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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the jackson, official style used by the American Psychological Association and ned kelly was a, is commonly used in jackson essay psychology, education, and ned kelly was a hero, other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and jackson, author affiliation. A Thousand Acres! The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to jackson essay, the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the acres essay, page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page.
The title should be at shirley jackson essay, the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and bar exam, lower-case letters. This page should include the title of essay, your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of ned kelly hero essay, what the reader will find in the paper.
In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and shirley, the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an a dissertation journal, example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. The APA style guide also advises writers to essay, avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page.
The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on purchase a dissertation your reference page: If you cited the article in shirley essay your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at purchase a dissertation, the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by jackson essay the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the ned kelly hero essay, reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented.
In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in jackson essay the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. Help! The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. In the case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by jackson listing these references in proposal help chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Jackson Essay! Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of acres essay, information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. Jackson Essay! If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper.
The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in oklahoma essay a way that is clear and easy to understand. Shirley Essay! Basic Rules for papers dna cloning, Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and shirley jackson, , in , of , with , etc.).
For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Ned Kelly Essay! Try to jackson, ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on for assignment a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to shirley jackson essay, the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Was A Hero! Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes.
You should use a font that is shirley essay large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. And Dissertation Help Abstract! Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text.
Instead, mention key highlights and tell the shirley jackson essay, reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Acres Essay! Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Essay! Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level.
Is the table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the statistics, table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the essay, first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number. A Thousand Essay! The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by shirley essay their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available.
Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of papers dna cloning, any other reference. Jackson Essay! However, you do need to include the date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the help, online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in shirley your references whenever possible. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Oklahoma Bar Exam! Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document.
If a DOI is jackson available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
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Restorative Dentistry Essays and shirley essay, Research Papers. loss in research papers the anterior part of the maxillae and mandible in two groups of patients: one group with complete maxillary dentures and mandibular overdentures, and . the other group with complete maxillary and mandibular dentures. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry , 1978, vol 40 ? One group (group 1) of eight patients was treated with overdentures made over endodontically treated mandibular canines. Jackson Essay? ? These canines were reduced to help for assignment, approximately 1.5 mm above the essay, gingival margin, and the occlusal portion. Dentures , Gingiva , Prevention 3187 Words | 87 Pages. offered up to papers dna cloning, saints for the relief of pain. St. Apollonia of Alexandria, 249 A.D., was one such saint. She is now the Patron Saint of . Dentistry . II. Shirley Jackson? Egyptians and Chinese. The first known dentist was an Egyptian named Hesi-Re (3000 B.C.).
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A Career in Dentistry Children are often sweet and adorable, but many times they may be eating too many sweets. According to the Channel . Essay? Four News, it has been shown that the number one disease in hero essay children is the recurrence of caries, also known as cavities. Could it be too many sweets or could it be the shirley jackson essay, lack of bar exam essay statistics 2009 flossing and brushing teeth? For instance, many children go to shirley, bed or wake up without brushing their teeth and go throughout the day eating all sorts of food and acres essay, candy. Shirley Jackson Essay? The result. Dental assistant , Dental implant , Dental therapist 1762 Words | 5 Pages. Laser dentistry is journal a relatively new form of dental care.
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Psychology in dentistry Before I discus the relationship between the psychology and dentistry , we should firstly define the . psychology and dentistry as separated sciences. Bar Exam? The psychology is studying of human behavior. It is divided into two parts; psych: sole and logy: study. Psychology is not only an shirley jackson, academic science that is used by acres, only specific experts but also may be used by normal people. Those people who are old and wise they also psychologists even they don’t had an academic education. Dentistry , Pain , Pain management 1171 Words | 3 Pages.
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Dentistry , Forensic science , Permanent teeth 2619 Words | 7 Pages. ? Restorative Justice Robert Ledferd CJA/244 May 5, 2014 Eric Burke Restorative . Justice Introduction: The two thing that most victims of a crime have in common is that they want to know who committed the crime and why. Jackson? In addition many victims may desire to meet and confront the offender to dna cloning, get some closure or justice. In some cases this is made possible via restorative justice process. This process is all about bringing the victim and the offender. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 621 Words | 4 Pages. England. The aim of the review is to provide advice to the Government on how NHS dentistry could “become more accessible and jackson essay, efficient, be . delivered to a higher quality and be more preventively focused”(1). Professor Steele and his review team did this by determining the problems in NHS dentistry , reviewing the core principles of the NHS and how they apply to dentistry and oklahoma bar exam statistics, finally once there is a clear picture of NHS dentistry and its pros and cons from multiple viewpoints was obtained the jackson essay, review team. Dental implant , Dentistry , Health care 1569 Words | 4 Pages.
This list contains reference material recommended in Faculties of Dentistry . 1. American Academy of Periodontology. Glossary of periodontal . terms. 4th ed. Chicago: American Academy of Periodontology; 2001. *2. Anusavice KJ, Phillips RW. Essay? Phillips' science of dental materials. 11th ed. St. Louis: W.B. Essay? Saunders; 2003.
3. Acres? Aschheim KW, Dale BG. Esthetic dentistry : a clinical approach to techniques and materials. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2001. 4. Ash MM, Nelson SJ. Wheeler's dental anatomy, physiology. Dental implant , Dental restoration , Dentistry 1339 Words | 4 Pages.
Dentistry and shirley jackson, Southeast Asian Country. invite feedback: Personal Statement of Purpose for was a hero essay entering into a quality DDS/DMD Program with a qualified American University Applicant name: Dr. ***** . ***** It is little wonder that my feet were placed on the path to serving others through Dentistry . Growing up in [Southeast Asian country], my father owned a dental clinic, one I would visit every Friday after school. Shirley Jackson? While we emigrated to the US in 19**, my ****** and ******, the Head Dentist, run a dental clinic in [Metropolitan City in Southeast. Dental implant , Dentistry , Oral and maxillofacial surgery 754 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- DENTAL • MATERIALS * Study of physical and chemical properties of the metallic and for assignment, non-metallic . materials used in shirley dentistry OBJECTIVES 1. In order to abstract, know the basic physical and chemical properties as they are related to its manipulation by the dentist. Jackson? 2. To bridge the gap between the knowledge obtained in the basic courses like chemistry, physics and its relation… Physical properties: hardness, strength, brittleness Chemical. Chemical substance , Chemistry , Dental materials 2057 Words | 10 Pages. Dental Implants Prosthetics Market Worth $10,562.2 Million by 2016.
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This report will give an explanation of the restorative justice process, identifying the crime, the jackson essay, effect the crime had that went beyond the harm it inflicted on purchase a dissertation journal the victim. In. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminology 1371 Words | 7 Pages. Cosmetic Dentistry This . morning I woke up and shirley essay, looked in the mirror and noticed that my teeth were not as white as I like them to ned kelly hero essay, be. I think to myself, I need to call and make an appointment to get my teeth whitened with my dentist. Teeth whitening is an example of Cosmetic Dentistry . Essay? Cosmetic Dentistry is different than regular dentistry in the sense that regular dentistry deals with. Cosmetic dentistry , Dental implant , Dental restoration 1479 Words | 4 Pages.
Application Essay: General Dentistry Program. ?An attempt to decrypt the inner workings of dentistry , the development of oral health - every research project I've worked on was a hero essay in my . Shirley? undergraduate years has got me excited about the vast potential opportunity trapped in Dental Sciences. But every one of these times, I've faced a formidable challenge: the intricacy and complexity of dentistry itself. The chaos of molecular motion forms the journal, basis for jackson essay a remarkably well-organized biological system, whose actual mechanisms are only now being highlighted. Dental implant , Dental surgery , Dentistry 925 Words | 3 Pages. Restorative Justice Introduction to Criminal Court Systems - CJA 224 January 20, 2014 Michael S. Acres Essay? Hudson . Restorative Justice Other than the shirley essay, conventional Criminal Justice process there is a new way to handle crime called the Restorative Justice program. This program exists only in help certain cities throughout the United States.
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The process of restorative justice necessitates. Crime , Criminal law , Criminology 1154 Words | 4 Pages. Restorative Justice Restorative Justice is an alternative to the traditional system. Even though restorative . justice will never replace the traditional system, it has a balanced focus on the person harmed, the person causing the harm and the affected community, rather than just the papers dna cloning, crime through the shirley jackson, eyes of the law. Restorative Justice is always voluntary for a dissertation the victims, and the offenders have to be willing to cooperate and they have to want to jackson, do this. Hero? Restorative Justice is a forward-looking.
Crime , Criminology , Restorative justice 1653 Words | 5 Pages. ?Brianna Register June 8, 2014 Restorative Justice What is shirley jackson Restorative Justice? Restorative Justice is a . Proposal And Dissertation Abstract? theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused or revealed by criminal behavior. Restorative Justice is used to bring people together to agree on shirley how to respond to crime, this action is called encounter conception of restorative justice. Restorative Justice focuses on many of things these are just a couple of things: Harm Individuals most affected by the crime Responsibility. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 784 Words | 2 Pages. Restorative Justice Restorative justice is a phrase that is ned kelly known only in small, concentrated pockets of the United States and . other parts of the world. It is well known in jackson essay alternative dispute resolution circles and in juvenile courts.
Restorative justice, versus punitive justice, aims to heal, restore and reconcile, while punitive justice seeks punishment and revenge. Examples of restorative justice are, healing circles, transformational justice, transformative mediation, some collaborative. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1086 Words | 4 Pages. Restorative justice In the restorative justice (RJ) city case study; Ed, David, and Mildred, had an unusual encounter. Was A? In . this story about two young men breaking into a women’s home and violating her rights. In RJ city were this crime took place, the city has a very unique way of dealing with crime by jackson essay, using restorative justice. The restorative justice process emphasizes on repairing harm that is cause by crime. This repair includes the victim, the offender, and the members of the community. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1204 Words | 3 Pages. Restorative and Restitutive Systems of Justice. T.B.T JOHN 200903179 SOC127: INTRODUCTION TO PENOLOGY TERM PAPER CAN RESTORATIVE JUSTICE REPLACE THE EXISTING SYSTEMS OF JUSTICE?
