking, percentage mark-up refers to planning, the difference between cost and phd thesis on management selling price as a factor of the cost, not of the selling price. Planning? So a product costing $100 and selling for harvard institute research research series, $200 has been given a mark-up of 100%; (at the same time it produces a margin of 50%). needs-based selling – a selling style popularized in the 1970s and planning philosophy essay 80s which asserted that sales people could create needs in an essay on mothers, a prospect for their products or services even if no needs were apparent, obvious or even existed. The method was for the sales person to question the prospect to identify, discover (and suggest) organizational problems or potential problems that would then create a need for the product. I’m bound to planning, point out phd thesis on management that this is no substitute for philosophy, good research and proper targeting of harvard institute research series, prospects who have use of the products and planning essay services being sold. negotiation/negotiating – the trading of concessions including price reductions, between supplier and customer, in teaching writing, an attempt to shape a supply contract (sale in philosophy, other words) so that it is acceptable to both supplier and customer. American Research Rubric? Negotiations can last a few minutes or even a few years, although generally it’s down to one or two meetings and one or two exchanges of correspondence. Ideally, from the seller’s point of view, negotiation must only commence when the sale has been agreed in principle, and conditionally upon satisfactory negotiation.
However most sales people fall into the trap set by essay most buyers – intentionally or otherwise – of starting to negotiate before the selling process have even commenced. NLP:Neuro-Linguistic Programming – A very accessible branch of psychology developed by Bandler and Grinder in the 1960s. When I Got? NLP involves language, thinking and communications, and is therefore immensely useful and often features in essay, sales training. networking – an institute of economic series, increasingly popular method of philosophy, developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on referrals and introductions – either face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and literature paper rubric business networking websites, etc. objection/overcoming objections – an objection is a point of resistance raised by a prospect, usually price (“It’s too expensive..”), but can be anything at planning any stage of the selling process. Overcoming objections is a revered and much-trained skill in the traditional selling process, but far less significant in modern selling.
Modern collaborative selling principles assume that objections do not arise if proper research, needs analysis, questioning and empathic discussion has taken place. Also the notion of using techniques or pressure to an essay on mothers, overcome what may be legitimate obstacles is contrary to principles of philosophy, modern selling. Teaching Writing A Research Paper? Modern selling methods tend to identify objections much earlier in the process, and either to filter out the essay, prospect at when lost that stage and planning essay abandon the approach, or where objections arise from multiple decision influencers within the buyer organization, to an essay on mothers, agree collaboratively a strategy with the main contact at the prospective customer for dealing with objection(s) arising. open/opening – the first stage of the actual sales call. opening benefit statement/OBS – traditionally an initial impact statement for sales people to use at planning philosophy essay first contact with prospect, in writing, on the phone or face-to-face – the OBS generally encapsulates the likely strongest organizational benefit typically (or supposedly) derived by an essay customers in planning essay, the prospect’s sector, eg., “Our customers in harvard institute, the clothing retail sector generally achieve 30-50% pilferage reduction when they install one of our Catch-A-Crook security systems…” open question – a question that gains information, usually beginning with who, what, why, where, when, how, or more subtly ‘tell me about..’ – as distinct from a closed question, for example beginning with ‘Is it…?’ or ‘Do you…?’ etc., which tend to glean only a yes or no answer. package – in a selling context this is another term for the product offer; it’s the whole product and service offering at a given price, upon given terms. partnership selling – very modern approach to philosophy, organizational selling for business-to-business sales. pattern interrupt – term used for gaining the attention of the buyer or customer. Buyers have been conditioned to literature research paper rubric, assume a pattern or flow of ideas or statements from planning philosophy essay, a sales person.
Therefore, in kindred prompts, the pattern interrupt, the sales person goes off-script or makes an planning philosophy, unexpected statement – truthful statement – that suddenly grabs the attention of the buyer / customer who is asking themselves the question – What? And therefore tuning back into the conversation to find out unit teaching if what they thought they heard was true. Philosophy Essay? Very powerful attention gaining method used by the top sales and marketing professionals. perceived – how something is seen or regarded by someone, usually by the prospect or customer, irrespective of unit plan, what is planning philosophy believed or presented by the seller, ie what it really means to institute of economic, the customer. positioning – more a marketing than sales term, although relevant to experienced and sophisticated sellers, and related to targeting – positioning refers to how a product/service/proposition is presented or described or marketed in planning essay, relation to the market place – with reference to customers, competition, image, pricing, quality, etc. Positioning basically refers to whether a proposition is literature research being sold appropriately – in the right way, to the right people, at the right time, in the right place, and at the right price. A potentially brilliant business can fail because its products are not positioned properly, which typically manifests as sales people being unable to sell successfully. There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and their skills, and the product/service, but the venture fails because the positioning is wrong. Conversely, good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/service.
Effective selling is not only about quality and skills – its about suitability of targeting. preparation – in the context of the selling process this is the work done by the sales person to philosophy essay, research and plan the sales approach and/or sales call to kindred essay, a particular prospect or customer. Philosophy Essay? Almost entirely without exception in the global history of of economic research paper series, selling, no call is adequately prepared for, and sales that fail to happen are due to this failing. presentation/sales presentation – the planning philosophy essay, process by which a sales person explains the institute research research paper series, product or service to the prospect (to a single contact or a group), ideally including the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are relevant to the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but more usually involve the use of visuals, commonly bullet-point text slides and images on a computer display or projected onto a screen. product – generally a physical item being supplied, but can also mean or include services and intangibles, in which case product is used to mean the whole package being supplied. product offer – how the philosophy essay, product and/or service is essay when i got lost positioned and planning presented to the prospect or market, which would normally include features and/or advantages and also imply at least one benefit for american literature research paper, the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (segments or customer groupings). Planning Philosophy? One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully. proposal/sales proposal – usually a written offer with specification, prices, outline terms and conditions, and warranty arrangements, from a sales person or selling organization to a prospect.
Generally an narrative when i got, immensely challenging part of the process to planning philosophy, get right, in that it must be concise yet complete, persuasive yet objective, well specified yet orientated to the customer’s applications. Prompts? An outline proposal is often a useful interim step, to avoid wasting a lot of planning philosophy, time including in a full proposal lots of material that the customer really doesn’t need. proposition – usually means product offer, can mean sales proposal. The initial proposition means the when lost, basis of the philosophy, first approach. PSS – Professional Selling Skills – highly structured selling process pioneered by the US Xerox (and UK Rank Xerox) photocopier sales organization during the 1960s, and adopted by research paper countless business-to-business sales organizations. PSS places a huge reliance on philosophy presentation, overcoming objections and 101 different closes.
Largely now superseded by more modern two-way processes, but PSS is still in use and being trained, particularly in old-fashioned paternalistic company cultures. Writing? The regimented one-way manipulative style of planning, PSS nowadays leaves most modern buyers completely cold, but strip it away to the bare process and it’s better than no process at all. prospect – a customer (person, organization, buyer) before the sale is phd thesis on management made, ie a prospective customer. puppy dog sale/puppy dog close – a classic method of selling or closing a deal whereby you let the customer try the product or service for free without commitment, for philosophy, a limited period, in the confidence that once they live with it they won’t want to give it up – just like giving someone have a puppy for a day. These days the accounting, puppy dog approach would ideally extend to giving the prospective customer some education and support about looking after the puppy so that they understand and are prepared for the changes that come with a new puppy. questioning – the planning philosophy, second stage of the sales call, typically after the opening or introduction but also vital to modern selling methods, notably collaborative/consultative selling. A crucial selling skill, and rarely well demonstrated.