What . is Restorative Justice ? Restorative justice is a way of help thinking about crime and conflict. It is not a particular practice or type of program, but rather a philosophy, or a set of principles. The United Nations Working Group on Restorative Justice defines it in the following way: a process whereby parties with a stake in a particular offence resolve collectively. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 2146 Words | 7 Pages. Restorative Justice Within the Aboriginal Concept. Restorative justice is a framework for juvenile justice reform that seeks to engage victims, offenders and their families, other citizens, and . community groups both as clients of juvenile justice services and as resources in shirley jackson an effective response to youth crime. It focuses on the needs of the victims and the offenders, as well as the involved community, instead of satisfying abstract legal principles or punishing the and dissertation abstract, offender. Victims take an active role in the process, while offenders are encouraged. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1602 Words | 4 Pages. Synthesizing social justice and restorative justice.
Social Justice Synthesis Paper Three major themes that we have talked about so far are where can we find/see God, the beneficial effects of . restorative justice, and shirley, helping a cause not only for the effects of charity, but also for the effects of justice. First, in class, we talked about how we can find and see God in the Biblical foundations and in the Sacraments. Many of research papers dna cloning us discussed our “images of God”. For me, my image of God is on a very personal level. Although I have only ever attended. Catholic Church , Catholic social teaching , Crime 1022 Words | 3 Pages. Job Analysis and jackson essay, Job Specification. OF THE POSITION Dentists are healthcare professionals who provide preventive and and dissertation abstract, restorative treatments for problems that affect the mouth . and teeth.
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Some . For Assignment? polymers contain only shirley jackson, one type of monomer and others can be made from a combination of two or more different monomers. Polymers can be synthetic (produced by humans) or natural. Polymers that can be heated and molded into and dissertation help abstract specific shapes and shirley jackson essay, forms are commonly known as plastics. All plastics are synthetic polymers. Adhesives, chewing gum, and polystyrene are also. Branching , Dentistry , Elastomer 467 Words | 4 Pages. Restorative Justice is proposal and dissertation help a theory that emphasizes repairing the harm that has been caused by shirley, criminal behavior 1. (John Stuart Mill, . Utilitarianism,2010).
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Universal precaution for the prevention of disease transmission as recommended by jackson essay, the CDC.(Centre of. Dental assistant , Dental implant , Dental surgery 1244 Words | 6 Pages. EXPERIMENT D8 SHADE TAKING AND RECORDING Introduction Historically, shade taking has comprised of was a hero a combination of art, science and, unfortunately, . luck. Relying on the science of dentistry , dental professionals have continued to shirley essay, advance in the field of aesthetic dentistry (Avery 2005, p. 54). Characteristics occurring in proposal help abstract natural teeth complicate the selection of shirley essay a matching shade (Dental Abstracts 2009, p. A Thousand? 244).
Shade taking encompasses a number of variables and also a delicate balance. American Dental Association , Color , Dentistry 933 Words | 4 Pages. 96811 Phone: (808) 587-3521 (V) (808) 692-7182 (TTY) Provides a Medicaid fee-for-service dental program for Medicaid eligible persons. Dentist must be . a Medicaid provider. Jackson? The emergency benefits will not be counted against the $500.00 restorative preventative benefit limit or the essay, $1000.00 denture benefit. If you are enrolled in the medical assistance program, call the dental coordinator at (866) 486-8030 who will assist you in locating a participating dentist.
Hawaii Dental Association . Dental hygienist , Dental implant , Dental therapist 550 Words | 3 Pages. ABSTRACT A systematic review was performed on essay studies investigating current issues in implant dentistry . The Journal of Dental Research and . Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and acres essay, Endodontology were searched from 2004 to 2010 using ScienceDirect. Criteria for inclusion included: (1) studies of implant placement; (2) observations regarding permanent dentures; (3) data considering bone-to-implant healing; and (4) results of implant procedures in elderly patients. This electronic. Dental implant , Dentistry , Oral and maxillofacial surgery 2961 Words | 8 Pages. Restorative Justice: Victim Offender Reconciliation Programs.
? Restorative Justice Nathan Garrigan CRJ340/ Restorative and Community Based Justice January 25, 2013 Patricia Goforth . Jackson Essay? Restorative Justice Restorative justice has been gaining ground since 197 when it was used in a case in papers Canada. This practice allows the victim to meet face to face with the offender and essay, possibly release some anger and move on from the incident. After gaining more ground, today we see Victim Offender Reconciliation Programs across the country trying to help for assignment, help victims after a crime. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 779 Words | 5 Pages. Review of the exhibit at essay the Art and Science of Medicine Exhibition at the science museum. at was dentistry as I was intrigued how the technology and use of instruments has changed over the years. In addition, last year as part of oklahoma bar exam essay 2009 one . of my university placements I decided to work in a dentist for duration of a month, therefore I am familiar with the instruments which are used today, so I was interested in how they have developed. When I visited the Art and Science of Medicine Exhibition the dentistry section was mostly in one section which focused on shirley essay the development of dentistry from was a, the. 20th century , American Dental Association , Dental implant 1043 Words | 3 Pages.
Restorative Justice and essay, the Criminal Justice System. Restorative Justice 1 Running Head: RESTORATIVE JUSTICE Restorative Justice and proposal, the Criminal Justice . System Jeffrey A. McGhee PSF5002 Survey of Public Safety Issues, Theory and Concepts 501 West Northern Parkway Baltimore, Maryland 21210 Telephone: 410-323-7452 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Instructor: Kenneth Szymkowiak Restorative Justice 2 The modern field of restorative justice developed in shirley the 1970’s from a thousand acres, case experiments in several communities with a proportionately. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1844 Words | 7 Pages. Qualitative And Quantitative Problem Statements Res 722 Adw. one qualitative problem statement and one quantitative problem statement as they relate to two problems in shirley jackson the field of dentistry . Qualitative . Research Papers Dna Cloning? Problem Statement The importance of teaching the shirley essay, business of dentistry to dentists in dental school. The results show that student opinion coincided with faculty belief on acres only one question in the set dealing with the advantages of shirley essay dentistry (Johnson, 1970). Dentists attend school to learn the clinical aspects. Often they are not taught the administrative parts.
Dentistry , Psychology , Qualitative research 688 Words | 4 Pages. very good grade that allowed me to enter the faculty of dentistry , Ibb University. After completing a high school studying, I took several . courses in help English, and computer also TOEFL preparation. (During the year between high school and starting studying dentistry ) After five years of studying dentistry . I graduated from Ibb University, Faculty of Dentistry in the academic session 2010-2011. I was awarded a Bachelor's degree in Dentistry with major in General with an shirley essay, overall grade of Good (71. Dental implant , Dentistry , Facial trauma 2410 Words | 7 Pages. Components of Orthodontist An orthodontist is a dentist who specializes in correcting crooked teeth and treating facial alignment using methods such as . Research Papers? braces, retainers and headgear. The position requires further education and training than general dentistry , and jackson, according to PayScale.com, it pays from research dna cloning, $90,000 to $164,848 per year in the United States, as of 2009. Orthodontists are very skilled workers when it comes to straightening teeth because “A winning smile is related to job and personal respect”. Dental braces , Dentistry , Orthodontics 1712 Words | 5 Pages. phase. The pre dental phase prepares candidates for advanced courses in the field of dentistry . Post dental works prepares candidates for . Jackson Essay? practice in the field.
To conclude the training candidates must pass a licensing examination for the state they wish to work in. Precaution Before enrolling in pre dental education, possible candidates should read, advise, and ascertain their selves thoroughly that dentistry is indeed the vocation of choice. Who/When/Where Any student in essay statistics high school. American Dental Association , Dental implant , Dentistry 571 Words | 3 Pages. These physical traces frequently include blood and other bodily fluids, hair, fibers, and shirley jackson, even bite marks. Here we will focus our attention to research dna cloning, the latter, . Jackson? as it applies to the field of forensic science referred to and dissertation abstract, forensic odontology or forensic dentistry . Forensic odontology is the field of forensic science dealing with the recognition of unique attributes present in essay each individual's dental composition.
This branch of purchase a dissertation forensics relies heavily on essay extensive and detailed knowledge of the teeth. Dental Records , Dental surgery , Dentistry 1144 Words | 4 Pages. that play a role with dentistry , (5) discuss professional obligations according to Ozar’s Three Models of Professionalism, (6) answer multiple . choice questions based on the ADA Code of Ethics 1992 and purchase, the Washington Dental Practice Act of 1993, (7) identify common ethical and legal problems in dentistry in Washington state, (8) understand general and role-specific obligations, (9) describe a dentist’s duties toward patients, (10) understand paternalism and its role in dentistry , (11) understand the. Animal testing , Dental implant , Dentistry 1184 Words | 4 Pages. growing and will always have a need and a demand for employment. This demand is growing with the world around us more people are care more and more about essay . their looks and how they look to oklahoma essay, the world.
There will all ways be a need for an orthodontist / dentistry . With every conversation starting with a smile and every word ending with a nice whit grin people will always won’t to find ways to make their teeth brighter, and straighter the gap is out now it’s all about shirley felling confident and looking confident. Corporation , Dental assistant , Dentistry 1071 Words | 3 Pages. mj Decision-support systems in a dissertation journal dentistry SC White Decision-support systems hold a specialized body of knowledge in shirley computerized form . such that the non- specialist can obtain expert-level information. The goal of these systems in clinical sciences is usually to assist patient care by providing the clinician with improved diagnosis or treatment planning. Decision-support systems consist of papers dna cloning three components: the user interface through which the clinician or patient enters signs or symptoms, the. Clinical decision support system , Decision support system , Decision theory 879 Words | 3 Pages. ?Chapter 1 Dental Patient Record Management System for shirley jackson College of Dentistry of Lyceum-Northwestern University Background of the Study In . today’s modern age where computer has become a way of life, it is evident that a majority of the country’s institutions still do not adapt the best and oklahoma essay, latest computer in the market. Particularly in the dental field, most of the dental facilities are still using paper sheets to record the information of a patient or a client.
Most of the modern dental facilities. Dental implant , Dentistry , Gramophone record 877 Words | 7 Pages. Analysis of The Planners by Cheng. any art in this new, industrial area would “stain” it, and be unwanted. Another way Cheng uses language to express his feelings is through the use of . metaphor. A metaphor of shirley jackson medicine is extended throughout the oklahoma bar exam 2009, poem, in jackson essay particular dentistry . “The country wears perfect rows of abstract shining teeth.” This phrase conveys an almost sinister sense of aggression in essay the use of the word “teeth”, and uses the general fear or dislike of the dentist to affect the reader’s view of the.
Aesthetics , Bee Gees , Dentistry 437 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dentist Information More Information Links YANG, PETER, DDS INC SALINAS FAMILY DENTISTRY 11 Maple St Ste E Salinas, CA 93901-3249 Telephone: . 831-753-6598 Distance: 0.65 miles away ***called left message only open wed fri DENTI-CAL MEDI-CAL DENTAL PROGRAM Accepts New Patients: Y Specialty: General Dentistry Languages Spoken: Spanish Can Accommodate Special Needs: Y Last Update Date: 2014/12/30 Get driving directions (Redirects to Google Maps) Full profile details Map this result Dentist. Dental implant , Dentistry , Oral and maxillofacial surgery 320 Words | 2 Pages. email@example.com Home address: B-6/02, Himgiri CHS, Sector 3, Sanpada, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India 400705 POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION Institution . Degree Year Field of papers Study Cardiff University, UK Master of Science (MSc) 2011 Tissue Engineering (School of Dentistry ) Thesis: The use of Pulsed Low-Intensity Ultrasound (PLIUS) as a therapy for Cartilage Repair Cardiff University, UK Postgrad Certificate 2011 Biomedical Techniques (School of Medicine) UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION Nov 2009 BDS (Bachelor of Dental Surgery). Cell , Cell biology , Dentistry 1216 Words | 4 Pages.
Dental Care: Prolonged Baby Bottle Feeding: a Health Risk Factor. years of shirley age should not drink more than 16 ounces per day of milk or 4 ounces per day of juice (Story, Holt, Sotfka, 2000). And Dissertation? Nutrition has recommended that . children should not go to sleep with bottles (AAP, 1998). The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry has recommended that an infant oral health evaluation should be performed within 6 months of the eruption of the primary tooth but no later than 12 months of age (AAPD, 1999). From the viewpoint of nurses who examine children in primary care settings. Childhood , Dental caries , Dentistry 1629 Words | 5 Pages.
patient the dental clinic expanded with two modern dental chairs. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objective of jackson this working group was to oklahoma essay statistics, assess and make . Shirley Jackson Essay? specific recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of clinical research in implant dentistry and discuss ways to reach a consensus on choice of outcomes. Was A? BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Many dental procedures are performed in the dental hygiene clinic. The highly skilled and professional staff performs services which include preventive treatment. Dental assistant , Dental hygienist , Dental implant 714 Words | 5 Pages. ? My dream career is shirley being a Dental Assistant. I'm pursuing that by attending LCTI for papers dna cloning Dental Technology. As a senior, I have realized that . all along, the jackson, dentistry field has been one of my many interests. A Thousand? Now that I am 17 and graduating in shirley essay the next couples of months, I have decided that the Dental Assistant is the career pathway that I am most interested in and would like to research papers, pursue further after graduation. Unlike many children, growing up as a child I have always enjoyed going to.
Dental assistant , Dentistry 1044 Words | 3 Pages. ?Lesson 4 Forensic Dentistry Pre-lesson Reading Forensic Science Forensic science is the scientific examination of evidence in a criminal . investigation. Forensic Dentistry or Odontology Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology is a branch of forensic science which deals with the collection, evaluation and shirley essay, proper handling of was a hero dental evidence in order to assist law enforcement officers and to assist in civil and criminal proceedings. Major Services of Forensic Dentistry a) Identification of. Canine tooth , Dentistry , Dentition 1218 Words | 17 Pages. (such as facilities and shirley jackson, equipments, place, procedures, etc.) to deliver higher quality for her patients and purchase a dissertation journal, improve productivity through increase . efficiency. She took her study in a dental school where she thought her a lot of the technical side of dentistry and nothing about the business side. Jackson Essay? She received no formal training in the mechanics of running a business / understanding customer needs. Help? That had not been a problem to Dr.
Beckett since as she started to do her profession and did not have the. Customer , Customer service , Dentistry 2208 Words | 7 Pages. Temporomandibular Joint (Tmj) Syndrome. dizziness, fullness of the ear or ringing of the ear also known as tinnitus. Shirley Jackson Essay? (Muscles of the TMJ, 2010). There is no concrete cure for . temporomandibular joint but there are ways to treat it to help the pain and function. Oklahoma Statistics? The Consumer Guide to Dentistry (2012) website, a dentist would do an examination of the effected area to see what the definite disorder is and a treatment plan would be picked. There is essentially a very small quantity of patients who eventually need surgical treatments. There. Dentistry , Jaw , Joint 1262 Words | 4 Pages. interest.
As a freshman in college, most students don’t know which direction they want to go in, most of them are undeclared. Upon entering CCSU this fall I, . Essay? too, was undeclared; however, very recently I discovered that I wanted to research papers dna cloning, work in the field of jackson essay dentistry . I noted that I wanted to talk to an expert, somebody who had been in the field for many years so I could get a concrete grasp on what a day-in-the-life was like. Proposal? I decided that I wanted to know more on the field and conducted an interview with Lyudmila. Ciara , Dental hygienist , Dentistry 1871 Words | 5 Pages. Dentist Dentistry is the profession in which the dentist helps with the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases and malfunctions. The . dentist performs many duties within their profession. Some duties the shirley essay, dentist may do on a daily basis are: diagnose oral problems, fill cavities, write prescriptions, perform root canals, treat gum disease, examining radiographs, removing root decay, and providing instruction to for assignment, the patients along with many other duties. Becoming a dentist allows for many different. Academic degree , American Dental Association , Dental implant 763 Words | 3 Pages. have had a more functional view of shirley essay teeth and dentistry , whereas Americans have always seen teeth more aesthetically, hence the rise of the . artificial smile in show business and pop culture. While it is starting to be more common to see braces on acres adults, most people opt for quicker solutions.
Dentistry in the UK is jackson a ?5bn market, and the Brithsh Dentistry expects this to rise to help abstract, ?15bn within 10 years, largely fuelled by private cosmetic dentistry . While other dentists are in jackson short supply. Dental implant , Dental surgery , Dentistry 994 Words | 4 Pages.
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A Critical Analysis of Bella Swan. Soon, Bella arrives at school. The very first person to talk to her is a girl named Jessica. Jackson. At this point, nobody knows Bella; she's just the strange new girl from Phoenix. Jessica seems to welcome her with open arms, and acts very friendly toward the oklahoma statistics new girl. Shirley Essay. Jessica introduces Bella to other friends, such as Angela, and gives her a place to sit at lunchtime. Despite the fact that Jessica seems so open and welcoming and friendly, Bella thinks of her as shallow, whiny and annoying automatically. She stereotypes Jessica and labels her from the start, just because Jessica said seemed slightly wistful for a thousand essay, the boy Bella takes a liking to after seeing his beauty from across the cafeteria. Once Bella and Edward become official boyfriend and girlfriend, Bella ignores all of her friends completely. She doesn't speak to them at shirley essay, all, and ignores their general existence. A Thousand Acres Essay. They don't matter; she has a super hot boyfriend now!
Of course, in New Moon, Edward dumps her. For months, she continues to completely disregard her friends. Jackson Essay. When she finally wants to be friends with Jessica again, she is shocked to see that Jessica is reluctant. Of course, Jessica must be a terrible person for ned kelly was a essay, being hesitant at shirley jackson, becoming friends with someone who seems to ignore you most of the time! They go out to the movies, and Bella goes out and puts herself and Jessica both in danger of possible rapists. Now, Jessica could have run away. She could have easily abandoned Bella. At this point, Jessica realized that Bella has been using her.
Most girls would get angry and acres essay, storm off to leave their friend to shirley essay whatever fate awaited them. However, Jessica stayed by acres her side. This is truly loyal and shirley jackson essay, even brave. Naturally, Jessica is angry with Bella for putting her in danger so selfishly. However, Bella is appalled! How dare someone not let her use them!
Isn't that what friends are for help, anyway? So she, once again, disregards Jessica and labels her as a bad friend and as a girl who just wants to be more popular. Jackson. This basically means that she is supposed to be the authors picture of perfection. How many people tell Bella that she is so mature for her age and she is so beautiful and oklahoma bar exam essay, she is jackson so selfless and she is so intelligent and she is just an amazing person in general? Of course, we know better, but this is in help abstract, SMeyer's point of view.
No, clumsiness is jackson essay NOT a character flaw. I think I went over this already? What flaw did SMeyer purposely give to Bella? Loving Edward too much doesn't count, nor does clumsiness, nor does being too loyal or anything like that. I mean a REAL flaw. Examples of real personality flaws in real characters include. Implusive and disregard to the rules for statistics 2009, Harry in Harry Potter. Shallow for Tally in Uglies.
Selfish for Lestat in The Vampire Chronicles. Thoughtless and selfish for Ralph in jackson, Lord of the Flies. Ungrateful for Coraline in Coraline. . and plenty more. Bella possesses no such flaw (on purpose, at least). Come on. Proposal Help Abstract. SMeyer even said so herself; in shirley essay, fact, she's said it directly to her husbands face. Statistics 2009. If Edward or Jacob walked up to the door, she would leave her husband in an instant. Boy, do I feel sorry for that man for jackson essay, having to put up with that woman. Ned Kelly Hero. Take a look at essay, Bella's physical description. Then take a look at a picture of a thousand acres SMeyer.
Similar? Maybe a bit too similar. Shirley Jackson. We are told she gets top grades. We are told she loves reading, especially works that are supposed to seem sophisticated so that Bella seems intelligent. However, do we ever see any proof of her intelligence? Nope.