The correct timing and use of the important different types of questions are central to the processes of gathering information, matching needs, and building rapport and empathy. Questioning also requires that the sales person has good listening, interpretation and phd thesis accounting empathic capabilities. referral – a recommendation or personal introduction or permission/suggestion made by someone, commonly but not necessarily a buyer, which enables the seller to approach or begin dialogue with a new perspective buyer or decision-maker/influencer. Seeking referrals is a a widely trained selling technique, in which the planning, seller asks the buyer (or other contact) at the end of a sales call for narrative lost, referrals, i.e., details of other people who might be interested in the seller’s proposition, or who might be able to make their own introductions/referrals. research/research call – the act of gathering information about essay, a market or customer, that will help progress or enable a sales approach. Often seen as a job for research paper rubric, telemarketing personnel, but actually more usefully carried out by sales people, especially where large prospects are concerned (which should really be the only type of philosophy, prospects targeted by modern sales people, given the need to recover very high costs of unit plan teaching writing, sales people). retention/customer retention – means simply keeping customers and not losing them to competitors. Modern companies realise that it’s far more expensive to find new customers than keep existing ones, and so put sufficient investment into looking after and growing existing accounts. Less sensible companies find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers, while they lose more business than they gain because of poor retention activity. (The hole in the bucket syndrome, where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in.) risk reversal – concept used in planning philosophy essay, marketing quite often to entice the passive decision maker into making a decision.
The seller assumes all or the phd thesis on management accounting, majority of the philosophy, risk involved in the business transaction, thus taking away the primary negative in a research paper, a buying decision – the essay, risk to the buyer. sales cycle – the Sales Cycle term generally describes the time and/or process between first contact with the customer to when the sale is made. Sales Cycle times and processes vary enormously depending on the company, type of business (product/service), the effectiveness of the sales process, the market and the particular situation applying to the customer at the time of the inquiry. The Sales Cycle can be less than a minute or can be many months or even a few years. A typical Sales Cycle for a moderately complex product might be: 1. lead generated. 3. arrange appointment. 4. customer appointment with questions. 5. verify depth of on mothers, problems and consequences. 6. presentation of proposal.
7. and close sale. sales forecasts – also called sales projections, these are the predictions that sales people and philosophy essay sales managers are required to make about future business levels, necessary for their own organization to plan and budget everything from research paper, stock levels, production, staffing levels, to planning, advertising and promotion, financial performance and market strategies. sales funnel – describes the pattern, plan or actual achievement of on management accounting, conversion of philosophy essay, prospects into sales, pre-inquiry and on mothers then through the planning philosophy, sales cycle. So-called because it includes the an essay, conversion ratio at each stage of the sales cycle, which has a funneling effect. Planning Essay? Prospects are said to be fed into the top of the funnel, and converted sales drop out at an essay the bottom. The extent of conversion success (ie the tightness of philosophy, each ratio) reflects the quality of american literature rubric, prospects fed into planning, the top, and the sales skill at each conversion stage. The Sales Funnel is an essay on mothers a very powerful sales planning and sales management tool. sales report – a business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of sales people too. A sales report can be required weekly, monthly, quarterly and planning philosophy annually, and often includes the need to kindred, provide sales forecasts. sales pipeline – a linear equivalent of the Sales Funnel principle.
Prospects need to philosophy, be fed into essay prompts, the pipeline in essay, order to drop out of the other end as sales. The length of the pipeline is the kindred essay, sales cycle time, which depends on business type, market situation, and philosophy the effectiveness of the sales process. sector/market sector – a part of the market that can be described, categorised and an essay on mothers then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics; sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of planning philosophy, vertical sectors, ex. a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by age, or size, etc. segment/market segment – a sub-sector or market niche; basically a grouping that’s more narrowly defined and smaller than a sector; a segment can be a horizontal sub-sector across one or more vertical sectors. service contract – a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the a research paper, trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. Also known as trading agreements, supply agreements, and other variations. solutions selling – a common but loosely-used description for a more customer-orientated selling method; dependent on identifying needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a package or ‘solution’. The term is based on philosophy the premise that customers don’t buy products or features or benefits – they buy solutions (to organizational problems). It’s a similar approach to ‘needs-creation’ selling, which first became popular in the 1970s-80s. Solutions selling remains relevant and its methods can usefully be included in the open plan selling style described later here, although modern collaborative and facilitative methodologies are becoming vital pre-requisites.Michael Bosworth developed this method as continuation of SPIN selling methods.
SPIN® and unit teaching SPIN® Selling – A popular selling method developed by planning philosophy Neil Rackham in the 1970-80s: SPIN® is an acronym derived from the basic selling process designed and defined by Rackham: Situation, Problem, Implication, Need, or Need Payoff. Note that SPIN® and SPIN SELLING® methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of the Huthwaite Organisations of the US and UK. Strategic Selling® – when used in upper case and/or in the context of Miller Heiman’s Strategic Selling® methodology (which features in their books of the same name, first published in 1985) the Strategic Selling® term is a registered and protected product name belonging to the American Miller Heiman training organization – so be warned. LAMP® and phd thesis on management Strategic Selling® methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman, Inc., and again be warned that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of planning essay, training and research development products and services without a license. strategic selling – you will also hear people (me included) referring to ‘strategic selling’ in a generic sense, and not specifically referring to the Miller Heiman methods and materials. In a generic ‘lower case’ sense, ‘strategic selling’ describes a broad methodology which began to be practiced in the 1980s, literally ‘strategic’ by its nature (the principles involve taking a strategic view of the prospective customer’s organization, its markets, customers and strategic priorities, etc), which is described below and referred to as ‘open plan selling’. When using the ‘strategic selling’ terminology in philosophy essay, a training context you must be careful therefore to avoid confusion or misrepresentation of the Miller Heiman intellectual property. If in any doubt don’t use the ‘strategic selling’ term in relation to providing sales training services – call it something else to avoid any possible confusion with the Miller Heiman products, (see the Miller Heiman Strategic Selling® copyright details below. tangible – in a selling context this describes, or is, an research research paper series, aspect of the product or service offering that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost and essay value (eg., any physical feature of the product; spare parts; delivery or installation; a regular service visit; a warranty agreement). See intangible. target account – in a sales context this is the issued (or ideally agreed) level of sales performance for a sales person or team or department over a given period.
Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, life and death, etc., can all be dependent on writing paper sales staff meeting sales targets, so all in all sales targets are quite sensitive things. Targets are established at the beginning of the trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular forecasting and philosophy essay reviews (sometimes referred to as ‘a good bollocking’) throughout the year. Literature? See forecasting. targeting – this has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of target (above). Targeting is a marketing term – very relevant and important for sales people and sales managers too – which refers to the customers at which the selling effort is aimed, hence targeting.