She's supposed to be beautiful, because that just makes her more perfect, right? Then, she tries to be modest about it. She's supposed to be so selfless (though we know she's quite selfish). She's supposed to a thousand essay be absolutely perfect, to a point where it's fake. She's not truly perfect; she's a Barbie doll. Yes. Absolutely yes. She gets the man of her dreams without even trying. Jackson Essay. She gets the perfect family without even trying. She is admired by hero essay all without even trying. She becomes the most popular girl in school by the end of lunchtime without even trying.
She becomes a vampire, which is exactly what she wants, without working for it at all. She doesn't have to struggle through her newborn phase; she's a natural! She also gets the best baby she can possibly imagine, when vampires can't even have babies! Lucky her! She becomes the most graceful vampire ever! She becomes the most powerful vampire ever!
And she doesn't have to jackson essay lift a finger to get what she wants! Isn't that great? -Needs a man in research papers, her life CONSTANTLY. -Needs a man to stand up for her ALL THE TIME. Shirley Essay. -Happily cooks and cleans for her father who sits around all day watching football and bar exam statistics 2009, drinking. -Acts like a servant to any male who asks it of her. -Edward always wins. Shirley Jackson Essay. Always. Bella doesn't mind though. Bar Exam Essay 2009. He's only looking out for her, right? Some twilight hater does not like my book where I am the jackson essay inspiration for the main charactor and she mocked my sparkling prodigys go forth and slay her my minions. A Thousand Acres. Nah im kidding about jackson essay what was on the website but she just really bugs me you know. Honestly, I was a fan of Twilight until I began seeing its imperfections. And Bella's character really annoyed me, so thank you for posting this article and speaking the truth!
I mean, you pointed out all the flaws in purchase, her character. Seriously, though, thank you for writing this article. You discuss Bella's motivations. Please keep in essay, mind that Bella isn't real, she doesn't have her own motivations! Her motivations are whatever the author chooses them to be. You say This makes me think that maybe Bella isn't moving away for her mother's sake; maybe she's moving to get away from her mother. That makes it sound as though she's a real person who could potentially be hiding her real reasons from the papers dna cloning reader. When Bella needs to use Jess for that girls night out, she isn't shocked when Jessica is reluctant! She knows before she asks her that it's going to be awkward. And she definitely never says that Jessica is a bad person because of her reluctance, I'm not sure where you got that from :( Again, I do not remember Bella ever mentioning that she doesn't talk to her friends because they are unworthy of her company.
I was under the impression that she just isn't incredibly social, combined with a little bit of disinterest. But I certainly didn't think that she disliked them, or though of jackson essay them as unworthy of her time! Granted I haven't read Twilight for a while, but I certainy don't remember Bella thinking that Edward was the only one good enough for her when she first saw him : Could you please quote that part? I also don't remember her basing her opinion of proposal help abstract him on his eyes. You mention that SM may have meant clumsiness as a flaw, but that it doesn't work as one. I assume the shirley jackson reason you're pointing this out is because of Bella's Mary Sue-ism (no flaws=Mary Sue) :) The problem is, Mary Sues are bad is an purchase a dissertation journal opinion, not a fact, so it can't really be used as evidence for why Bella is a bad character :)Personally, I couldn't care less whether or not she's a Mary Sue! I like her :D. Bella only fell in love with Edward because he was good looking, and shirley, Edward is so attracted to was a hero essay her. Scent and keeps going on shirley, about how he loves brunettes ( and not strawberry blondes. - I used to care but now I don't XD) . Research Papers. I used to like twilight until I noticed all the flaws. For a bit I was like a. Total fan girl but honestly people that live in a fantasy like this are quite sad I mean seriously its soooo fake.
Completely unrealistic, imagine if you got married and had your first kid at 18?? Also Edward is pretty shallow. I used to think he was such a deep and interesting character but its really just stereotype prince and its just SM's fantasy that she wanted for herself. Shirley. Also Robert pattison is not nice he's really smug and anti-social but that's just my opinion. However it's shared by proposal and dissertation help Jack Whitehall if you don't like R-Patz search jack Whitehall live at shirley essay, the Apollo and its the least recent 1. Purchase. Also watch twilight sucks if u haven't seen it lol. Shirley Jackson Essay. Sign In or join Fanpop to add your comment.
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colleage essay A SHORT GUIDE TO THE. AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM. The United States is - by size of electorate - the second largest democracy on the globe (India is the largest and Indonesia comes third) and the most powerful nation on shirley essay, earth, politically, economically and militarily, but its political system is in many important respects unlike any other in the world. This essay then was written originally to inform non-Americans as to and dissertation abstract, how the American political system works. What has been striking, however, is how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and insightful. There is considerable evidence that many Americans know and shirley essay, understand little about the papers, political system of their own country - possibly more than is the case with any other developed democratic nation. In the U.S., the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests what American students are learning.
It has found that the two worst subjects for American students are civics and American history. One NAEP survey found that only 7% of eighth graders (children aged 13-14) could describe the three branches of government. On one of my trips to the United States, I was eating cereal for breakfast and found that the whole of the reverse side of the cereal packet was devoted to a short explanation of the shirley jackson, executive, legislative and judicial branches of the journal, American government. I find it hard to imagine that many democratic nations would feel it necessary to shirley, explain such a subject in was a essay such a format. It is probably more importamt than ever than both Americans and non-Americans understand the fundamentals of the American political system because, in Donald Trump, we have a US President who is behaving quite unlike his predecessors and effectively challenging the famed constitutional system of 'checks and balances'. So I hope that this explanation helps . To understand any country's political system, it is helpful to know something of the history of the shirley jackson, nation and the background to ned kelly hero, the creation of the (latest) constitution. But this is a fundamental neccesity in the case of the American political system. This is because the Constitution of the United States is so different from shirley jackson essay those of other nations and because that Constitution is, in all material respects, the same document as it was over two centuries ago. There were four main factors in the minds of the 'founding fathers' who drafted the US Constitution: The United States had just fought and won a bloody War of Independence from Britain and it was determined to create a political system that was totally different from the British system in purchase journal which considerable authority still resided in a hereditary King (George III at the time) or Queen and in which Parliament was increasingly assertive in jackson essay the exercise of its growing powers. Therefore the new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of government - executive, legislature and judiciary - and ensured that each arm was able to limit the acres, exercise of power by the other arms.
The United States was already a large country with problems of communications and shirley, a population of acres essay, varied background and education. Shirley Jackson? Therefore, for all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to limit the influence of swings in public opinion. So the election of the president was placed in the hands of an Electoral College, rather than the subject of direct election, and the terms of oklahoma bar exam essay 2009, office of the president and essay, the two chambers of the legislature were all set at different lengths. The United States was the creation of acres essay, 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and powers, and so the overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to the position of the central government in other nations. Arguably the later Civil War was about states' rights more than it was about slavery and there is still a real tension today between the states and federal government. The original 13 states of the USA were of very different size in shirley jackson terms of population and from the beginning there was a determination by the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in the hands of the larger states. Therefore the papers, Constitution is built on shirley jackson essay, a 'Great Compromise' between the Virginia plan (representation by population) and the New Jersey plan (equal representation for all states) which resulted in the House of Representatives being constructed on help for assignment, the basis of population and the Senate being composed of an jackson equal number of a thousand essay, representatives regardless of essay, population. Hero? This is why today six states have only one member in the House of Representatives but two members in the Senate. Whatever the 'founding fathers' intended, the sheer longevity of the Constitution and the profound changes in America since its drafting means that today the balance of power is not necessarily what the drafters of the Constitution had in mind. So originally the legislature was seen as the most powerful arm of government (it is described first in the Constitution) but, over jackson, time, both the Presidency (starting with the time of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War) and the Supreme Court (especially on hero essay, social issues like desegregation, marriage and abortion) have assumed more power.
Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the American political system is jackson, clearly defined by basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of oklahoma bar exam essay 2009, 1789 form the foundations of the United States federal government. Jackson Essay? The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the federal government. Both documents are on bar exam essay, display in the National Archives and Records Administration Building in Washington, D.C. which I have visited several times. Further information on the thinking expressed in the Constitution can be found in the Federalist Papers which are a series of shirley essay, 85 articles and essays published in 1787-1788 promoting the ratification of the proposal abstract, Constitution. The United States Constitution is both the longest-lasting in the world, being over two centuries old, and the shortest in essay the world, having just seven articles and 27 amendments. Ned Kelly Was A Hero Essay? As well as its age and jackson essay, brevity, the US Constitution is notable for being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in 1789 - the same year as the original constitution - and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in effect part of the original constitutional settlement, there have only been 17 amendments in over 200 years (the last substantive one - reduction of the voting age to 18 - in 1971).
One of the major reasons for this relative immutability is that - quite deliberately on the part of help for assignment, its drafters - the Constitution is a very difficult instrument to change. First, a proposed amendment has to secure a two-thirds vote of members present in shirley both houses of Congress. Then three-quarters of the state legislatures have to ratifiy the research papers, proposed change (this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit). As an indication of how challenging this process is, consider the case of the shirley essay, Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). This was first written in and dissertation 1920, shortly after women were given the vote in the USA. The proposed amendment was introduced in Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from 1923 until it was finally passed in 1972. It was then sent to each state for shirley, ratification but, by 1982, it was still three states short of the minimum of the 38 needed to add it to the constitution. Various attempts since 1982 to revive the amendment have all failed. At the heart of the US Constitution is the principle known as 'separation of powers' , a term coined by the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu.
This means that power is spread between three institutions of the state - the help abstract, executive (President Cabinet), the legislature (House of Representatives Senate) and the judiciary (Supreme Court federal circuits) - and no one institution has too much power and essay, no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This principle is also known as 'checks and balances' , since each of the three branches of the state has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and proposal and dissertation help abstract, has some of its own authority, in turn, regulated by the other branches. Not only is power spread between the shirley jackson, different branches; the help, members of those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change. So the President has a term of four years, while members of the shirley jackson essay, Senate serve for six years and members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Essay Statistics? Members of the Supreme Court effectively serve for life. The great benefit of this system is that power is spread and counter-balanced and the 'founding fathers' - the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution - clearly wished to shirley, create a political system which was in sharp contrast to, and much more democratic than, the monarchical system then in force in Britain. The great weakness of the system is that it makes government slow, complicated and legalistic which is a particular disadvantage in a world - unlike that of essay statistics 2009, 1776 - in which political and shirley essay, economic developments are fast-moving and the USA is a - indeed the - super power. Since the Constitution is so short, so old and so difficult to change, for it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by the courts and ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the Constitution means. There are very different approaches to the interpretation of the Constitution with the two main strands of thought being known as originalism and the Living Constitution . Originalism is a principle of interpretation that tries to a thousand, discover the original meaning or intent of the constitution. It is based on the principle that the judiciary is not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws (which is the realm of the shirley jackson, legislative branch) but only to uphold them. This approach tends to research, be supported by conservatives.
Living Constitution is a concept which claims that the Constitution has a dynamic meaning and that contemporary society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. Instead of seeking to divine the views of the drafters of the document, it claims that they deliberately wrote the Constitution in broad terms so that it would remain flexible. This approach tends to be supported by liberals. Full text of the US Constitution click here. Guide to the US Constitution click here. Constitution Day in the United States click here.
Information on the Federalist Papers click here. What is the Presidency? The President is the head of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. He - so far, the position has always been held by a man - is jackson, both the head of was a hero essay, state and the head of shirley jackson essay, government, as well as the purchase journal, military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat. The President presides over jackson essay, the executive branch of the government, a vast organisation numbering about four million people, including one million active-duty military personnel. The so-called Hatch Act of 1939 forbids anyone in the executive branch - except the President or Vice-President - from using his or her official position to engage in political activity. Who is eligible to become a President? To be President, one has to: be a natural-born citizen of the United States be at and dissertation, least 35 years old have lived in the US for at least 14 years.
How is shirley jackson, a President chosen? The President is elected for a fixed term of acres essay, four years and may serve a maximum of two terms. Originally there was no constitutional limit on essay, the number of terms that a President could serve in office and the first President George Washington set the precedent of serving simply two terms. Following the election of Franklin D Roosevelt to a record four terms, it was decided to limit terms to ned kelly was a essay, two and the relevant constitutional change - the shirley, 22nd Amendment - was enacted in 1951. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the help for assignment, first Monday in November to coincide with Congressional elections. So the last election was held on 8 November 2016 and shirley jackson essay, the next eelction will be held on 3 November 2020.
The President is not elected directly by the voters but by essay, an Electoral College representing each state on the basis of a combination of the number of members in shirley essay the Senate (two for each state regardless of size) and oklahoma bar exam statistics 2009, the number of members in the House of Representatives (roughly proportional to population). Jackson Essay? The states with the largest number of votes are California (55), Texas (38) and New York (29). The states with the smallest number of votes - there are seven of journal, them - have only three votes. The District of Columbia, which has no voting representation in Congress, has three Electoral College votes. In effect, therefore, the Presidential election is not one election but 51.
The total Electoral College vote is 538. This means that, to become President, a candidate has to essay, win at least 270 electoral votes. The voting system awards the Electoral College votes from each state to for assignment, delegates committed to vote for a certain candidate in a winner take all system, with the exception of Maine and Nebraska (which award their Electoral College votes according to Congressional Districts rather than for the state as a whole). In practice, most states are firmly Democrat - for instance, California and New York - or firmly Republican - for instance, Texas and shirley jackson, Tennessee. For Assignment? Therefore, candidates concentrate their appearances and jackson, resources on the so-called battleground states, those that might go to either party. The three largest battleground or swing states are Florida (29 votes), Pennsylvania (20) and oklahoma bar exam essay, Ohio (18). Others include North Carolina (15), Virginia (13), Wisconsin (10), Colorado (9), Iowa (6) and Nevada (6). This system of election means that a candidate can win the largest number of votes nationwide but fail to win the largest number of votes in the Electoral College and therefore fail to become President. Indeed, in practice, this has happened four times in US history: 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016.
On the shirley, last occasion, the losing canidate (Hillary Clinton) actuallu secured 2.9 million more votes than the winning candidate (Donald Trump). If this seems strange (at least to non-Americans), the explanation is that the 'founding fathers' who drafted the American Constitution did not wish to give too much power to the people and dna cloning, so devised a system that gives the jackson, ultimate power of electing the President to members of the was a, Electoral College. The same Constitution, however, enables each state to shirley jackson essay, determine how its members in the Electoral College are chosen and since the 1820s states have chosen their electors by a direct vote of the people. The United States is the only example in the world of an indirectly elected executive president. In the event that the Electoral College is evenly divided between two candidates or no candidate secures a majority of the purchase journal, votes, the constitution provides that the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives and the choice of Vice-President is shirley jackson, made by ned kelly was a, the Senate. In the first case, the representatives of each state have to agree collectively on the allocation of a single vote.
In the essay, second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in purchase 1800 and 1824. In 1800, the House of essay, Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on a thousand, the 36th ballot. In 1824, neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the powers of the President?
Within the executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies. Shirley Jackson Essay? The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and for assignment, is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the jackson, Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the time of Abraham Lincoln (the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order); use of executive orders was considerable and peaked during the purchase journal, terms of the seven presidents from shirley jackson essay Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt (1901-1945); but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President.
The President has the power to recommend measures to Congress and was a, may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress. The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the authority to appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. Shirley Jackson? federal judges, and ambassadors but only journal, with the'advice and consent' of the shirley, Senate which can be problematic especially when the Senate is controlled by a different political party to that of the papers dna cloning, President. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate. The President can declare war for 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress (although it can be difficult to withdraw troops once they have been committed). Since 1939, there has been an Executive Office of the President (EOP) which has consistently and considerably expanded in size and power. Today it consists of some 1,600 staff and costs some $300M a year. Besides the shirley essay, formal powers of the President, there are informal means of exercising influence.
Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to and dissertation, use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for the White House to use to 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to (as at summer 2017) some 32.4 million followers. Add to that his POTUS Twitter account (18.8 million followers), Facebook pages (22.4 million likes and 1.7 million followers), YouTube subscribers (103,000 and 4.3 million), and Instagram (7 million followers). That is a lot of 'bullying'.
Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the 'founding fathers' wanted to avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and more power to the President than is the case for any single individual in most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the office. Shirley Jackson? The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the Senate has the sole power to try all such impeachments. Two U.S. Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson (1868) and Bill Clinton (1999).
Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached (1974). Although the President heads the executive branch of government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by research, Congress to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by the President and approved with the 'advice and shirley jackson essay, consent' of the Senate, form a council of advisors generally known as the President's Cabinet. Was A Essay? This is not a cabinet in the British political sense: it does not meet so often and does not act so collectively. In fact, the President has powers of patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members. Essay? In all, the purchase, President appoints roughly 4,000 individuals to positions in the federal government, of which around 1,200 require the confirmation of the Senate. As the divisions in American politics have deepened, so the essay, confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to wait ten months before all his nominees were in their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from 1789-1797, so that the current President Donald Trump is the 44th to hold the office. A Thousand Acres Essay? However, there have been 45 presidencies. Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th President and therefore was the shirley, only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and was a hero, 1893-1897) and to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents. So far, every US President has been male.
All but one President has been Protestant (the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic) and all but one President has been white (the exception is Barack Obama). On assuming office, the jackson essay, youngest was Theodore Roosevelt (42) and was a essay, the oldest was Donald Trump (70). Four sitting Presidents have been assassinated: Abraham Lincoln in 1865, James A. Garfield in 1881, William McKinley in 1901, and John F. Jackson Essay? Kennedy in 1963. A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. The President is sometimes referred to as POTUS (President Of The United States) and the Presidency is often referred to by the media as variously the White House, the West Wing, and the Oval Office. Such is the respect for the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of help, Vice-President is elected on the same ticket as that of the President and has the same four-year term of office. The Vice-President is shirley, often described as 'a heart beat away from the Presidency' since, in was a hero essay the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the Vice-President assumes the shirley, office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen (by the Presidential candidate) to 'balance the ticket' in the Presidential election (that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency) and, for all practical purposes, the position only carries the power accorded to it by the President - which is purchase journal, usually very little (a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush).
The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the Cabinet and as a member of the National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the Senate. Current members of the cabinet click here. Assassinations and near misses of US Presidents click here. An important feature of the American political system is that the two major parties - the Democrats and the Republicans - hold a system of jackson, primaries to ned kelly was a hero essay, determine who will be their candidate in the general election. These primaries are particularly important when it comes to the four-yearly Presidential election. The key point to understand is that formally the Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of delegates at a national convention and not directly through the various ballots in the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to each state, roughly proportionate to its size in shirley numbers of citizens. There are two types of delegates. The normal delegates are those who are chosen by voters to back a specific candidate. Technically these delegates are pledged to that candidate but there are circumstances in research dna cloning which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in the party such as former presidents, state governors and essay, members of the two houses of Congress who are free to back whichever candidate they wish.
They can do this any time they like. Proposal Help? They can also change their mind before the convention. How the normal delegates are chosen is a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to discussions on the merits of the contending candidates. Most hold conventional-style elections. In the case of the Democrats in Texas, there is both a caucus and an election. Another variation is that, in some cases, one can only take part in a caucus or election if one is registered for that political party but, in other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote.
How normal delegates are then allocated to the different candidates is also a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. In most of the Republican contests (but not all), the candidate who wins the most votes in that state's primary wins all the party's delegates for shirley jackson essay, that state - a system known as 'winner takes all'. In all the Democrat contests, delegates are allocated roughly proportional to the vote secured by a thousand, the candidate subject to shirley jackson, a minimum performance. The allocation process varies, but typically it is based on a dissertation, the performance of the candidate in shirley particular Congressional districts. In practice, normally the parties have clearly decided on a candidate well before the holding of the convention which therefore becomes more a coronation than a selection. However, it is not unknown for a party to reach the convention with no clear choice.
A contested or deadlocked convention happens when no candidate arrives with a majority of a dissertation journal, votes. On the first ballot, pledged delegates will vote for the candidate to whom they are pledged. But, in any subsequent ballots, delegates are then free to vote for whomever they want. This could include the other candidates or even - subject to the rules of the convention - people who are not candidates. Delegates keep on voting until someone wins a majority. The most famous deadlocked convention - it involved the Democrats - took place in 1924.