In this respect the term relates to ‘target markets’, or ‘target sectors’. Planning Essay? This is the customer aspect within ‘positioning’ of a product or service or proposition. Targeting is kindred essay prompts represented by philosophy the question: Who will buy the product/service? Deciding targeting on a company scale is normally the responsibility of a marketing department or agency, but each sales person and a research paper sales team as huge potential to develop and refine their own local targeting – so as to aim their efforts at planning the sectors or customers which will produce the greatest results. For example – and an essay on mothers many sales people, especially self-employed providers and traders – completely ignore the fact that sales generally come more easily from philosophy, existing or previous customers than prospective new customers to whom the narrative when i got lost, supplier is philosophy completely unknown. Similarly size of prospective customer is another largely overlooked aspect of targeting. Any business will naturally have more amenable sectors of potential customers than other parts of the narrative essay i got, market. Planning Philosophy? Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximizes its chances of engaging with the most responsive and kindred essay prompts profitable customers. telemarketing – any pre-sales activity conducted by philosophy telephone, usually by specially trained telemarketing personnel – for instance, research, appointment-making, product promotion. telesales – selling by telephone contact alone, normally a sales function in its own right, ie., utilizing specially trained telesales personnel; used typically where low order values prevent the use of american paper, expensive field-based sales people, and a recognizable product or service allows the process to succeed. It is usually an outbound sales method.
territory – the geographical area of responsibility of a sales person or a team or a sales organization. A generation ago a field-based sales person’s territory would commonly be a county or state. Now in essay, this globalized age, where so much selling is done online and remotely by telephone rather than by research rubric expensive face-to-face selling, field-based sales people’s territories are much bigger, and can be entire countries or continental regions. territory planning – the process of planning philosophy, planning optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calling) of a sales territory by the available sales resources, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even if one territory by one sales person; for one person this used to be called journey planning, and was often based on a four or six day cycle, so as to avoid always missing prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week. trial close – the technique by which a sales person tests the prospect’s readiness to buy, traditionally employed in response to a buying signal, eg: prospect says: “Do you have them in stock?”, to which the sales person would traditionally reply: “Would you want one if they are?” Use with extreme care, for fear of looking like a clumsy desperate fool.
If you see a buying signal there’s no need to jump on it – just answer it politely, and of economic research research paper series before ask why the question is important, which will be far more constructive. unique/uniqueness – a feature that is peculiar to a product or service or supplier – no competitor can offer it. See the marketing section for more detail about developing unique selling propositions. Essay? Uniqueness is i got lost a much overlooked aspect of selling. The vast majority of sales organizations focus their efforts on selling ‘me too’ products and services, where inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on price differences, whereas the most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions, which dramatically reduces competitive pressures. UPB – unique perceived benefit – now one of the essay, central strongest mechanisms in the modern selling process, an extension and refinement of the product offer, based on detailed understanding of the prospect’s personal and organizational needs. A UPB is your USP from the customer’s perspective, in other words, what your USP means to your customer, which is a very different way of approaching selling than from the traditional angle of seller-oriented USPs. It’s essential to discuss your offering in these terms with your customer. USP – unique selling proposition – this is what makes the product offer competitively strong and without direct comparison; generally the i got lost, most valuable unique advantage of a product or service, for the market or prospect in question; now superseded by planning philosophy UPB. variable – an aspect of the sale or deal that can be changed in order to better meet the needs of the seller and/or the buyer.
Typical variables are price, quantity, lead-time, payment terms, technical factors, styling factors, spare parts, back-up and essay when i got lost breakdown service, routine maintenance, installation, delivery, warranty. Variables may be real or perceived, and philosophy essay often the perceived ones are the most significant in any negotiation.
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14 Sample Applications and planning philosophy essay Code Examples. This chapter describes code examples and sample applications that offer several approaches to learning about and working with WebLogic Server 12.1.3. These examples and american paper sample applications are available through performing a custom installation and selecting to install the planning essay, Server Examples. Phd Thesis On Management Accounting? This chapter includes the following sections: This section provides an overview of installing and using the essay, WebLogic Server code examples. This section contains the following topics: Installing the WebLogic Server Code Examples. When performing an installation of WebLogic Server, select the Complete Installation type to obtain the WebLogic Server and Coherence examples. For more information about installing WebLogic Server, see Installing and Configuring Oracle WebLogic Server and Coherence . If you do not automatically launch the Quickstart Configuration Wizard from the phd thesis on management accounting, installation program, but instead choose to configure the code examples and sample domains later, you can run the philosophy, QuickStart Configuration Wizard manually. For more information, see Running the QuickStart Configuration Wizard in Creating WebLogic Domains Using the Configuration Wizard . Starting the WebLogic Server Samples Domain.
Start the phd thesis on management, examples server using one of the following procedures. In these procedures, DOMAIN_HOME represents the location where the planning, samples domain is kindred prompts, configured on your machine; for example, C: ORACLE_HOME user_projectsdomains. On Windows : Use a command shell and navigate to the DOMAIN_HOME wl_server directory. Philosophy Essay? Enter the following command: On UNIX Bourne Shell : Navigate to the DOMAIN_HOME /wl_server directory. Enter the following command: By default, the examples server uses port 7001 to listen for institute research paper incoming connections. The MedRec server also uses the same listen port by default, which means that you cannot run both domains at the same time without changing one of the planning, listen ports.
If you want to run both domains at institute of economic research the same time, use the Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console to change the listen port of the planning essay, examples server to something other than 7001, and then restart it. You can then run the MedRec server using its default listen port at the same that you run the kindred prompts, examples server. Running the WebLogic Server Code Examples. Review the instructions provided with the philosophy, code examples for information about building, deploying and running the code examples. When you start the WebLogic Server samples domain, a browser is an essay, automatically launched that displays a Web page from which you can browse the samples and obtain instructions for building, deploying, and running them. The following conventions are used throughout the planning philosophy essay, instructions for the WebLogic Server code examples: The instructions generally are for Windows command shells. If you are using a UNIX or Linux-based shell, substitute / for in path names. ORACLE_HOME represents the directory you specified as the Oracle Home when you installed WebLogic Server; for example, C:OracleMiddlewareOracle_Home . WL_HOME represents the top-level installation directory for Oracle WebLogic Server. The default path is an essay, ORACLE_HOME /wlserver . Essay? (However, you are not required to install WebLogic Server in the Oracle Home directory.) EXAMPLES_HOME represents the directory in american paper rubric, which the WebLogic Server code examples are configured. The default path is planning philosophy essay, ORACLE_HOME user_projectsapplications . DOMAIN_HOME represents the harvard of economic research series, directory in which the WebLogic Server sample domains are configured.
The default path is philosophy, ORACLE_HOME user_projectsdomains . Source files for the code examples are separated from the domain configuration files, just as they should be in a real-world scenario. They are installed in the EXAMPLES_HOME directory. The DOMAIN_HOME wl_server directory contains the WebLogic Server examples domain; it contains your applications and the XML configuration files that define how your applications and Oracle WebLogic Server will behave, as well as startup and environment scripts. The EXAMPLES_HOME wl_serverexamplesbuild directory contains client and server classes required by the examples and Derby database. The WL_HOME commonderby directory contains Derby, a demonstration database that the examples are configured to use. It also contains scripts that start and stop the database. For more information about Derby, see http://db.apache.org/derby . These code examples demonstrate new features for unit a research paper JAX-RS 2.0, JPA 2.1, and WebSocket 1.0. The examples are grouped in essay, the following categories: JAX-RS 2.0: Uses and introduces asynchronous processing, filter and interceptor, and Server-Sent Events (SSE) Jersey support. JPA 2.1: Uses the of economic research paper series, Criteria Update and Criteria Delete API and philosophy the Stored Procedures API. WebSocket: Demonstrates processing JSON-format data, using CDI and EJBs in WebSocket endpoints, enabling a server to echo text sent by a client, and enabling fallback to HTTP long polling as an alternative for WebSocket messaging.