It required 103 ballots to shirley jackson, chose the Democratic candidate - who then lost to the Republican candidate in the general election. The last deadlocked convention was experienced by the Republicans in essay 1976, when Gerald Ford did not have enough delegates before the convention to claim the nomination (his opponent was Ronald Reagan), but eventually won the nomination (Reagan withdrew) and went on to lose the general election. The last time a contested convention produced a candidate who went on to win in the general election was in essay 1932 with Franklin Roosevelt. For the 2016 convention, the purchase a dissertation journal, Democrats had a total of 4,763 delegates including super delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Democratic front runner needed a total of 2,382 delegates. For the 2016 convention, the shirley jackson, Republicans had a total of 2,472 delegates including unpledged delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Republican front runner needed a total of 1,237 delegates. The Republicans had their convention in Cleveland, Ohio from 18-21 July 2016 and nominated Donald Trump as their candidate, while the Democrats held their convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia from 25-28 July 2016 and nominated Hillary Clinton as their candidate. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. What is the House of Representatives? The House of Representatives is the lower chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. Acres Essay? The founders of the United States intended the House to shirley jackson, be the essay, politically dominant entity in the federal system and, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the House served as the shirley, primary forum for political debate.
However, subsequently the Senate has been the dominant body. Who is eligible to become a member of the papers, House? To be a member of the House, one has to: be at least 25 years old have been a US citizen for at least seven years live in the state which one represents (but not the actual district) How is a member of the House chosen? The House consists of 435 members (set in 1911), each of jackson, whom represents a congressional district and serves for essay, a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population according to each decennial (every 10 years) census, but every state must have at least one member and in jackson essay fact seven states have only one Representative each (Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont and Wyoming). Typically a House constituency would represent around 700,000 people. Once House seats are reapportioned to help, the states, it is state legislatures that must redraw the physical boundaries of essay, Congressional districts. Although the research papers dna cloning, states are bound by limits established by Congress and the Supreme Court, there is scope for gerry-mandering to ensure electoral advantage for the dominant political party in the state. Such reapportionment of jackson essay, members of the House takes effect three years after the papers, decennial census so, as the next census will take place in 2020, reapportionment will take effect for the 118th Congress (2023-2025).
Members of the House are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and essay, Washington, which have run-offs if no candidate secures more than 50% of the vote. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Voting in congressional elections - especially to the House - is generally much lower than levels in other liberal democracies. In a year when there is a Presidential election, turnout is typically around 50%; in years when there is no Presidential election (known as mid-terms), it usually falls to was a hero, around one third of the jackson essay, electorate. In the event that a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the end of the two-year term, a special election is held to fill the vacancy. The House has five non-voting delegates from the District of Columbia (1971), Guam (1972) the Virgin Islands (1976), American Samoa (1981) and the Northern Mariana Islands (2008) and one resident commissioner for Puerto Rico (1976), bringing the total formal membership to 441. Papers Dna Cloning? Non-voting delegates are not allowed floor votes, but can vote in shirley jackson essay any committees to oklahoma bar exam statistics 2009, which they are assigned. What are the powers of the House? The House of Representatives is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the Senate as well.
Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers. The House must introduce any bills for the purpose of raising revenue. If the Electoral College is tied, the choice of President is made by the House of jackson essay, Representatives. The House has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. It lays the charges which are then passed to the Senate for help for assignment, a trial. The House (and the Senate) have the shirley, power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the House The Speaker of the House - chosen by the majority party - has considerable power. He or she presides over the House and sets the agenda, assigns legislation to committees, and proposal and dissertation help abstract, determines whether and shirley essay, how a bill reaches the floor of the chamber. Currently the Majority Leader in the House - and acres, therefore the Speaker - is the jackson essay, Republican Paul Ryan, while the purchase journal, Minority leader is shirley, Democrat Nancy Pelosi. Much of the work of the House is done through 20 standing committees and around 100 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries).
Most of the was a hero essay, committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign affairs, agriculture, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and ethics. Activity in shirley essay the House of Representatives tends to be more partisan than in the Senate. One illustration of this is the so-called Hastert Rule. This Rule's introduction is widely credited to research papers dna cloning, former Speaker Dennis Hastert (1999-2007); however, Newt Gingrich, who directly preceded Hastert as Speaker (1995-1999), followed the same rule. The Hastert Rule, also known as the jackson, majority of the majority rule, is an help informal governing principle used by Republican Speakers of the House of Representatives since the mid-1990s to maintain their speakerships and limit the jackson essay, power of the minority party to bring bills up for ned kelly essay, a vote on the floor of the House. Under the doctrine, the Speaker of the House will not allow a floor vote on a bill unless a majority of the majority party supports the bill.
The rule keeps the minority party from passing bills with the assistance of shirley jackson essay, a small number of majority party members. The House of Representatives has met in its chamber in the south wing of the help, Capitol in Washington DC since 1857. Offices of members of the shirley jackson, House are located in three buildings on the south side of the Capitol along Independence Avenue: the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn Buildings. The House and Senate are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. Link: House of Representatives click here. What is the Senate?
The Senate is the a thousand acres essay, upper chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The original intention of the authors of the US Constitution was that the Senate should be a regulatory group, less politically dominant than the House. Jackson Essay? However, since the dna cloning, mid 19th century, the Senate has been the jackson, dominant chamber and indeed today it is perhaps the most powerful upper house of acres, any legislative body in jackson essay the world. Who is eligible to a thousand acres essay, become a member of the Senate? To be a member of the Senate, one has to: be at least 30 years old have been a US citizen for at least nine years live in the state which one represents. How is a member of the shirley essay, Senate chosen? The Senate consists of 100 members, each of whom represents a state and serves for a six-year term (one third of the Senate stands for election every two years). Each state has two Senators, regardless of population, and, since there are 50 states, then there are 100 senators.
This equality of Senate seats between states has the ned kelly was a, effect of producing huge variations in shirley jackson constituency population (the two senators from Wyoming represent less than half a million electors, while the for assignment, two senators from California represent 34M people) with gross over-representation of the smaller states and serious under-representation of racial and ethnic minorities. For a long time, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. However, since the essay, 17th Amendment to the Constitution in proposal and dissertation help 1913, members of the Senate are elected by essay, first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in purchase November in even numbered years. Each Senator is jackson essay, known as the senior or junior Senator for his or her state, based on length of service. In the event that a member of the Senate dies or resigns before the end of the six-year term, a special election is not normally held at that time (this is the case for 46 states). Instead the Governor of the state that the proposal abstract, Senator represented nominates someone to jackson, serve until the next set of Congressional elections when the a dissertation journal, special election is held to fill the essay, vacancy. What are the powers of the Senate? The Senate is one of the two chambers that can initiate and research papers dna cloning, pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the House of Representatives as well.
Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers. The Senate must give 'advice and consent' to many important Presidential appointments including Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors. The Senate has the responsibility of ratifying treaties. If the Electoral College is tied, the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. The Senate has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Once the shirley jackson essay, House of for assignment, Representatives has laid the charges, the Senate then conducts a trial on these charges. The Supreme Court Chief Justice presides over such a trial. Essay? A two-thirds majority of the Senate is required to uphold impeachment charges.
The Senate (and the House) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the Senate. The most powerful position in the Senate is the Majority Leader but he or she does not have the ned kelly was a hero essay, same control over essay, the upper chamber as the control that the Speaker of the House has over the lower chamber, since the 'whipping' system is purchase journal, weaker in the Senate. Currently the jackson essay, Majority Leader in ned kelly was a the Senate is the Republican Mitch McConnell, while the Minority leader is Democrat Chuck Schummer. Much of the jackson essay, work of the help for assignment, Senate is done through 16 standing committees and jackson, around 40 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the ned kelly hero essay, committees are focused on an area of essay, government activity such as homeland security, foreign relations, health, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and rules. Activity in the Senate tends to be less partisan and more individualistic than in the House of research dna cloning, Representatives. Senate rules permit what is called a filibuster when a Senator, or a series of Senators, can speak for as long as they wish and on any topic they choose, unless a supermajority of three-fifths of the shirley jackson essay, Senate (60 Senators, if all 100 seats are filled) brings debate to and dissertation help, a close by invoking what is jackson essay, called cloture (taken from the French term for closure). The Senate has met in its chamber in the north wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1859. Offices of members of the Senate are located in a thousand three buildings on the north side of the Capitol along Constitution Avenue: the Russell, Dirksen, and Hart Buildings.
The Senate and House are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. THE SUPREME COURT. What is the jackson essay, Supreme Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land. Originally it had five members but over time this number has increased. Since 1869, it has consisted of nine Justices: the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices.
They have equal weight when voting on a case and the Chief Justice has no casting vote or power to instruct colleagues. Decisions are made by a simple majority. Below the Supreme Court, there is a system of Courts of for assignment, Appeal, and, below these courts, there are District Courts. Together, these three levels of courts represent the federal judicial system. Who is eligible to become a member of the Court? The Constitution does not specify qualifications for Justices such as age, education, profession, or native-born citizenship.
A Justice does not have to be a lawyer or a law school graduate, but all Justices have been trained in shirley the law. A Thousand? Many of the 18th and 19th century Justices studied law under a mentor because there were few law schools in the country. The last Justice to be appointed who did not attend any law school was James F. Byrnes (1941-1942). He did not graduate from high school and taught himself law, passing the bar at the age of 23. All Supreme Court judges are appointed for life. How is shirley essay, a member of the Court chosen? The Justices are nominated by the President and confirmed with the was a essay, 'advice and consent' of the Senate. As federal judges, the Justices serve during good behavior, meaning essentially that they serve for life and can be removed only by resignation or by essay, impeachment and subsequent conviction. Since the Supreme Court makes so many 'political' decisions and its members are appointed so rarely, the appointment of Justices by the President is often a very charged and controversial matter. Since Justices serve for life and therefore usually beyond the term of office of the appointing President, such appointment are often regarded as an was a hero essay important part of any particular President's legacy.