Oracle WebLogic Server fully supports the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) 6 specification. An Essay On Mothers? The Java EE 6 examples demonstrate how to implement Java EE 6 APIs and planning essay Oracle WebLogic Server-specific features. The examples are grouped in the following categories: Bean Validation: Use bean validation with JPA entities, JPA from Java SE, and JSF managed beans. Phd Thesis On Management? Context and Dependency Injection (CDI): Introduces CDI with type-safe dependency injection, interceptors, and producers. Data Source: Use the philosophy, @DataSourceDefinition annotation. EJB 3.1: Use asynchronous methods, a calendar-based timer, simplified programming model and packaging in a WAR file, portable global JNDI names, and singleton session beans. When I Got? Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) 1.1: Build RESTful Web services with JAX-RS. Java EE Connector Architecture 1.6: Use the Java EE Connector Architecture to philosophy essay, connect two applications together using a stock trading application. JPA 2.0: Use the i got, JPA Criteria Query API and the @ElementCollection mapping type. JSF 2.0: Incorporate Ajax in Web applications, create bookmarkable Web applications, and use Facelets and templating. Planning Philosophy Essay? Servlet 3.0: Use annotations for servlets, filters, and listeners, handle file uploads with multipart files, and use asynchronous servlet and request handling, programmatic security, and servlet Web fragments.
These examples demonstrate how to implement additional Java EE APIs and Oracle WebLogic Server-specific features. The examples are grouped in the following categories: Database Connectivity: Use DataSources, MultiDataSources, and Rowsets. EJB: Create stateless, stateful, entity, and message-driven EJBs, and more. Internationalization: Internationalize an application using simple message catalogs. Messaging: Use JMS topics, queues, and message-driven beans. Resource Adapter: Use an entity EJB to interact with a Java EE Connector Architecture resource adapter. Security: Use the Java Authentication and Authorization Service, SAML, and outbound and two-way SSL.
Transactions: Use JTA to perform distributed transactions using the when i got, two phase commit protocol across two XA resources. Web Application: Create simple servlets and JSPs, use the HTTP Publish-Subscribe server, and more. Web Services: Create a variety of Web Services using JWS annotations. XML: Use the STAX API and XMLBeans. Cluster: Cluster an EJB and use HTTP session state replication. Coherence: Use the planning essay, Coherence container to host Coherence applications. WebLogic Scripting Tool: Use the research paper series, WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) to planning essay, configure and manage a running WebLogic Administration Server. Split Development: Use the WebLogic split development directory structure to build, package, and deploy Enterprise Applications. An Essay On Mothers? Service Component Architecture: Use WebLogic SCA, a lightweight Spring 2.5 (or higher) container, in planning philosophy, a shopping cart application that demonstrates many of its key features. Spring: Use Spring-simplified configuration in a Spring-based Web application.
Avitek Medical Records (or MedRec) is a comprehensive educational sample application that demonstrates WebLogic Server and Java EE features, as well as best practices. Avitek Medical Records is optionally installed with the WebLogic Server installation. Research Series? You can start MedRec from the ORACLE_HOME /user_projects/domains/medrec directory, where ORACLE_HOME is the planning essay, directory you specified as the Oracle Home when you installed Oracle WebLogic Server. The sample application, MedRec (Spring) demonstrates Spring 3.0.x application development practices.
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MA Class: Contemporary Political Philosophy - Essay Writing
Custom The Pearl Qatar essay paper writing service. The Pearl Qatar is an artificial island that is being constructed in Riviera style offshore Doha. The mixed-use phased establishment is planning essay characterized with ten discrete, themed districts comprising of town homes, exclusive penthouses, beachfront villas, luxury apartments, five-star hotels, marinas as well as upscale retails and restaurants. This artificial island costs two and a half billion US dollars. It covers 400 hectares of land that has been reclaimed. It is institute research paper series stands out as the first international residential establishment in Qatar that provides freehold title ownership to international investors. The name and the location of the island are a true reflection of the strong cultural ties of Qatar with the sea.
The artificial island is constructed on a previous pearl diving site. The Pearl-Qatar is being established off the planning philosophy, shore of the prestigious West Bay of Doha which is narrative essay lost a lagoon zone. It will connect with the mainland through an eight-lane super highway lined with palm-trees. It will create more than 40 kilometers of a new line in the coast (http://www.medcodredging.com/pearl.html). Seattle-headquartered Callison Architecture inc. has been chosen by planning essay the Pearl-Qatar has as the prime consultant and the structural architect for purposes of coming up with the master plan.
Seattle-headquartered Callison Architecture inc. also provides services of design and construction. The Pearl-Qatar is being established and promoted through the american literature research, United Development Company (UDC) which is the largest private sector shareholding organization in Qatar. UDC announced The Pearl Qatar on April 2003 but the planning philosophy essay, physical work on the Island commenced on December 06 th 2004. Residents ranging above three thousand have occupied the island as of the 2011 spring season. The construction of the Pearl project is very different from other man-made Island establishments in Middle East Region. Unlike common artificial islands that are constructed in literature paper regions with enough water depth that promotes ease of access and deployment and huge equipment for planning dredging, The Pearl Qatar was constructed on kindred essay prompts an already existing shallow region which was actually a former pearl bank. The filling process was thus minimized (http://www.medcodredging.com/pearl.html). “Blue water dredging” was conducted both to philosophy essay create the design water depth in the channels, the american research paper, beach regions and essay the marinas and at the same time to give the water its superb blue color. American Research Rubric! Concrete is a very common construction material within the planning philosophy essay, Pearl Qatar structures.
Concrete tetra-pods have been used to protect the areas exposed to dangers like sea storms. The biggest part of the institute of economic paper, bed of the sea consists of cap-rock and limestone and therefore disadvantaged the philosophy, services of a small, shallow drafted Cutter Suction Dredger. The Cap-rock that was removed was large by volume compared to limestone. Prompts! The construction applied limestone as an under layer for the protection of the shore while the cap-rock was used in refilling the area to be reclaimed after it was reduced to sizes of choice. Thus, this is the foundation upon which the buildings stand. The construction includes the placement of rock revetments that are basically used to retain the structure of the sea at the bottom.
The interior region has been filled with sand covering up to planning philosophy the revetment top. A repeat procedure was conducted moving the revetment to the interior (http://www.medcodredging.com/pearl.html). Client Motivation, Interest and Orientation. The UDC identified and invested in the Pearl Qatar project which has been taken as a long-lasting socio-economic development. The main agenda has been to boost the growth of Qatar. One of the main motivations is the position that it takes to provide a shareholder value that is unit teaching writing good and economically feasible to client. The establishment of UDC in 1999 and its active participation in development works gives the client confidence the Pearl Qatar will be a magnificent establishment. The start of UDC with an authorized share capital of QR 500 million and planning essay its listing on the Doha Securities Market in an essay June 2003 renders big support and faith in the project. The UDC’s history of an authorized share capital of QR 1.609 billion, total assets of QR 11.008 billion as of philosophy essay 31 March 2001 shows signs of success that is about to be replicated in the Pearl Qatar Project. Being the among Qatar’s most successful investors and an essay on mothers developers, UDC’s founders and current Board Members are dependable for excellence.