What are the powers of the shirley jackson essay, Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States. The court deals with matters pertaining to the federal government, disputes between states, and oklahoma essay, interpretation of the Constitution. It can declare legislation or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the shirley, law and creating precedent for future law and decisions. However, the was a, Supreme Court can only rule on a lower court decision so it cannot take the initiative to consider a matter. There are three ways that a matter can come to the Supreme Court: A federal authority makes a decision that is challenged as unconstitutional which goes straight to the Supreme Court which is not obliged to take it A state makes a decision which someone believes is unconstitutional but the matter would have to have previously been heard by a Federal Court of Appeal (there are 11 circuits covering the 50 states) There is a conflict between states that needs to be resolved (if the two or more states are in the same circuit, the matter would first have to go to the appropriate Federal Court of Appeal) Other interesting facts about the Court. Each year, around 8,000 petitions are made to the Supreme Court seeking a judgement, but each term the shirley, number of cases determined is only about 100. When a case is considered in public by a thousand acres essay, the Court, each side of the case only shirley jackson, has half-an-hour to state its position. All the detail is set out in documents and all the rest of the time of the public hearing is taken up by questions from the Justices. Decisions of the Supreme Court are taken in private conference, following discussion and debate.
No Justice speaks for a second time until every Justice has spoken once. Given how difficult it is to change the US Constitution through the formal method, one has seen informal changes to the Constitution through various decisions of the Supreme Court which have given specific meanings to some of the general phases in the Constitution. It is one of the hero, many ironies of the American political system that an unelected and unaccountable body like the shirley jackson essay, Supreme Court can in practice exercise so much political power in a system which proclaims itself as so democractic. The Supreme Court in practice therefore has a much more 'political' role than the highest courts of European democracies. In the 1960s, the court played a major role in bringing about desegregation.
The scope of abortion in the USA is effectively set by the Supreme Court whereas, in other countries, it would be set by legislation. Indeed in 2000, it made the most political decision imaginable by determining - by seven votes to two - the was a, outcome of essay, that year's presidential election. It decided that George W Bush had beaten Al Gore, although Gore won the most votes overall. A recent and momentous instance of this exercise of political power was the Supreme Court decision in the case of the purchase a dissertation journal, challenge to Barack Obama's signature piece of legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often dubbed Obamacare. No less than 26 states challenged the legality of these health reforms under a clause in the constitution governing interstate commerce. In the end, the Court ruled by five to four that, while the essay, individual mandate provision in the Act is not itself a tax, the penalties imposed for ned kelly, not buying health insurance do represent taxes and therefore the entire requirement falls within the remit of Congress's right to impose taxes. William Howard Taft (1857-1930) was the 27th President of the shirley jackson, United States (1909-1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). He is the dna cloning, only person to have served in shirley jackson essay both of these offices.
In the history of the United States, there has only proposal, been four women members, two black members and one Hispanic member of the jackson essay, Supreme Court. The present membership of the a thousand, Supreme Court includes three women members and one black member. Of the nine members, five are Catholic and three are Jewish while one - Neil Gorsuch - was raised as a Catholic but attends a Protestant church. Following the appointment by President Trump of Neil Gorsuch to shirley jackson, the Supreme Court, there is now a five to four conservative-liberal majority on the court. All the conservative members were appointed by for assignment, Republican presidents, while all the shirley essay, liberals were appointed by research papers, Democratic presidents. A special feature of the American political system in respect of the judiciary is that, although federal judges are appointed, nationwide 87% of all state court judges are elected and shirley jackson essay, 39 states elect at least some of their judges. Outside of the and dissertation, United States, there are only two nations that have judicial elections and jackson, then only in limited fashion. Smaller Swiss cantons elect judges and appointed justices on the Japanese Supreme Court must sometimes face retention elections (although those elections are a formality).
POLITICAL PARTIES ELECTIONS. To an extent quite extraordinary in democratic countries, the American political system is dominated by two political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party (often known as the 'Grand Old Party' or GOP). These are very old and very stable parties - the Democrats go back to 1824 and the Republicans were founded in 1854. In illustrations and promotional material, the Democratic Party is often represented as a donkey, while the Republican Party is featured as an elephant. The origin of these symbols is the political cartoonist Thomas Nast who came up with them in 1870 and 1874 respectively. The main reason for the dominance of these two parties is that - like most other Anglo-Saxon countries (notably Britain) - the papers, electoral system is shirley, 'first past the post' or simple majority which, combined with the large voter size of the constituencies in the House and (even more) the Senate, ensures that effectively only two parties can play. The other key factor is the huge influence of money in the American electoral system. Since effectively a candidate can spend any amount he can raise (not allowed in proposal help abstract many other countries) and since one can buy broadcasting time (again not allowed in many countries), the US can only 'afford' two parties or, to put it another way, candidates of any other party face a formidable financial barrier to entry.
Some people tend to view the shirley essay, division between the Democratic Party and oklahoma bar exam statistics 2009, the Republican Party in the United States as the same as that between Labour and Conservative in Britain or between Social Democrats and Christian Democrats in Germany. The comparison is valid in shirley essay the sense that, in each country, one political party is characterised as Centre-Left and the other as Centre-Right or, to put it another way, one party is more economically interventionist and socially radical than the help for assignment, other. However, the analogy has many weaknesses. The Centre in American politics is jackson, considerably to the Right of the Centre in most European states including Britain, Germany, France, Italy and (even more especially) the Scandinavian countries. So, for instance, most members of the Conservative Party in the UK would support a national health service, whereas many members of the Democratic Party in the US would not. As a consequence of the enormous geographical size of the United States and the different histories of the different states (exemplified by the Civil War), geography is a factor in ideological positioning to essay, a much greater extent than in other democratic countries. For instance, a Northern Republican could be more liberal than a Southern Democract.
Conversely there is a group of Democratic Congressmen that are fiscally very conservative - they are known as blue dog Democrats or even DINO (Democrats In Name Only). In the shirley essay, United States, divisions over social matters - such as abortion, capital punishment, same-sex relationships and stem cell research - matter and follow party lines in a way which is abstract, not true of most European countries. In Britain, for jackson essay, instance, these sort of issues would be regarded as matters of personal conscience and would not feature prominently in bar exam statistics 2009 election debates between candidates and parties. In the USA, religion is a factor in politics in shirley a way unique in western democracies. Candidates openly proclaim their faith in a manner which would be regarded as bizarre elswhere (even in a Catholic country like France) and religious groupings - such as the Christian Coalition of America [click here] - exert a significiant political influence in a manner which would be regarded as improper in most European countries (Poland is an help exception here).
In the United States, the 'whipping system' - that is the instructions to members of the House and the Senate on shirley, how to vote - is help, not as strict or effective as it is in most European countries. As a consequence, members of Congress are less constrained by party affiliation and freer to essay, act individually. In the USA, political parties are much weaker institutions than they are in research dna cloning other democracies. Between the selection of jackson, candidates, they are less active than their counterparts in other countries and, during elections, they are less influential in campaigning, with individual politicians and their campaigns having much more influence. The cost of elections is much greater in the US than in other democracies which has the effects of help for assignment, limiting the range of candidates, increasing the influence of corporate interests and pressure groups, and enhancing the position of the incumbent office holder (especially in the winning of shirley jackson essay, primaries). As long ago as 1895, the Chairman of the Republican National Committee Mark Hanna stated: There are two things that are important in politics. The first is money, and I can't remember what the second one is.
Whereas in other countries, voters shape the policies and select the candidates of journal, a party by joining it, in the USA voters register as a supporter of one of the major parties and then vote in primary elections to shirley jackson essay, determine who should be the papers, party's candidate in the 'real' election. Essay? One other oddity of the American party system is essay, that, whereas in most countries of the world the colour red is associated with the Left-wing party and the colour blue with the essay, Right-wing party, in the United States the reverse is the bar exam 2009, case. So the 'blue states' are those traditionally won by shirley essay, the Democrats, while the was a essay, 'red states' are those normally controlled by the Republicans. Two interesting features of American political elections are low turnout and shirley jackson essay, the importance of incumbency. Traditionally turnout in US congressional elections is much lower than in other liberal democracies especially those of Western Europe. When there is a presidential election, turnout is only about half; when there is no presidential election, turnout is acres essay, merely about jackson essay, one third. The exception was the elections of 2008: the excitement of the candidacy of Barack Obama led to an unusually high turnout of 63%, the highest since 1960 (the election of John F Kennedy).
While Congress as an institution is held in popular contempt, voters like their member of Congress and indeed there is a phenomenon known as 'sophomore surge' whereby incumbents tend to increase their share of the vote when they seek re-election. More generally most incumbents win re-election for several reasons: they allocate time and resources to waging a permanent re-election campaign; they can win earmarks which are appropriations of government spending for proposal and dissertation help abstract, projects in the constituency; and they find it easier than challengers to raise money for shirley jackson essay, election campaigns. The Democratic Party click here. The Republican Party click here. THE FEDERAL SYSTEM. Understanding the federal nature of the United States is critical to appreciating the complexities of the American political system. Most political systems are created top-down. A national system of government is constructed and a certain amount of power is oklahoma statistics 2009, released to lower levels of government. Jackson? The unique history of the United States means that, in oklahoma this case, the political system was created bottom-up. First, some 240 years ago, there were were 13 autonomous states who, following the shirley jackson essay, War of Independence against help, the British, created a system of government in which the various states somewhat reluctantly ceded power to the federal government.
Around a century later, the respective authority of the federal government and the individual states was an issue at the heart of the Civil War when there was a bloody conflict over who had the right to determine whether slavery was or was not permissable. Essay? With the exception of Switzerland, no other Western democracy diffuses power to the same degree as America. So today the powers of the federal government remain strictly limited by the Constitution - the critical Tenth Amendment of 1791 - which leaves a great deal of authority to the individual states. Each state has an executive, a legislature and a judiciary. The head of the executive is the Governor who is directly elected. Dna Cloning? As with the shirley, President at federal level, state Governors can issue Executive Orders. The legislature consists of a Senate and a thousand acres essay, a House of Representatives (the exception is the state of Nebraska which has a unicameral system). The judiciary consists of a state system of courts. The 50 states are divided into counties (parishes in Louisiana and boroughs in Alaska). Jackson Essay? Each county has its court.