The mission of the company in being a basis in the developments of Qatar and the region is philosophy essay of great significance to the Pearl Qatar as it will create a lasting value and maximize returns for partners and narrative when i got the shareholders as well. For the Pearl-Qatar, UDC is committed to philosophy make it a unique living and cultural experience that integrates the best of the country's past and present offering diversity of high quality living environments. Diversity of housing choices with the highest quality of american research accommodation was key objectives in the project's master planning. Along with it being a recreational center, it is philosophy very important to know that the island is a big commercial enterprise for many nationals and internationals. Purpose of the Project. The Qatar Pearl is a project that was drawn with a many aims and objectives to on mothers address diverse needs. Initially, it was meant to act as a form of planning essay recreation of Qatar’s past in maintaining the when i got, country’s culture and pride while linking it with the present as a way of preserving heritage and history. Planning Essay! Of great importance is Qatar’s long history of pearl production. The design of the project is a commemoration of this legacy. Unit Plan Teaching! Another very important aspect following the establishment of the project is the economic leap forward that the planning philosophy essay, larger Qatar has experienced over the last several years.
This has transformed the phd thesis on management accounting, region generally and the country in particular into an exotic spot for international business persons as anticipated. The project was to a bigger part meant to push the limits to a higher level is philosophy a sure way of not only enhancing this competitiveness, but also ensuring that other parts of the accounting, world benefit at the expense of Qatar’s sunshine of economic growth and development. This economic goal seems to be coming true given the number of international businesses that have already occupied pace in the completed first tower in the project (http://www.medcodredging.com/pearl.html). The beneficiaries of The Pearl Qatar Project can be categorized into two main groups. On top of the people and general staff embarking on the project in different areas and facilities there are the residents and visitors who enjoy the services of the project. For one, the residents are given the philosophy, choice of selecting their preferred location in the island depending on their desired requirements and lifestyle. The residents are expected to first make a choice of their destination and unit plan teaching paper then a home for themselves. Three main marinas are set within distinct residential zones, Porto Arabia, Costa Malaz, and Viva Bahriya in addition to Isola Dana which is an exclusive chain of islands. Each Marina has its unique characteristics and lifestyle features (Travel-Wise pt 2, Porto Arabia).
The resident can make a choice from the many residential types such as: a private villa, a townhouse, a penthouse, a family apartment or a private island. On the other hand, The Pearl Qatar is a destination of quite a number of visiting groups coming from planning philosophy essay different backgrounds of culture. Essay Prompts! All the same, visitors could also be locals, Arabs and other Internationals. The visitors fall under categories such as singles, couples, families, young and old among others. The Pearl Qatar offers many activities including dining, shopping, sea viewing, cycling, walking, and yacht marina activates. However, the nature of the upscale retail stores, and planning philosophy moderate to expensive restaurants in addition to the manned gates, resulted in excluding the narrative when i got lost, poor or labor class visitors.
Location in the City to Its Context. The Pearl-Qatar is located off the eastern shore of philosophy Qatar, approximately 20 kilometers north of the city central business quarter of Doha and directly north of West Bay. A causeway has been constructed to link the island to the main land. The Pearl is located between two Islands Al Saflyia and Al Alyia. The pearl project is also strategically positioned next to major cultural and commercial projects such as Katara, the harvard institute research research series, underdevelopment currently developing city of philosophy essay Lusail, and Doha Exhibition Center. The strategic location of The Pearl-Qatar is also evident looking at the city of Doha and its close proximity to the buzzing business district, the prestigious West Bay area and being only 20 km from Doha International Airport (Google Map of Doha, Qatar). Physical description of the project as a whole, building functions, activities, and the visual and environmental aspect. The concept behind The Pearl-Qatar is basically to offer unparallel lifestyle; fine homes on an island paradise, a shopping experience including fashion boutiques, cafes and restaurants featuring the world’s best-known brands, a water-side haven of marina life - all this and more combine to kindred essay create an environment which is second to none in the Arabian Gulf region. Figure 1. The Pearl-Qatar. (Retrieved January 5, 2012 from http://www.thepearlqatar.com/) A number of concepts were considered in planning order to develop something really special.
This included a merging of architecture, lifestyles and cultures, recalling North Africa, Mediterranean, Spain, and plan teaching writing a research paper Italy on an Island made up of a number of planning philosophy separate districts, each with their own special character and ambiance. The plan for the development imagined an phd thesis on management accounting, Island consisting of 10 individual districts; each would have its own character and identity. They would all be connected by the latest technology to form the most advanced ‘Smart Island’ in the world. The Overall land area is 4.12 million sqm Riviera style reclaimed Island with a 32 km of new coastline, 350m from the mainland. The Island is around 5.5 km long and 3.65 km wide. The final establishment will consist of 27 km of roads, 44 km of planning philosophy waterfront and 200 kilometers of communication cabling. The project consists of three main marinas forming different sizes of semi circular shapes, with an island in the middle of each marina in addition to an extended string of nine private islands. Phd Thesis On Management! The marinas are set within distinct residential zones, each with unique characteristics and lifestyle features. Following is an overall description of the planning essay, project: 2 million sq feet of overall retail area = 626 outlets:
Porto Arabia: 318 [Retail 208; Services 26; FB 84] Medina Centrale: 142 [Retail 78; Services 28; FB 36] Qanat Quartier: 166 [Retail 83; Services 33; FB 50] Marinas: A 4.5 m deep “blue-water-belt” was created around the teaching paper, island, which allows navigating with yachts. The Pearl Qatar has three marinas with a total capacity of 1002 berths. Porto Arabia marina = 782 berths. Viva Bahriya marina = 103 berths. Costa Malaz marina = 117 berths.
This is planning philosophy essay architecturally themed to echo the Moroccan-styled town homes and apartments. It features a recreational central island with a luxury hotel. It has 29 Maghreb-inspired towers, marina with 200 moorings and of economic series exclusive marina club, 2000 meter beach tower residences with one to three bedrooms apartments and penthouses. The relaxed atmosphere here is philosophy very much enjoyable. This is a tropical, spa-based island with beach villas. Others include Spas and wellness centers, hotel on Marsa Malaz islet and Costa Fayrouz. Research Series! Both architecture and planning landscaping evoke the atmosphere of kindred essay a tropical island.
It is an exclusive residential cove accessible to small watercraft and provides links from Qanat Quartier and Porto Arabia in planning philosophy essay addition to sea access from the north. This comprises of a string of nine independent 18,000 square meter average private islands with private beach and protected harbor. It is accessed via a dedicated causeway and gatehouse and offers the research, largest residential plots within The Pearl-Qatar. It is approached from the extreme south-eastern tip of The Pearl-Qatar, initially via a bridge spanning a navigable channel. This is located at the gateway to planning philosophy essay The Pearl-Qatar (Google Map of Doha, Qatar). At 42-storeys, two of accounting these buildings are the tallest structures with ‘pearl’ architectural features. It has 250 residential units as studio, one-, two-, or three-bedroom configurations plus three- and four-bedroom penthouses are planned. Also, there are 200 varying townhouses.
Each ‘parcel’ within the precinct is self-contained, with separate road access, dedicated services and parking. This comprises mixed villas and townhouses with landscaping and saltwater lakes located on the fringes of Viva Bahriya VILLAS. Gated communities of planning philosophy villas and townhouses make up many of the residences in the so-called “garden” precincts (Google Map of Doha, Qatar). There is a lot of space of moving around. Villas set in landscaped gardens with tracks and pathways with sea and mainland views available Gated community .Up to five bedrooms. They are located north of plan Viva Bahriya, clubhouses, sports and other leisure facilities (Google Map of Doha, Qatar). This is planned around intricate canals and essay pedestrian-friendly squares and plazas.
Colorful Venetian meets Arabian chic Canals waterfront leaving 400,000 sq ft of ‘festival’ shopping, townhouses and apartments Marina with 200 moorings, sailing club and boutique beachfront hotel. Harvard Institute Paper Series! Additionally, there are one to four bedroom Townhouses low-rise residences overlooking canals and beaches. This is the ‘town centre’; the island’s hub for amenities and facilities with 600,000 square feet of retail 400 residential units with parks and open spaces which will link and serve nearby residential areas. Includes one and two bedroom units low-rise developments above retail zones based around a town square and adjacent streets, convenient parking close to all facilities. Located east of Viva Bahriya, it revolves around a concentric introvert, coliseum style layout (Google Map of Doha, Qatar). Community living with Roman-inspired architecture and Mediterranean style architecture, Centre Piazza, Leisure Clubhouse Promenade with artisan retail and FB offering Italian inspired fresh food market Wellness centers consisting of 285 apartments and 100 townhouses. Available in three distinct areas - West, Central and East villas line a meandering coastline along the entire southern fringe of The Pearl-Qatar.
Readily accessible and planning essay positioned to take full advantage of its absolute beachfront location. Spacious homes with up to six bedrooms are available to meet the needs of a growing family. Villas stand in semi-tropical gardens in absolute beachfront. This is Located at the Island South, overlooking beaches to the skyline of Doha. It is developed in a series of semi circular apartment groupings in progressive step down from 7 storeys to 1 storey.
Generally, there are over 700 apartments in one, two and three bedrooms. The architecture emphasizes the façade diversity. The Pearl-Qatar’s main harbor, Porto Arabia combines towers and townhouses. The Pearl’s Project first phase is set around a waterfront which is called La Croisette 2.5 kilometer pedestrian concourse lined with upscale shopping and phd thesis on management accounting dining (Porto Arabia, The Pearl-Qatar). Planning Essay! The elevations designs are inspired by the French: Monaco and Provence; Italian: Tuscan and Florentine; and Spanish: Catalan and Andalusia. The tower residences offer apartments with one to four bedroom homes or penthouses, fitness amenities, and home automation systems. Townhouses are available with one to four bedrooms direct marina views. Both are close to all dining and entertainment facilities. Porto Arabia is characterized by a boulevard-style café culture. The focal point is the Arabian Piazza, with international blend of chic retail and dining. It provides luxury vehicle dealerships and bespoke jewelers to fresh-from-the-catwalk designer wear (Porto Arabia, The Pearl-Qatar).
Porto Arabia will be the plan teaching writing a research paper, home of planning philosophy residential towers lining a Riviera-like boardwalk around the 400-boat slip marina. The bustling quayside is kindred destined to become a cruising base, as well as a convenient spot to board exclusive boats, serving every corner of The Pearl-Qatar. The centre of Porto Arabia is philosophy essay Ras Croisette, with late-night restaurants and lounges. Plan Teaching Paper! At the very heart of Porto Arabia lies the Marsa Arabia Island. Accessed via a causeway, this ‘island-within-an-island’ will feature an exclusive Four Seasons hotel serving Qatar’s business and planning philosophy essay leisure travelers. Taxi and ferry services will be available to virtually all parts of The Pearl, as well as to various parts of Doha (Porto Arabia, The Pearl-Qatar). 31 Mediterranean-style towers with a total of essay 4,800 units 437 townhouses and philosophy essay low-rise terrace apartments 1,000,000 square feet of leas-able retail and commercial spaces 14,514 parking spaces 320 retail units 3.63 kilometer corniche ‘La Croisette Boulevard’ 785-berth marina. Porto Arabia is the archetype of Riviera Arabia living acting as the home to an essay the main harbor of The Pearl Qatar.
It combines townhouses and elegant towers in a magnificent location. Planning Essay! Porto Arabia is on management accounting characterized with a lively promenade It houses a huge collection of prominent fashion brands and high-class beverage and food outlets. Port Arabia has captured the pulsating sophistication of the Riviera. It is a colorful conducive and planning essay refined establishment with high standards of living. It is literature research paper rubric a continental harbor beating to the Arabian rhythm (http://www.udcqatar.com/English/OurVentures/ThePearlQatar/Pages/default.aspx). Every home in planning philosophy Porto Arabia has aspects facing the sea with most of them directly overlooking the picturesque harbor (Travel-Wise pt 2, Porto Arabia). All the homes feature luxurious amenities and teaching paper an environment that is purely Mediterranean. There is a lot of philosophy essay plant cover within the compound and around the car parks. The trees are planted in lines round the buildings towards the beaches. There are many other vegetation coverings on american research paper rubric the land mainly to prevent erosion and make the reclaimed land firm.
These are mainly grass and some trees in part. The vegetation cover also includes beautiful flowers and palm trees planted in strategic positions for anchorage and philosophy aesthetic value (Travel-Wise pt 2, Porto Arabia). General design comprises of both ancient and essay when i got modern architectural outfits representing a variety of culture and philosophy values. Each tower has its own pool and garden which makes the place very pleasant. There is strategically placed furniture for each tower where occupants can rest and have a panoramic view of the region. The design and construction was faced with some challenge. The impact of the establishment of the artificial island on the local marine ecology is a growing concern for environmentalists. As rising sea levels from global climate change could result in creating problems for these investments. It is on mothers feared and planning philosophy essay considered an essay prompts, irony the very people who drive rising levels of the philosophy essay, sea through their businesses emitting much of the greenhouse gases while it will certainly be some of the first to essay lost encounter the destructive effects of climate change. Construction activity is damaging the marine habitat, burying coral reefs, oyster beds and subterranean fields of philosophy essay sea grass, threatening local marine species as well as other species dependent on them for food.
Environmentalists' concerns about the of economic series, present state of Dubai's waters are not without warrant. Coral reefs and their associated mangrove and sea grass habitats function on varied levels, providing a number of integral services. Among these values are the essay, provision of food and unit plan writing shelter for a wide range of planning marine species, the protection of coastal regions from storms, the prevention of coastal erosion and literature the support of commercial fishing and planning essay recreational activities. The health of the american research paper, coral reefs has been in a state of continuous decline over the past 50 years. The Arabian Gulf is one of the most grievously affected areas, with recent estimates of habitat loss pegged at philosophy 35 percent.
Increases in temperature and salinity have previously been attributed as the leading factors in when reef habitat degradation, but the new pressure from dredging serves only to exacerbate the declining state of the environment. Having knowledge of these threats, the Pearl Qatar project has not gone without responding to the environmental concerns by providing some remedial measures even though their effectiveness is yet to be validated. These include: avoiding the use previous methods used elsewhere in the Gulf to reclaim land; the essay, construction of a coffer dam (or bund) around the essay, development to ensure that all dredging run off was captured and the re-vegetation of the once disturbed sea grass beds. The climate in Pearl Qatar is closely related to the climate of the larger Qatar. The earlier months of the philosophy, year, January and February are among the coolest recording a temperature of around 22 0 Celsius. This however changes as from May when the temperatures rise to around 40 0 Celsius. This hot spell continues until September when they again drop to thirties.
There is precipitation throughout the year although it is not of any significant amount. Generally, Pearl Qatar leans towards desert climatic conditions that are characteristic of most Middle Eastern countries. The residences in the Pearl Qatar are prone to phd thesis on management hot weather conditions, and essay this is why the developers have made an effort to include cooling system in each and an essay every building that is on the island.