Althought the Constitution prescribes precisely when Presidential and abstract, Congressional elections will be held, the dates and times of essay, state and local elections are determined by state governments. Therefore there is a thousand, a plethora of elections in the United States and, at almost all times, an election is being held somewhere in the country. State and local elections, like federal elections, use the 'first past the post' system of election. In fact, most states choose to elect the governor and legislature when Congressional elections are held on shirley essay, the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Exceptions are the states of Virginia and New Jersey which hold their governor and legislature elections in odd numbered years (known as off-year elections). This means that these states provide the first electoral indication of how voters view the performance of a newly-elected President and/or Congress. The debate about federalism in the US is a thousand acres essay, far from over. There are those who argue for shirley essay, a stronger role for the federal government and for assignment, there are advocates of locating more power at the state level. The recent rise of the electorally-successful Tea Party movement owes a good deal to shirley, the view that the federal government has become too dominant, too intrusive and too profligate.
Meanwhile many states - especially those west of the Rockies - have what has been called the fourth arm of government: this is the ballot or referendum initiative. This enables a policy question to be put to the electorate as a result of the collection of a certain number of and dissertation abstract, signatures or the decison of the state legislation. Over the last century, some 3,000 such initiatives have been conducted - in some cases (such as California) with profound results. In all political systems, there is a disconnect between the formal arrangements, as set out in jackson the constitution and relevant laws, and purchase a dissertation journal, the informal arrangements, as occurs in practice. Arguably, in shirley essay the United States this disconnect is sharper than in most other democratic systems because: The US Constitution is an old one (late 18th century) whereas most countries have had several constitutions with the current one typically being a 20th century creation. The US Constitution is relatively immutable so it is very difficult to change the provisions to reflect the essay, reforms that have come about over time from the jackson, pressure of events. Since the US adopted its Constitution, the US has become the pre-eminent world economic and political power which has brought about major changes in how the Presidency operates, most especially in the international sphere. What this means is that, in the last century and most especially since the end of the ned kelly essay, Second World War, the reality of how the American political system operates has changed quite fundamentally in terms which are not always evident from the terms of the Constitution (and indeed some might argue are in some respects in contravention of the Constitution). The main changes are as follows: The balance of power between the Congress and the President has shifted significantly in favour of the President.
This is evident in the domestic sphere through practices like 'impoundment' (when money is jackson essay, taken from the purpose intended by Congress and allocated to another purpose favoured by the President) and in the international sphere through refusal to invoke the War Powers Resolution in spite of was a essay, major military invasions. Different terms for this accretion of power by the Presidency are the unitary executive and the imperial presidency. The impact of private funding of political campaigns and of lobbyists and special interest groups in political decision making have increased considerably. Candidates raise their own money for jackson, campaigns, there is effectively no limit on essay, the money that can be spent in such campaigns (thanks to what is called super Political Action Committees), and the levels of expenditure - especially in the presidential primaries and election proper - have risen astronomically. In the presidential race of 2012, both Barack Obama and Mitt Romney spent over one billion dollars. Even in the mid-term Congressional elections of 2014, total expenditure was nearly $4 billion. All this has led to some observers describing the American political system as a plutocracy, since it is shirley jackson essay, effectively controlled by private finance from big businesses, which expect certain policies and practices to papers, follow from the candidates they are funding, and big donors, who often expect preferment such as an ambassadorship from a candidate elected as President. There has been a growth of what is called pork barrel politics through the use of earmarks. The term pork barrel refers to shirley jackson, the appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents, such as those in marginal seats, or campaign contributors. Such appropriations are achieved through earmarks which can be found both in legislation (also called hard earmarks or hardmarks) and in the text of Congressional committee reports (also called soft earmarks or softmarks).
The nature of political debate in the United States has become markedly more partisan and bitter. The personal lifestyle as well as the political record of acres essay, a candidate might well be challenged and even the patriotism or religiosity of the candidate may be called into question. Whereas the politics of most European countries has become more consensual, US domestic politics has become polarised and tribal. As a result, the political culture is often more concerned with satisfying the demands of the political 'base' rather than attempting to achieve a national consensus. One final trend worth noting is the frequency of the same family to jackson essay, provide members of dna cloning, Congress. Low polling in elections, the high cost of running for election, and the focus on the individual more than the party all mean that a well-known name can work successfully for a candidate. Shirley Jackson? Everyone is acres, familiar with the Kennedys, Clintons and Bushs in American politics but, in 2014, there are no less than 37 members of Congress who have a relative who has served in the legislature.
A DIVIDED DEMOCRACY. Of course, all nation states are divided, especially in terms of power and wealth, but also - to different extents - by gender, race, ethnicity, religion and other factors. Indeed the constitution and jackson, institutions of a democratic society are deliberately intended to provide for the expression and resolution of such divisions. However, it is research papers dna cloning, often observed that the USA is an especially divided democracy in at least four respects: It is divided horizontally through the 'separation of powers', so that the executive, the legislature and the judiciary are quite distinct in terms of both powers and personalties. Each arm of government exercises a check on the other.
It is divided vertically through the federal system of government with the division of shirley jackson essay, powers between the federal government and the state governments a very important issue that arguably was once the subject of a civil war. Was A Hero Essay? In such a large country geographically, the federal goverment can seem very distant to many citizens. It is divided politically through the sharp (and often bitter) differences of view on many economic issues like tackling the recession and reforming health care and social issues ranging from essay gun control to journal, gay rights. Since 2009, such differences have been highlighted by the presence of the first black President in the White House and the rapid emergence of a Tea Party movement that is both virulently anti-Obama and anti-mainstream Republicanism. It is divided racially through the growth of the jackson, non-white electorate. Acres Essay? When Ronald Reagan was first elected President in 1980, almost 90% of the US electorate was white; today some 30% of voters are non-white; and that proportion is growing (especially Spanish-speaking communities).
The Democratic Party tends to do better among non-white voters than the Republicans and therefore the demographic trends are viewed as favourable to Democrats. One of the most visible and dramatic illustrations of how the divisons in American politics frustrate decision-making is the regular failure to agree a federal budget before the start of the new financial period. This results in what is known as federal 'shutdown' when most federal employees are sent home because they cannot be paid and many federal institutions therefore close down. Jackson Essay? This is not an isolated occurrence: it has happened 18 times since 1976 (the last one was in 2013). A major role of the Congress is to pass legislation but the divided nature of statistics 2009, American politics has made this increasingly diffiicult and jackson essay, the Congress frequently exhibits legislative grid-lock. Hillary Clinton - former First Lady, former Senator, and former Secretary of State - in her memoir Hard Choices (2014) talks of all the horse trading, arm-twisting, vote counting, alternating appeals to oklahoma bar exam essay statistics 2009, principle and self-interest, and hard-ball politics that go into essay, passing major legislation . Reading this short essay, it will be evident to many (especially non-American) readers that the United States is and dissertation, different from other democracies. This observation has given rise to the notion of jackson essay, American exceptionalism. This is an statistics ill-defined term which has been used differently at different times. From the creation of the Republic in 1776, there has been a sense that the United States has been exceptional in its commitment to freedom as expressed in the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
Even though today there are many challenges to freedom in the USA, many Americans still feel that their attachment to freedom - however defined - is a distinguishing feature of their nation as compared to all others. Another important version of American exceptionalism revolves around the lack of a clear ideological or class-based division between the two major political parties. The USA has never had a credible socialist or anti-capitalist party; both the jackson, main parties are pro-capital and pro-business and speak largely to help, the 'middle class'. Other versions of the concept revolve around the alleged 'superiority' of the jackson essay, United States because of proposal, its history, size, wealth and essay, global dominance plus the 'sophistication' of its constitution and power of its values such as individualism, innovation and entrepreneurship. In perhaps its most extreme form, the concept has a religious dimension with the essay, belief that God has especially chosen or blessed the country. Of course, it is easy to view the American political system as exceptional in negative terms such as the unusual influence of race, religion and money as compared to other liberal democracies. In truth, for all its special features, the American political system needs to be seen as one among many models of democracy with its own strenghs and weaknesses that need to be assessed in comparison to those of other democracies. discussion of American exceptionalism click here.
how to critique a political system click here. Americans are losing faith in the American political system as people around the world are questioning the continued pre-eminence of the jackson essay, United States as the proposal, dominant global power. Since 2004, a clear majority of Americans have told Gallup that they are dissatisfied with the way they are governed. The numbers of those has several times climbed above 80% which is higher than at the time of the shirley jackson, Watergate scandal. This disillusionment is a thousand acres essay, reflected in the falling number of Americans who even bother to vote. In The World In 2015, John Micklethwait, editor-in-chief of The Economist, wrote: In America, there is nothing particularly democratic about the ascent of money politics, the essay, arcane blocking procedures of help for assignment, Congress or the gerrymandering of district boundaries. Shirley Essay? Indeed they are all reminiscent of the research dna cloning, rotten boroughs of 18th century England that infuriated the Founding Fathers. The debate about the jackson, effectiveness of the US political system is a part of the was a hero, wider debate about whether or not the United States is in relative decline on the world stage. In his book Time To Start Thinking: America And The Spectre Of Decline [for my review click here], Edward Luce writes: Sometimes it seems Americans are engaged in essay some kind of collusion in which voters pretend to elect their lawmakers and lawmakers pretend to govern.
This, in some ways, is America's core problem: the more America postpones any coherent response to the onset of relative decline, the more difficult the politics are likely to get. These issues have been highlighted by the recent election as US President of Donald Trump, someone who ran for oklahoma statistics 2009, election as the anti-establishment candidate who was going todrain the swamp, who has never previously held political office, and who is governing in a most unconventional style. His insistence that he will Make America Great Again and his intention to boost dramatically defence expenditure address directly the shirley essay, position of the US as global player. Last modified on 30 August 2017. If you would like to a dissertation journal, comment on this essay e-mail me.
If you would like me to speak on this subject contact me. For a comparison of the American and shirley jackson essay, British political systems click here. For guides to the political systems of other nations click here.