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essay on stalingrad By mid 1942, the German invasion had already cost Russia over six million soldiers, half killed and half captured by the Germans, and a large part of its vast territory and philosophy resources. With the help of its arctic winter, it stopped the prompts exhausted Germans just before Moscow and pushed them back a bit. But in the summer of 1942, when Russia was still very weak from planning its tremendous losses, the German military was again ready to demonstrate its formidable fighting force. Hitler's Generals wanted to attack in the direction of Moscow again, in research paper, order take Russia's capital city, its heart and philosophy essay nerve center, and to crush most of Russia's remaining military forces while doing so, but Hitler now personally commanded the German army, and he listened to his Generals much less than before.
In April 1942, Hitler issued war directive 41, which detailed his plan for the Russian front for summer 1942, code named Operation Blue. The plan was to concentrate all available forces in the southern flank of the literature research paper long front, destroy the essay front line Russian forces there, and then advance in two directions to the primary and secondary objectives, which were the literature paper rubric two most important remaining industrial centers in South Russia: Advance far South-East, through the mountainous Caucasus region, to capture the rich oil fields on philosophy essay, the Caspian Sea. Advance East, to Stalingrad, a major industrial and harvard institute of economic research paper transportation center on the West bank of the wide Volga river, the main waterway of inner Russia, that runs all the way from North of Moscow to the Caspian Sea in the South. It's important to essay note that Hitler's directive did not demand to occupy the city of Stalingrad. The directive was to kindred reach Stalingrad itself, or at philosophy least to cover it with heavy artillery, so that it will no longer be an industrial or transportation center. The German army achieved this objective with minimal losses in the first day of the battle of Stalingrad. It was the stubborn battle to phd thesis accounting occupy the planning essay city itself to on mothers the last ruined meter, and later Hitler's refusal to retreat from essay Stalingrad, that cost him his entire southern campaign, and horrible losses to both sides. Once his forces entered the city named after Stalin, the Soviet dictator and Hitler's arch enemy, Hitler became obsessed with occupying Stalingrad, and remained obsessed with it despite everything, until the prompts large German force in philosophy essay, and near Stalingrad was destroyed to the last man. The German attack in South Russia began on June 28, 1942, a year after the invasion of unit writing a research paper, Russia began. The Germans advanced rapidly in a Blitzkrieg of armor and air power, and were followed by their Italian, Romanian, and Hungarian allies, whose task was to secure the planning essay long German flanks. The Russian front collapsed and the Germans rapidly advanced towards South Russia's last natural line of defense, the Volga.
On July 28, 1942, in a desperate attempt to stop the collapse, Stalin issued order 227 that every granule of Soviet soil must be stubbornly defended to the last drop of blood., and secret police units were placed behind the Russian front units to kill anyone who deserts or retreats. However, order 227 also appealed to the Russian patriotism, clarifying how severe the situation was. Despite their effort, the Russian 62nd and 64th armies West of Stalingrad could not stop the advancing Germans before the prompts city. The empty arid prairie was perfect for attack, and they were pushed back towards Stalingrad, which was an urban stretch along the West bank of the Volga. On August 23, 1942, the spearhead of the German 6th army reached the Volga just North of Stalingrad and essay captured a 8km wide strip along the river bank, and the German tanks and artillery began to sink crossing ships and ferries.
On that day, other units of the 6th army reached the outskirts of Stalingrad, and the hundreds of bombers and dive bombers of the Luftwaffe's 4th air fleet began to heavily bombard the city, and accounting would continue to do so daily for planning philosophy essay weeks, destroying or damaging every building in the city. The battle of Stalingrad began. The ferocious urban battle in Stalingrad. In the first days of the harvard institute of economic series fighting, the Germans were confident that although Stalingrad's defenders fought fanatically from the beginning, they will quickly occupy the city. From the Russian side things didn't look better. There were initially 40,000 troops in planning philosophy essay, Stalingrad, but mostly ill-equipped reserve soldiers and those of the local population who were not evacuated, and kindred essay it was assumed that Stalingrad might be lost in planning essay, a few days. Unit Teaching Writing Paper? It was desperately clear to the Russian leadership that the only thing which could still save Stalingrad from falling, is planning philosophy, a superb commander with a combination of the highest military skill and an iron will, and every possible reinforcement. Actually two such commanders were selected and given the task of saving Stalingrad:
In the national level, Stalin ordered General Zhukov to leave the Moscow front and simply go to South Russia and save what he can. Zhukov, the best and most influential Russian General of narrative essay i got lost, World War 2, practically served as Stalin's military crisis solver. In the planning essay local level, General Vasily Chuikov , the deputy commander of the 64th army South of kindred, Stalingrad, and an aggressive and determined commander, was called to the regional command post. The severe situation was presented to him, and he was appointed the new commander of the Russian 62nd army, which still held most of Stalingrad. Before he left, he was asked How do you interpret your mission?. Chuikov's answer was We will defend the city or die . His personal leadership during the following months, which projected catching determination and fatalism to Stalingrad's defenders, shows that he meant it.
When General Chuikov came to Stalingrad, the 62nd army already lost half of its troops, and it was clear to its soldiers that it became a death trap, and philosophy essay many tried to teaching a research escape across the planning essay Volga. General Chuikov knew that the only way to keep holding Stalingrad was to buy time with blood. Stalingrad's defenders were informed that the secret police guards all crossing points on the Volga, and everyone crossing the river without permission will be shot on the spot. In addition, a stream of fresh reinforcements, including elite units, began to arrive and cross the Volga under German fire into Stalingrad. Most were killed, but they enabled Chuikov to keep holding at least part of Stalingrad despite the tremendous German pressure. The average life expectancy of a reinforcement soldier in Stalingrad was as low as 24 hours . Whole units were sacrificed in Stalingrad's desperate defense. One unit which perhaps sacrificed most in the battle of Stalingrad was the elite 13th Guards division, which was sent across the Volga into Stalingrad just in time to american literature research repel a German attack that reached the Volga near the center of the planning city. 30% of the 10,000 warriors of the 13th division were killed in the first 24 hours of their arrival, and only 320 survived the battle of harvard of economic research research, Stalingrad, a horrible 97% death rate, but they saved Stalingrad in planning philosophy essay, the most critical moment.
The concentration of forces and harvard institute of economic paper the intensity of the fighting in Stalingrad was unprecedented, with divisions attacking along a front line just a mile wide, or less. General Chuikov had to move his command post in the city from place to place to avoid being killed or captured, usually in the last possible moments. Just sending more reinforcements to replace the planning essay dead was not enough. In order to reduce losses, Chuikov's strategy was to narrow the gap between the Russian positions and the German positions to american literature research the absolute minimum, so close that the German Stuka dive bombers will not be able to drop their bombs on philosophy essay, the Russian positions without risking the German soldiers. As a result, the fighting in Stalingrad was reduced to an endless series of narrative when i got lost, small battles for every street, every building, every floor, and sometimes for every room in a building. Some key positions in Stalingrad changed hands up to fifteen times during the battle, with terrible bloodshed.
The Russians had an advantage in night fighting among the ruined buildings and factories, sometimes using just knives or grenades instead of guns. Planning? The ruined city was a perfect killing zone for a large number of snipers, of phd thesis on management accounting, both sides, including the head of the German army's sniper school who was sent to Stalingrad to hunt the Russian snipers and was killed by one of them. Planning Essay? Some highly successful Russian snipers became famous heroes. One of them killed 224 Germans by mid November. The Russians nicknamed the city the Stalingrad street fighting academy. They also starved most of the time, because the German artillery made crossing the Volga so dangerous that what was shipped across the river was mostly more soldiers and ammunition, not food. Many Russian soldiers were killed while crossing the river to Stalingrad or while being evacuated back after being wounded in an essay, the city. The German advantage in planning essay, heavy fire by tanks and dive bombers was gradually matched by Russian artillery reinforcements of all types, from mortars to rocket launchers, which were concentrated East of the Volga, where the an essay on mothers German tanks could not sweep them, and were protected from the Stuka dive bombers by many anti aircraft guns. The Russian Air Force also significantly increased its attacks, with much more aircraft than before and better trained pilots.
For the soldiers and philosophy few remaining civilians in Stalingrad, life, while they lasted, were an endless hell of gunfire, explosions, the kindred yell sounds of dive bombers and planning philosophy essay Katyusha rockets, smoke, dust, rubble, hunger, the smell of death everywhere, and exhaustion and fear. It was like that day after day and week after week, and it also significantly raised disease rate. At the end of October 1942, the Russians held only a narrow strip and some isolated pockets in when i got, Stalingrad, and the Germans tried one more major attack in an attempt to planning take it before winter, but the exhaustion and rising shortage of ammunition stopped them, but fighting continued. Hitler, increasingly frustrated with the standstill, pushed more divisions closer to Stalingrad and into the city, further weakening the long German flanks in the empty prairies West and South of paper series, Stalingrad. He assumed that the philosophy essay Russians were consuming their last remaining reserves and that therefore a massive Russian attack in the German flanks was not expected. He was wrong. The Germans again underestimated the Russian resources. The continued weakening of the plan German flanks behind Stalingrad, as more and more German units were pushed to the city, was the anticipated opportunity for which General Zhukov prepared since the battle of Stalingrad began. Also, like in the battle of planning, Moscow a year before, the harsh Russian winter returned, sharply reducing the German army's mobility and observation capabilities. General Zhukov planned and prepared a massive Russian counter attack, code named operation Uranus, that would attack the american research rubric German flanks at their two weakest points, 100 miles West of Stalingrad, and 100 miles South of it.
The two Russian forces will meet far Southwest of Stalingrad and planning essay encircle the entire German 6th army near Stalingrad and cut its supply lines. It was a classic large scale Blitzkrieg plan, except that this time the Russians will do it to the Germans. Zhukov's goal was to win not just battle of Stalingrad but the entire campaign in South Russia. The Russian preparations covered every operational and narrative logistical aspect. In maximum secrecy, over a million Russian soldiers were gathered, now greatly outnumbering the philosophy essay Germans, and 14,000 heavy artillery guns, 1000 T-34 tanks, and 1350 aircraft. Zhukov prepared a giant surprise attack, and when the a research paper Russian concentrations were finally noticed by the Germans at the end of philosophy, October, it was almost too late to do anything, but the disbelief at the German side, and Hitler's obsession, prevented them from an essay on mothers significantly responding. Planning Essay? When the German chief of staff suggested to abandon Stalingrad to shorten the German lines, Hitler shouted I will not abandon the Volga!.
The Russian counter attack began on on management, November 19, 1942, three months after the battle of Stalingrad began. It was the first fully prepared Russian attack in World War 2, and planning philosophy it was a great success. When Lost? The Russians attacked the sectors of the German flanks held by the 3rd and 4th Romanian armies. The Russians knew, from planning philosophy interrogating kidnapped POWs, that the Romanian forces had the lowest morale and least supplies. Under the sudden pressure of the massive Russian artillery and advancing tank columns, the Romanian lines collapsed within hours, and after two days the unit paper Romanians surrendered. Essay? German units moved to face the essay i got advancing Russians, but it was too late, and in four days the two spearheads of the Russian pincer movement met each other about 100km West of Stalingrad. The entire German 6th army was now trapped in philosophy essay, and near Stalingrad. To prevent the Germans from breaking the encirclement, the Russians expanded the harvard institute research corridor which separated the 6th army from the rest of the German military to a width of over planning essay 100 miles, and quickly moved 60 divisions and 1000 tanks there.
But instead of breaking out of the encirclement, General von Paulus, the 6th army's commander, was immediately ordered by Hitler to remain in an essay on mothers, his position and planning essay hold it at all cost. Hermann Goering, Hitler's deputy and head of the narrative Luftwaffe, promised Hitler that his Luftwaffe will supply the 6th army, promising to fly 500 tons of supplies per day. Goering did not consult Luftwaffe headquarters about this and it was far beyond its ability, but it was what Hitler wanted to hear. The air supply operation continued until the 6th army's surrender, but it flew less than 100 tons per day, much less than needed, and the Luftwaffe lost 488 cargo aircraft in it. The 6th army quickly ran out of philosophy essay, fuel, ammunition, and food, and the German soldiers starved severely. Only three weeks later, Field Marshal von Manstein's army group finally attacked the Russian barrier on December 12, 1942, but it could not reach the encircled 6th army. The Germans advanced just 60 kilometers in the direction of Stalingrad, before they were pushed back by phd thesis on management a Russian counter attack.
Despite their isolation and starvation, the German 6th army kept fighting, and fortified its positions as much as its could. Hitler demanded that they'll keep on even after it was clear that they will remain isolated after von Manstein's rescue attempt failed. When the planning philosophy essay 6th army rejected an ultimatum to american literature research surrender, the Russians started the final attack to crush it. They estimated the number of essay, besieged Germans at 80,000 while there were over 250,000 encircled Germans. On January 10, 1943, 47 Russian divisions attacked the 6th army from all directions.
Knowing that captivity in an essay on mothers, Russia will be very cruel, the Germans kept fighting a hopeless battle. A week later, the large German pocket was shrunk by half, pushed towards Stalingrad, and only one runway remained in planning philosophy essay, German hands, and it was under fire. On January 22, 1943, the starved, frozen, and exhausted 6th army began to when i got lost collapse. A week later Hitler promoted von Paulus to Field Marshal, and reminded him that no German Field Marshal was ever captured alive, but von Paulus was captured the next day in a cellar in Stalingrad. The results of the battle of Stalingrad. On February 2, 1943, the last German resistance ended. Hitler was furious, accusing von Paulus and Goering for the tremendous losses, instead of accusing himself. The Germans lost almost 150,000 soldiers, and 91,000 more were captured by the Russians.
Only 5,000 of them returned home after years in Russian prison camps. Together with the losses of their Romanian and Italian allies, the German side lost about 300,000 soldiers. The Russians lost 500,000 soldiers and planning essay civilians. In Stalingrad, in addition to its heavy losses, the German army also lost its formidable image of being invincible. Russian soldiers everywhere now knew that they were victorious, and their morale boosted and remained high until the end of the war, which was still 2 1/2 years away. Plan Writing A Research? It boosted British and American morale too. In Germany, the bad news were censored, but eventually they were released and shocked German morale.
It was clear that the battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point of World War 2, that the direction of the war turned against Germany. The happy Stalin promoted Zhukov to Field Marshal. He made himself a Field Marshal too, although he was a civilian. The surviving defenders of Stalingrad could finally leave the destroyed city, and planning essay the 62nd army was renamed a guards army, an harvard research series honor indicating an philosophy essay elite unit. They deserved that honor. General Vasily Chuikov led his men until the end of the phd thesis war, and because of their experience in the Stalingrad street fighting academy, they led the planning essay Russian army into Berlin in 1945, and Chuikov personally received Berlin's surrender in May 1, 1945.